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Gc M. U« 




3 1833 01066 8975 




I. S. BARTLETT, Editor 







Where Nature held her soHtary reign 

Through the long cycles of the ages past; 

Where lofty mountains burst above the plain 
Creating solitudes profound and vast. 

Where the strong billows of the foothills break 
On mountain walls like sea waves on the strand ; 

Where mighty canyons and dark forests make 
The wilderness an ancient wonderland. 

Remote from man's dominion, wild and free, 
A spell of deep enchantment o'er it cast; 

Here wrought the power of Nature's alchemy 
To make a new and better land at last. 

Where men and women brave all perils meet. 
And wring from Destiny her promise late, 

Which points the path of Empire to their feet 
And shows the firm foundations of a State. 



The history of Wyoming, in all its details and phases, presents a story of 
gripping human interest. Sixty years ago great herds of antelope and buffalo 
roamed over the plains, elk and deer by thousands found shelter in the foothills 
and mountain ranges, while predatory animals, such as timber wolves, bears and 
mountain lions, held undisputed possession of the forests. The soil was then 
untouched by the plow of the husbandman, the groves and forests had not yet 
echoed the sound of the woodman's ax, the rich treasures of coal and ore had 
not felt the stroke of the miner's pick, and the only civilized persons who had 
penetrated the vast, primeval solitudes were the trappers, hunters, Indian traders 
and missionaries, or the emigrants on their way to the gold fields of California 
or the Mormon settlement at the Great Salt Lake. 

Then came the cry of "Westward Ho !" and the spirit of Wyoming's dream 
was changed. Brawny, red-blooded men came flocking in from the older states 
and began a work of development unparalleled in the nation's history. Great 
irrigating systems were constructed, arid lands were reclaimed, and the desert 
was made to "blossom as the rose." Thousands of cattle and sheep grazed where 
once the antelope and bison held their undisputed sway. The immense deposits 
of coal, iron and the precious metals were made to give up their wealth for the 
benefit of mankind. The drill penetrated the subterranean lakes of oil to add 
to the comforts of the human race the resources that had lain concealed through 
all the centuries of the past. The council wigwam of the Indian has given way 
to halls of legislation, the war-whoop of the savage has been supplanted by the 
.hum of peaceful industry, and all this development has been made within the 
memory of people yet living. 

To tell the story of this wonderful progress, as well as to give accounts of 
the pre-historic inhabitants, the trappers, traders and early explorers ; to keep 
green the memories of the past : to recount the deeds and achievements of the 
\\'yoming pioneers, that subsequent generations may emulate their worthy exam- 
ples and profit by their mistakes, is the purpose of this history. How well that 
purpose has been attained is for the reader to determine. 

The work has been one involving great care and labor, but the publishers 
confidently assert that no effort has been spared to make this History of Wyo- 
ming both authentic and comprehensive. Authentic, because, as far as possible, 
the official records have been drawn upon as sources of information : and com- 
prehensive, because, it is believed, no important event connected with Wyoming's 
growth and development has been overlooked or neglected. 

Much credit is due to the old settlers of the state, whose letters, scrap-books 
and personal recollections have contributed in no small degree to the compilation 
of the history. Letters were written to county ofificials and others, asking for 


incidents connected with local history, and, while a few failed to respond, much 
information was obtained through this channel. 

The editor and publishers take this opportunity to acknowledge their obliga- 
tions to these old settlers and county officials for their willing cooperation ; to 
the various state officers and their assistants for their aid in consulting the public 
records; to Bishop Nathaniel S. Thomas, who permitted the use of his large 
and well assorted private library; and to the state librarian. Miss Agnes R. 
Wright, and her assistants for their unifonn courtesies while the work was in 
course of preparation. 

Our thanks are also due to Governor Frank L. Houx for his contribution to 
this history on "Wyoming, the New Oil State'' ; to Albert B. Bartlett, for his 
valuable paper on the "Geology of Wyoming" ; to Hon. W. E. Chaplin, for data 
relating to the early history of the Press of the state; to Bishop Patrick A. 
McGovern, for material relating to the early history of the Catholic church, and 
to Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard of the University of Wyoming, for access to her 
extensive personal collections relating to Wyoming history. 

The hearty cooperation of these and other good people over the state has 
made our task a pleasant one and has greatly enhanced the interest and value 
of the work. 





































versy over the navigation of the mississippi river — treaty of madrid 
napoleon and talleyrand secret treaty of san ildefonso — retro- 
cession of louisiana to france sentiment in the united states — 

Jefferson's diplomacy — Livingston and monroe — purchase of Louisi- 




















































































PAIGN OF 1876 ouster's last fight PEACE AT LAST 274 



Spain's oppression of cuba — the ten years' war — revolution of 1895 — 
weyler's cruelty — protests of the united states — destruction of 


volunteers — Wyoming's response — the infantry battalion — roster 

MENT 289 




































































































Wyoming State Flag Frontispiece 

Little Goose Creek Falls, near Sheridan i6 

Scene in Big Horn Mountains 19 

Cloud Peak, Big Horn Range 19 

Castle Rock, Green River 21 

Teakettle Rock and Sugar Bowl, Green River 21 

Devil's Garden, Meeteetse 25 

Natural Bridge, Clear Fork, Green River 25 

"The Club Sandwich" on Rock Creek 29 

Upper Ouartzite Stratum showing Jasper Nodules ^^ 

"Spanish Diggins" 35 

Old Faithful, Yellowstone Park 47 

Castle Geyser, Yellowstone Park 49 

Firehole River Falls. Yellowstone Park 49 

Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone Park 51 

Yellowstone Canyon,' from Inspiration Point 51 

Cascade Geyser, Yellowstone Park 55 

Yellowstone Falls 55 

Two Moons 58 

Medicine Crow 63 

Jim Baker 105 

John Hunton 143 

State Capitol 183 

Tablet to mark Site where the Council of the First Territorial Legislature of 

Wyoming convened 199 

Governor's Mansion ._ 235 

Wyoming State Hospital, Sheridan -. 267 

Wyoming State Penitentiary, Rawlins 267 

Fort Kearny Monument 285 

Old Fort Laramie 304 

Old Fort Laramie, 1899 307 

"Mike" Henry, of Douglas 309 

Monument marking the Old Oregon Trail at Torrington 327 

George Gardner and O. P. Hanna 331 

Last Black Hills Coach leaving Cheyenne 335 

Last Stage out of Saratoga 335 

Union Pacific Station, Cheyenne 343 

Union Pacific and St. John's Hospitals, Cheyenne 343 

Dry Farm Crop of Potatoes, Golden Prairie, near Cheyenne 355 

Dry Farm Wheat Crop, near Cheyenne 355 

Sheep on the Range near Buffalo 367 

Home of the Corriedales 367 

Wyoming Corriedale Sheep Company's Corriedales 369 

Champion Corriedales 371 

Laramie Boy, Grand Champion 373 

Midwest Refinery. Casper 383 

Standard Refinery, Casper 383 

The Big Muddy, near Casper 387 




In the Big Muddy Field 387 

Central Coal and Coke Company's No. 2 Mine, Rock Springs 391 

Mine No. 3 of the Bear River Coal Company, Inc., at Evanston 391 

Cambria Fuel Company, Cambria 393 

Carney ville. One of the Coal Camps 395 

Dietz, Home of "Sheridan Coal" 395 

First National Bank, Cheyenne 419 

The Stock Growers National Bank, Cheyenne 419 

High School Building, Cheyenne 429 

Central School, Cheyenne 429 

Schools of Casper 433 

Catholic Academy, Cheyenne 433 

High School, Kemmerer 437 

High School, Sheridan 437 

High School, Newcastle 439 

High School, Evanston 439 

State University of Wyoming, Laramie 445 

Women's Hall, University of Wyoming, Laramie 445 

St. Mary's Cathedral and Bishop's Residence, Cheyenne 477 

Catholic Church, Laramie 479 

St. Patrick's Church, Kemmerer 481 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church, Rawlins 481 

St. Matthew's Cathedral, Laramie 483 

Presbyterian Church, Laramie 483 

Episcopal Church, Evanston 485 

Catholic Church, Evanston 485 

St. Peter's Episcopal Church, Sheridan 487 

Presbyterian Church, Cheyenne 491 

Churches of Casper 491 

Baptist Church, Evanston 495 

Presbyterian Church, Evanston 495 

Baptist Church, Laramie ' 499 

First Methodist Episcopal Church and Parsonage, Laramie 499 

Baptist Church, Cheyenne 501 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Cheyenne 501 

Postofifice, Laramie 505 

Albany County Courthouse 505 

Residence of Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Homer 507 

John Owens 5^9 

Carbon County Pioneers 513 

Crook County Courthouse 517 

F. S. King Ranch, near Cheyenne 525 

Original Homestead of F. S. King 527 

Natrona County Courthouse 531 

Postofifice, Casper 531 

Sheridan County Courthouse 539 

Uinta County Courthouse 543 

Postoffice, Evanston 543 

Weston County Courthouse 547 



Bird's-eye View of Newcastle 547 

Commercial Club, Cheyenne 549 

Plains Hotel, Cheyenne 549 

Masonic Temple, Cheyenne 553 

Elks' Home, Cheyenne 553 

Senator Warren's Residence, Cheyenne 557 

Carnegie Public Library, Cheyenne 559 

Postoffice and Laramie County Courthouse, Cheyenne 559 

Bird's-eye View of Casper 565 

Carnegie Library, Casper 567 

Masonic Temple, Casper 567 

Main Street, Casper 569 

Cody in 1897 ■'- ■ • 569 

Colonel William F. Cody 571 

View of Evanston 573 

Douglas in 1886 573 

Public Library, Evanston 575 

Masonic Temple, Evanston 575 

First Boys leave Green River for the World War 579 

Marshall Day, Kemmerer 583 

Bird's-eye View of Kemmerer 583 

Laramie in 1870 585 

Ivinson Memorial Hospital, Laramie*. 587 

Carnegie Library, Laramie 587 

Masonic Temple, Laramie 589 

Elks' Home, Laramie 589 

Residence of Edward Ivinson, Laramie 591 

Holliday Building, Laramie 593 

Daily Parade at Fort Russell 593 

City Library, Newcastle 595 

Company A Armory Building, Newcastle 595 

Bird's-eye View of Rawlins 597 

Osborne Block, Rawlins 597 

Postoffice, Rawlins 597 

Residence of Charles H. Anderson 598 

West Pine Street, Rawlins 598 

Elks' Home, Rawlins ' 599 

Masonic Temple, Rawlins 599 

South Front Street, Rock Springs 601 

North Front Street, Rock Springs 601 

Postoffice and Masonic Temple, Rock Springs 603 

School at Rock Springs 603 

Views of Sheridan 605 

Sheridan Sugar Factory, Sheridan . 607 

View of Main Street, Sheridan, in 1887 607 

Elks' Home, Sheridan 609 

Home of United States Senator John B. Kendrick, Sheridan 609 

"Frontier Days" Celebration at Cheyenne 629 

"Frontier Days" Celebration at Cheyenne 631 

From the Herbert Coffeen > 


History of Wyoming 






Wyoming has an area of about 98,000 square miles, or to be exact, 62,664,960 
acres. It is a parallelogram about three hundred and fifty miles long, east and 
west, and two hundred and eighty miles wide. It is an empire equal to the com- 
bined area of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Maine and Penn- 
sylvania and these states have over 15,000,000 inhabitants. If we compare the 
state with foreign lands, Wyoming has an area greater than England and Switzer- 
land combined and they have a population of about 40,000,000. 


The topography of the state is diversified. It is an elevated plateau of the 
Rocky Mountain uplift, broken by foot hills and lofty mountain ranges, with 
intervening valleys and extensive stretches of level and rolling plains. Approach- 
ing from the east the great plains have a gradual rise to the foot hills of the 
Rockies and maintain an average of from five thousand to six thousand five 
hundred feet above sea level. 

The front range of the Rock'ies extends from Colorado northward to the 
North Platte River, and consists principally of the Laramie and Medicine Bow 
mountains which rise above the plains from fifteen hundred to three thousand 
feet. Beyond the North Platte the foot hills and mountain ranges trend to the 
northwest and culminate in the Big Horn range which reaches an elevation of 
twelve thousand to over thirteen thousand feet. Beyond the front range in the 
northwestern part of the state is the Wind River range extending south and east. 
Its spurs and elevations from the Rattlesnake and the Seminole Mountains south 
along the Sweetwater River. South of the Sweetwater is a treeless, unwatered, 
high plateau known as the Red Desert, broken near its southern border by the 
spurs of the Uinta Mountains. West of the Red Desert the plateau maintains 


an elevation averaging 7,000 feet above the sea level. On the extreme western 
.boundary of the state the Salt and Teton ranges extend south from the Yellow- 
stone Mountains. From the northeast corner of the state the Black Hills of 
Dakota extend in a southerly direction rising from the plains in spurs and 
buttes and become the Black Hills of Wyoming. 

The topography of Wyoming's surface is so varied as to be impossible to 
describe in definite terms. The mountain areas take all forms of majestic and 
rugged beauty, and frame mountain parks, beautiful with flowers and leaping 
cascades. On the highest peaks crowned with everlasting snows, glaciers are 
ftDrmed and become the source of pure nmning streams abounding in trout, and 
flowing down through the valleys and low lands, give water to the ranches and 
become tributaries of the great rivers that course through the state. 


Wyoming has more large rivers and streams than any state of the arid or 
semi-arid region. In the northern part of the state, among the large streams, 
are the Snake, the Yellowstone, the Big Horn and Wind rivers. In Southern 
and Central Wyoming we have the Green, the Laramie and the North Platte. 
These and other rivers with their numerous tributaries make a network of 
streams over the entire state. The North Platte alone has over fifty tributary 
streams. The sources of the Columbia, the Colorado and the Missouri rivers 
are found in the mountain ranges of Wyoming. 

The Continental Divide beginning in Sweetwater County on about the twelfth 
meridian follows the mountain ranges in a northwesterly direction and on the 
west slope of these ranges the waters flow to the Pacific Ocean. The principal 
streams on this slope being the Snake and Green rivers and their tributaries. 

It is estimated that seventy-five per cent of the waters of the state go to waste 
in floods and natural run olif, and that a system of reclamation, impounding 
these waters in dams and catchment basins would irrigate 15,000,000 acres 
of land. A beginning has been made in this direction by reclamation projects 
under the United States service and the Carey Acts. 

The potential energy that can also be derived from these rivers in the form 
of hydro-electro power is so great as to be almost impossible to estimate. At 
present not one per cent of this power has been utilized. The streams having 
their sources high up in the mountains and rushing down their sides afford ad- 
mirable location for power sites in every section of the state. 

The canyons and waterfalls made by these rivers and lakes are noteworthy 
features of the topography. The canyons of the Yellowstone, Big Horn and 
North Platte rivers are wonderful gorges cut through the mountains and are 
deep, dark, silent and mysterious. In majesty and sublimity they are only ex- 
celled by the Grand Canyon of Arizona, while in variety they are in many 
respects superior. The Grand Canyon and Falls of the Yellowstone afford 
a marvelous view of scenic grandeur and impressive beauty. 

The mountain lakes of Wyoming are numerous and are found in the highest 
ranges, the largest being Yellowstone JLake in the National Park. Jackson Lake 
is next in importance, located at the base of the Grand Tetons. There are many 
lakes in the Wind River range and in the Sierra Madre, in Southern Wyoming, 




found at various altitudes from 9,000 to 11,000 feet above sea level. These lakes 
are beautiful in scenic surroundings, their waters being clear and cold and 
abounding with fish mostly of the trout species. Jacksons Lake is the most 
beautiful and interesting of all lakes in its magnificent surroundings of moun- 
tains and forests which aft'ord the finest hunting ground for large game animals, 
to be found in the United States. It is also noted for its fine fishing, making it 
a famous resort for sportsmen from all parts of the world. 


The forest area of Wyoming covers over 10,000,000 acres. Of this area 
8,385,288 acres have been designated by the United States Government as forest 
reserves. The Yellowstone Park contains 1,954,560 acres which is largely timber 
land. These magnificent forests are constantly increasing by natural growth, 
the cut off, mostly for railroad ties, not being equal to the increase by growth. 
The forest reserves being under Government control and supervision, are ad- 
mirably cared for and conserved by forest supervisors and rangers who make 
their home in the reserves. Good roads and telephone lines are built, new 
forests are seeded, forest fires are fought and predatory animals, such as timber 
wolves, mountain lions, bears, etc., are trapped and killed oflf. Under a gov- 
ernment leasing system the timber reserves are utilized largely for grazing of 
live stock, including sheep, cattle and horses. Under this system grazing per- 
mits are issued for thousands of these animals to the great benefit of the state 
and nation. 

The largest national forest reserve is the Teton, on the western borders of 
the state and lying south of Yellowstone Park. The Shoshone, the Washakie 
and the Wyoming forest reserves are the next in importance, these all being in 
the western part of the state. The Big Horn National Forest practically covers 
the Rig Horn Mountains in the northern and central part of the state. The 
Black Hills reserve is located in the northeastern part of Wyoming and the 
Hayden and Medicine Bow forests are on its southern border. 


In referring to the mountains and forests of Wyoming we must naturally 
revert to the wild life of these regions, the animals, birds and fish that here 
find congenial homes. Nate P. Wilson, state game warden says in his latest 
report: "No state in the Union has the natural resources that appeal to the 
sportsman and lovers of nature as those of Wyoming, and the greatest of all 
is our wild life. From the lowlands to the highest peaks can be found game and 
fish in abundance. Each year sportsmen from all civilized countries journey to 
Wyoming to spend their vacations where they can be sure of getting their limit 
of game and enjoy the best of fishing. It is indeed a rare case when one is 

"Within the borders of our state are to be found vast herds of that wonder- 
ful game animal — the North American Elk; high up above timberline on any 
of our mountain ranges the energetic hunter can find the most prized of all 
game — the big horn or Rocky Mountain sheep. Grizzly, black and brown bear 




are plentiful in many districts. Deer are to be had in every county. Antelope 
are still to be seen roaming on our plains districts. Moose are increasing wonder- 
fully — many have been killed this year. Game birds and fish are everywhere. 
Our streams are well stocked with trout of all kinds, especially Cut Throat 
(Mountain Trout), Rainbow. Brook, Loch Leven and iMackinaw. Last season a 
Mackinaw weighing 275/' pounds was caught in Jacksons Lake." 

This state leads all the other states in its provisions for protecting and 
increasing its wild game by its legislation and by the establishment of game 
preserves, where game animals can live in security and raise their young. Con- 
sequently our game resources are increasing every year. The game preserves 
established by the state are the Big Horn, 960,000 acres; Teton, 507.000 acres; 
Shoshone, 200,000 acres; Hoodoo Basin, 200,000 acres; Popo Agie, 165,000 
acres ; Boulder Basin, 50,000 acres. 

Among the large game animals we have the elk, moose, mountain sheep, deer 
and antelope. The bear is also regarded as a game animal and is found in great 
numbers. Nowhere on the continent are there such immense herds of elk as in 
the Jackson Hole region. In this section and the Yellowstone Park it is esti- 
mated there are fifty thousand elk, and for the last ten years many states have 
been re-stocked from these herds in addition to supplying the demands, of 
museums and zoological parks in this country and abroad. The deer, moose and 
antelope herds are increasing. The beaver is found in every section of Wyo- 
ming. The principal game birds are the pine grouse, the sage hen. all kinds of 
ducks and geese and all of these exist in great abundance. 

A fisherman's paradise 

Wyoming is a paradise for fishermen. Out of the twenty-one counties that 
compose the state there is not one without its mountain streams abounding in 
trout, while in the larger streams and rivers the pike, catfish, sturgeon, black 
bass and other varieties are caught. The purity and coldness of the waters hav- 
ing their source in the mountain springs make the flesh of the fish of fine quality 
and gives the strength and gameness to the fish that make the sport attractive and 
exhilarating. The state has three fish hatcheries, located respectively in the 
counties of Albany, Bighorn and Sheridan, and these hatcheries are supple- 
mented by the United States hatchery at Saratoga. Thus all the streams and 
lakes in every section are stocked with young fish whenever the demand exists. 

The economic value of the game and fish in adding to the food supply of the 
people is much greater than is generally estimated, in addition to the healthful 
recreation and sporting pleasure given the hunter and fisherman in vacation and 
camping-out life. 


The Yellowstone National Park with its marvelous physical phenomena, hot 
springs, spouting geysers, mud ^•olcanos, petrified forests, mountains of glass, 
canyons, lakes, forests and waterfalls, is described in another chapter as the 
world's wonderland. 

In other sections are peculiar and eccentric manifestations of nature such as 


the soda lakes with millions of tons of almost pure sulphate of soda, which 
glisten like snow and ice; or the weird stone formations in the bad lands which 
assume shapes of castles, towers, monuments, and ruined cities, and sometimes 
the grotesque forms of animals. In Converse County on the La Prelle" and in 
Sweetwater County on Clear Fork, there are natural bridges of stone made by 
centuries of natural chiseling. In Crook County is one of Nature's most curious 
formations called the "'Devil's Tower," a large mass of basaltic rock rising 
abruptly from the plain in bold and column-hke outlines, 1300 feet high. This 
is now placed as a monument in a United States reserve. 

The "Club Sandwich" is another eccentric rock formation in Johnson County. 
The "Devil's Garden," near Meeteetse is still another example of Nature's unique 
carving in the eternal rocks. 

The climate of Wyoming is remarkably healthful and invigorating. Con- 
trary to the prevailing idea regarding much of the Rocky Mountain region, the 
winters are not severe and cold waves are of short duration. The dryness of 
the atmosphere and the universality of sunshine ameliorates the severity of the 
cold waves of winter. In the lower altitudes which constitute the settled por- 
tion of the state the snow fall is generally light even when heavy snows cover 
the high ranges to great depths. 

While the winters are mild, the summers are delightfully cool and hot nights 
are practically unknown anywhere in the state, even in mid-summer. 

The climatology of the state for Weather Bureau observations is divided 
into three sections, designated as southeastern, northeastern and western. Of 
the southeastern section the United States Bureau reports the annual mean tem- 
perature over the greater portion to be from 40° to 45°. Temperatures in excess 
of 100° are seldom registered. At Cheyenne the maximum temperature of 100° 
was reached only once in thirty-nine years. For many seasons it has not been 
above 95°. At Laramie the maximum on record for a period of nineteen years 
is only 92°. The air of the section is pure and dry. 

An important climatic factor is the high percentage of sunshine, it averag- 
ing nearly 70 per cent in the plains region. This plays an economic part in 
the flavor and maturing of agricultural products. 

In the northeastern section the climate does not differ materially from the 
southeastern, except that owing to the higher mountain ranges there are greater 
extremes of temperature — the mean temperature being between 42° and 45°. 
Sunshine records kept at Lander and Sheridan show the average of 70 per 
cent of the possible amount for the year. 

The western section which is largely covered by rugged mountains and in- 
cluding the Red Desert has a mean temperature of about 40° ranging from about 
20° in January to 70° in July and August. The ^'alley records made at eleva- 
tions from six thousand to seven thousand feet show a mean, annual tempera- 
ture of from :^J° to 40° except in the Green River Valley where it is from 
32° to 34° degrees. No good mountain records are available. 

In general, Wyoming is a part of the great Rocky ^Mountain region, central 
in location and not subject either to extreme heat or cold. With its abundant 


sunshine, ozone, and pure mountain air, no more healthful climate can be found 
on the continent. 


In the so-called arid states with which Wyoming may be classed, precipita- 
tion is a subject of the utmost importance. The farming and live stock interests 
are largely dependent on the snow. and rainfall. Both irrigation and dry farming 
exist by utilizing the fall of moisture, the first in the mountains and the second 
on the plains. The recent report of the United States Weather Bureau at 
Cheyenne gives interesting data showing the precipitation in every part of the 
state. An area comprising over one-half of the state, largely its central and 
eastern part, has a rainfall of from ten to fifteen inches. About one-fourth of 
the state lying southeast and northeast, and sections in the northwest have a 
precipitation of from fifteen to twenty inches. A small area in the Jackson Hole 
region shows precipitation from twenty-five to thirty inches. In the Big Horn 
Basin and Red desert, comprising about one-eighth of the state, the precipitation 
is less than ten inches. 

Recent practical experience has demonstrated the fact that dry farming can 
be carried on successfully where the precipitation is ten inches and upwards. 
The state has nearly 30,000,000 acres of unappropriated public lands and it is 
considered a fair estimate that 20,000,000 acres can be classed as farming land, 
^nd the remainder as grazing land. Wyoming will soon be numbered among the 
farming states. 

Primitive Wyoming was classed as a part of the "Great American Desert" 
and its native plant productions were sage brush, cactus and grama, or buffalo 
grass. A wonderful transformation has taken place as will be shown in the 
chapter on Agriculture, exhibiting the rapid increase of farming settlements and 
agricultural crops. 


The present status of all the lands of Wyoming is given in a recent classifica- 
tion by State Engineer James B. True, as follows : 

Patented Lands 10,890,521 acres 

Forest Reserves 8,385,288 acres 

Yellowstone Park i,954.56o aci;es 

Under Reclamation Filings 12,016,499 acres 

Unappropriated Public Lands 29,418,092 acres 

Total 62,664,960 acres 

The patented lands are mostly occupied as farms and stock ranches, a 
small proportion only being patented under the mining and placer acts. The 
acreage designated as under reclamation filings, includes incompleted irriga- 
tion projects, the actual amount of lands now under irrigation being estimated 
at 2,500:000 acres. Of the unappropriated public lands, after taking out the 
mountainous and desert areas, Wyoming has at least 20,000,000 acres suitable 
for farms or grazing homesteads. 




In describing the surface area of \\'yoming and its agricultural and live stock 
products we are apt to forget the enormous underground mineral resources of 
the state in coal, iron, oil, phosphate, etc. 


No State in the Union can compare with Wyoming in its marvelous unde- 
veloped resources of oil, coal and iron, the great factors of modern industry and 
commerce. Geologists estimate 25.000,000 acres underlaid with coal; 15,000,000 
acres underlaid with oil; 1,500,000 acres of phosphate lands, and mountains of 
iron containing 1,250,000,000 tons of ore. In fact, it is safe to say no ecjual area 
in the world so far discovered, contains such enormous deposits of the minerals 
valuable to the world. 

The following summary of Wyoming's resources, including the lands, made 
from United States Geological Surveys, State Geological and land reports and 
special examinations of experts will give some idea of the state's undeveloped 

29,000,000 acres public lands, $5 per acre $ 145,000,000 

Water resources for 15.000,000 acres, $20 per acre. . . . 300,000,000 

10,000,000 acres forest lands, $300 per acre 3,000,000,000 

Electro-water power for 12,000,000 H. P., $25 per acre 300,000,000 

15,000,000 acres oil deposits, $500 per acre 7,500,000.000 

424,000,000,000 tons of coal at I2^c per, in the ground 53,000,000,000 

1,500,000,000 tons iron ore, $1, in the ground 1,500,000,000 

10,000,000 tons natural soda, $10 per ton 100,000,000 

1,500,000 acres phosphate lands, $500 per acre 750,000,000 

Metallic ores, gold, silver and copper, estimated 1,250,000,000 

Asbestos, Graphite, Sulphur, mica, etc., estimated. . . . 500,000,000 

Building stone, cement, gypsum, etc., estimated 100,000,000 

Other natural resources, estimated 1,000,000,000 


The above tabulation has been made as far as possible from official reports. 
The largest single item, that showing the state's coal deposits are the figures of 
the United States Geological Survey. When estimates have been made they 
are based upon the best data obtainable and may be regarded as conservative. 

The metallic resources of the state such as gold, silver, copper and lead have 
never been developed to any large extent. There is no question however as to 
the existence in large quantities of these metals in all the mountains of the state. 
Geologically Wyoming is directly on the mineral belt between Colorado and Mon- 
tana and its western border adjoins the mineral zone of Idaho. State lines do 
not cut off mineral production, and the only reason our great mineral veins and 
deposits have not been worked is the fact that Wyoming is sparsely settled and 
the new settlers could see quicker fortunes in cattle and sheep on a free range, 
and in mining coal and petroleum which was found everj'where. 

In early days California miners took out millions in the gold placers of the 
state. Very rich copper mines have been discovered and worked in the Grand 


Encampment and Hartville districts. It is estimated that the Colorado Fuel & 
Iron Co. produced $750,000 worth of copper from one mine at Sunrise last year, 
and this was done as an incident to their mining of iron from the same mine. 
In this history we shall give the facts to show that the mountains are veritable 
treasure vauhs of metallic wealth. 

It should be noted also, that this summary refers only to undeveIopt?d re- 
sources, and that the ranches, cattle, sheep, and industries of the state, manufac- 
tures, buildings, personal and real property are not included. 

Although these stupendous resources have hardly been touched, the state is 
showing a remarkable increase in its agricultural, live stock and industrial produc- 
tions as is shown in the following table of the 


Oil $ 48,750,000 

Coal 22.108,350 

Iron 2,516,250 

Other minerals 4,040,000 

Agriculture 54,230,820 

Live stock 31,897,200 

Wool and hides 13,583,000 

Dairy and poultry 2.125,000 

Manufactures 15,125,000 

Miscellaneous 7,500,000 

Total $201,875,630 

This shows that the annual production of the state is equal to over $1,000 
for each person — man, woman and child in Wyoming. 

Or, if we take the assessed valuation of the state for the year 191 7, which is 
$247,976,465, we find that the per capita wealth would be $1,239. As the 
assessment is probably at least twenty per cent below actual value, that would 
show the average wealth of every individual in the state to be nearly $1,500. 

Another fact disclosed by these statistics is the great increase in production 
during the year 1917. For instance, comparing different items with 1916, agricul- 
ture has increased seventy-three per cent, live stock over seventy per cent, and 
minerals sixty-eight per cent. 


Wyoming is now in an era of wonderful development. This is shown by 
some of the facts and figures heretofore given. For forty years after the terri- 
tory was organized it was solely a range state. Some coal was mined along the 
Union Pacific, but nine-tenths of its area was first occupied by herds of cattle 
and bronco ponies and later, by an influx of sheep. Everj'where it was re- 
garded as an unfenced wilderness and the national home of the cowboy and 
sheep herder. It was a frontier land. 

Now all is changed. A remarkable transformation has taken place. There 
is no longer any frontier, and in order to recall the memories of the days of 


the Indians and cowboys and the phases of pioneer life of territorial days, an 
annual Frontier Day celebration is held at Cheyenne every summer. The pic- 
turesque scenes, customs and exploits of the old Wyoming are reproduced in 
thrilling performances that attract crowds from all parts of the country and 
even from foreign lands. 

While the live stock industry has increased under new and improved condi- 
tions in care, treatment and breeding, the state has realized a great transformation 
in the development, or rather, the beginning of development of its gigantic mineral 
deposits and added to that, the utilization of its great agricultural possibilities 
of "dry farming" and by large irrigation enterprises perfected under the Carey 
Act and the United States reclamation service. Wyoming is also the greatest 
state in the Union in its production of sheep and wool. 

Within the last ten years thousands of settlers have come to the state and 
taken up dry farming and grazing homesteads and have been universally suc- 
cessful and prosperous. New towns have sprung up all over the state and with 
them have come banks, elevators, flouring mills, schools and all the conditions 
of high class communities.' 

Large government irrigation projects upon which many millions have been 
spent have been completed and others are under construction. The completed 
projects are the Pathfinder, the North Platte and the Shoshone. Begun and 
partially constructed are the Wyoming Central, the Oregon Basin and the Wind 
River projects. Hundreds of other large and small irrigation enterprises are 
completed or in progress of construction in various parts of the state, some 
under the Carey Act and State supervision and others individual enterprises. 
Lands under irrigation to the extent of hundreds of thousands of acres are 
being rapidly settled up and will prove a great source of wealth to the settlers and 
the resources of the state. 

Our greatest industrial development for the past ten years has been in the 
oil fields and the building of refineries resuUing from increased production. The 
industry has increased by leaps and bounds as will be shown in another chapter 
of this work. It is enough to say here that the value of the oil production in 
1917 placed at $50,000,000 will be enormously increased with future develop- 
ment. The number of producing wells completed is given at four hundred and 
seventy-five and the number of wells now drilling is estimated at five hundred 
and fifty. The number of proven fields in the state is twenty-three. This will 
give some idea of what is only a beginning, as it is now believed by many geolo- 
gists that Wyoming has the largest producing oil territory of any similar area 
in the world. 


In concluding this general review of the state, a feature important to its 
future welfare and the character of its citizenship, is its educational advantages. 
In this respect Wyoming takes high rank and with its splendid financial endow- 
ment promises to surpass most of the states of our land. 

The public schools have a permanent endowment of three million acres of 
land which cannot be sold in tracts, for less than ten dollars per acre, or a total 
value of thirty million dollars. Some of this land may not be worth ten dollars 

RANCH ' ' 


per acre, but on the other hand some sections having proved to be oil lands, is 
worth from five hundred to one thousand dollars per acre. This is leased by 
the state and a royalty on the production goes into the school fund and together 
with the receipts from sales of land and grazing leases, is made a permanent 
fund for all future time to be used exclusively for the maintenance of the public 
schools. At the present time the amount derived from these lands is about fifty 
thousand dollars per month or six hundred thousand dollars per annum. This 
income will soon reach one million dollars a year and may go far beyond that, 
and Wyoming will have the richest endowment of its schools, per capita of any 
state in the Union, and no citizen of the state will be compelled to pay a school 
tax. A public school system can be established that will include normal train- 
ing, manual training, mechanical and art schools and night schools, so that every 
child in the state may obtain without cost a liberal education. Already the public 
spirit, liberality and intelligence of Wyoming's electorate has established an 
educational system based upon the most advanced ideas. Education is made 
compulsory, free text books are furnished, hygenic rules requiring physical ex- 
amination are required, human treatment of animals must be taught, etc. Wyo- 
ming was the first state to adopt and introduce the Steever system of military 
training, and the legislature voted the necessary appropriations to equip the 

The constitution of Wyoming has an intelligence qualification requiring that 
every voter shall be able to read the Constitution in the English language. The 
very first legislature of the state passed an act giving woman teachers the same 
pay as men for the same kind of service. 

So it is, Wyoming, unsurpassed in the splendid opportunities it ofifers the 
industrial worker, the farmer and the capitalist, presents still greater attrac- 
tions to the boys and girls, the ambitious youth of the nation, who prize an edu- 
cation above material wealth, and are proud to become citizens of this great 








The story of Wyoming's earliest inhabitants is enveloped in a haze of mys- 
tery and obscurity, but recent explorations have developed the fact that this 
state has the most ancient remains of vanished races to be found on this con- 
tinent. In the pre-historic mines of this state there is embedded the hidden 
chronicles of extinct races — the story of the stone age and the cave man, of the 
buried, untold history of the primitive, rude and savage life of the childhood of 
the world. 

Dr. Harlem I. Smith, a noted archaeologist, after his explorations in this 
state, described the plains and foot hills of Wyoming as "Darkest Archaeological 
America." Mr. C. H. Robinson, one of the most recent explorers of the Aborig- 
inal Quarries north of Hartville, says the region he investigated is, "An Archae- 
ological Wonderland.'' 

The oldest students of Ethnology have been so mystified and puzzled by the 
unique, remarkable and extensive stone quarries and village sites found in this 
state that they hesitate to give any opinions as to the period of their settlement 
and active operation. Dr. George A. Dorsey says, "There are here many prob- 
lems unsolved but well worthy of solution." All evidences point to their existence 
before the period of the mound builders or the cliff dwellers. 

In addition to the remains of the stone workers there have been recently 
discovered in Wyoming the medicine wheels and cave dwellings, the latter being 
found in the vicinity of the quarries. The medicine wheels are found on the tops 
of mountains of the Big Horn range. 


The editor of this volume was the first to give to the world an account of 

the ancient aboriginal quarries discovered about thirty miles north of Hartville, 

where he was then engaged in mining operations. This was in 1892, and after a 

visit to the locality he wrote to the San Francisco Examiner and St. Louis Repub- 



lie a description of his trip and what he saw. Up to this time the working had 
been known to cowboys as "The Spanish Diggins." 

In 1899 he made a second visit to the qtiarries accompanied by his son, 
Sydney E. Bartlett and Judge Sydney E. Eastman of Chicago. Judge Eastman 
took the specimens of stone work he collected to Chicago and submitted them 
to Dr. George A. Dorsey, Curator of the Department of Anthropology of the 
Field Columbian Museum. Dr. George A. Dorsey was so much interested in the 
find, he wrote requesting me to arrange an expedition for him to the locality and 
I arranged with Mr. William Lauk and W. L. Stein of Whalen Canyon (near 
Guernsey), two experienced miners and prospectors who knew the country 
thoroughly, to supply the teams and equipment and accompany the party as 

This was the first scientific expedition to the quarries and shop sites. Doctor 
Dorsey's report of this investigation appears in the Anthropological series of the 
Columbian Museum of December, 1900, with photographic illustrations showing 
the pits, quartzite workings, excavations and about fifty examples of stone im- 

Since that time many explorations have been made by archaeologists repre- 
senting various museums, colleges and scientific societies of this country and 


Among other expeditions to these fields may be mentioned the following: 
Dr. Harlem I. .Smith of the Canadian Geological Survey — two trips — one in 
1910 and one in 1914. These resulted in his issuing a publication entitled, "An 
Unknown Field in American Archaeology" and another work on "Cave Explora- 
tions in Eastern Wyoming." 

Amherst College sent two expeditions under Professor Loomis in igo" and 

1908. These were research expeditions of students on vacation. 

Dr. Erwin H. Barbour, at the head of the Department of Geology of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska, visited the locality in 1905. 

Dr. M. H. Everett of Lincoln, Nebraska, accompanied Dr. Barbour on this 
trip and became so interested he made two more trips. 

Professor Richard Lull of the Yale College Department of Geology made 
an investigation of the field in 1903. 

R. F. Gilder, of the Omaha World- Herald, has been a most enthusiastic inves- 
tigator of Wyoining's ancient remains, and has made many visits to the aboriginal 
quarries since 1905, and has written interesting reports of same in the "Records 
of the Past" magazine appearing in the issues of August, 1908, and February. 

1909. Probably Mr. Gilder has spent more time in exploring these workings 
than any other person. 

C. H. Robinson, of Bloomington, 111., an earnest student of Ethnology, repre- 
senting the Illinois State Museum and the McLean County Historical Society, 
visited the field in August, 191 5, and has written a valuable bulletin descriptive of 
his experiences and discoveries. 

In 191 5 the Smithsonian Institution sent a party of scientists to investigate 
the field with a view of establishing a National Park. This expedition was under- 

Dr. George A. Dorse}-, curator Fielil 

Museum, Chicago. 


taken upon representations made by the writer and United States Senator Ken- 
drick, who was then governor of Wyoming. Its report was favorable and will 
be more fully explained in this chapter. In addition to these expeditions in the in- 
terests of science, hundreds of tourists, curiosity seekers and hunters have made 
trips to the region and have carried away thousands of stone implements of 
varied character, comprising war, hunting, domestic and agricultural tools. 


The names "Mexican Mines" and "Spanish Diggins," were first applied to 
these workings by the cowboys who rode the range. The ancient village sites, 
shop sites and quarries are located over an area of ten by forty miles, extending 
from a point south of Manville to Bulls Bend on the north Platte River. Not 
all of this ground is taken up with workings, of course, but in all this region 
of four hundred square miles, the visitor is seldom out of sight of some village 
site or quarry. C. H. Robinson, who spent several weeks in the region says he 
traveled over six hundred miles on foot and horseback, and collected for Illinois 
State Museum four hundred and fifty-five specimens of rock work and for the 
McLean County Historical Society two hundred and eighty-eight specimens. 
This will give one some idea of the extent of these remains. 

Mr. Gilder says, "In no section of the entire world can be found ancient 
quarries of such magnitude." There must have been a dense population and 
thousands of workers in active employment in these fields for at least half 
a century. 


A description of the quarries first discovered (there were many others found 
later) was given by Mr. Bartlett in his correspondence in 1892, as follows: 

"The region is intensely weird and picturesque. The surrounding country is 
broken into a series of rugged hills, interspersed with rocky and sandy gulches, 
with stretches of mesas and desert plains to the south. Much of the area resem- 
bles the bad lands in its loneliness and its grotesque rock formations. From 
the top of the mesa where the principal workings are found, the scene though 
wild and desolate was magnificent. The Laramie range loomed up in the west 
against a clear sky, the table lands and foot hills between showing picturesque, 
rocky formations rising abruptly, clean cut and distinct, like castle towers and 
fortifications, but everywhere around us was an oppressive silence and desolation, 
as if we had invaded the burial ground of a long departed race." 

The locality of the first discoveries is along the Dry Muddy. The country 
is so dry that live stock cannot range there. From the dry creek there arises a 
series of clififs of sandstone and quartzite, and along the top of these clififs in 
their broken and irregular formations stretching away for some miles are found 
the quarry workings, consisting of pits, tunnels, open cuts and immense bodies 
of rock dumps created by the mining operations. Beyond the workings and 
broken ledges at the top of the clifT a flat mesa-like formation extends south- 
wardly an^ here the village and shop sites are located. 


'■Si'AMSIi DIGGINS," 1915 
Vase 14 inehes high, 10 inches in diameter, 7 inches at top. 



The mining operations carried on in great magnitude among these rocks 
seem to have been on a pecuHar stratum of quartzite lying in sandstone. This 
quartzite was selected undoubtedly on account of its conchoidal fracture which 
gave sharp edges, and the ease with which it could be shaped and worked. In 
order to reach the vein of quartzite the overlying strata of other kinds of rock 
had to be mined and removed. It is a curious fact that all this rock mining 
was done with rock tools, such as wedges and heavy hammers. In some instances 
the wedges were found set in the rock seams ready to be driven, and this seems 
to bear out Doctor Dorsey's theory that the region was suddenly abandoned 
either from attacks from enemy tribes or from some cataclysm of nature. 

Nowhere is there any evidence that metal tools were used in either mining 
or for domestic purposes. As to their manner of working, Doctor Dorsey says, 
"At one place on the bank near the ravine I found a great slab which evidently 
served as a seat for some workingman. Seating myself upon it, I could readily 
make out the grooves in front of the seat where had rested the legs and feet, while 
on the right were two hammer-stones of different sizes, and all about were chips, 
refuse, and many rejected and partially roughed-out implements." 

Evidently their mining work was a slow, tedious and laborious process and 
very crude, requiring hundreds of workers to accomplish what two or three men 
could easily do today. Much of the work was done in pits from twenty-five to 
thirty feet in diameter and from ten to thirty feet deep. There were some tun- 
nels and many open cuts of large extent. Everywhere were huge dumps of 
broken rock which had been worked out and worked over. In most cases the 
pits were nearly filled up with accumulation of soil and debris and trees and 
shrubbery were growing from them. 


The implements manufactured were for war, domestic and agricultural uses. 
In the opinion of experts the agricultural tools predominated. 

A general summary of the specimens found includes arrow and lance heads, 
knives, hide scrapers, hammers, axes, hoes, grinding mills, wedges, mauls and 
various leaf-shaped implements. 

The heavy hammers or grooved mauls were usually of dense hard granite, but 
all the other output of the quarries was of the peculiar quartzite here excavated, 
so peculiar in fact that when in the surrounding country or in the neighboring 
states of Nebraska and Oklahoma, the tools can be easily recognized as coming 
from the Wyoming quarries — the character of the rock at once establishing a 
trade mark. 

Tons of cores left just in the beginning of being shaped are found round 
the pits and shop sites. As to other rock manufactures, R. F. Gilder says: 
"Strange stone figures of immense proportions representing human beings and 
thousands of stone cairns are strewn over the landscape for many miles." 



Back on the mesa in close proximity to the workings are extensive village 
sites, marked by hundreds of tepee or lodge circles made by stones used to keep 
the poles in place that were covered with skins of animals or brush, and these 
were the habitations of this primitive race. Many of such villages are located 
forty or fifty miles away in pleasant valleys and parks where there were springs 
or running streams. Nearly all of these villages were also shop sites as is demon- 
strated by large accumulations of chips and rejects showing that they were 
simply adjuncts of the quarry mining. 

In these villages and work shops scattered over a region of probably five 
hundred square miles there are found many specimens of workmanship not made 
from the quarry blocks. Arrow and lance heads and hide scrapers are found 
beautifully fashioned from brilliantly colored agates, jasper and chalcedony. 
All colors are represented, white, blue, red, yellow, black and banded. They 
are mostly small and the work on these is so superior to that at the quarries that 
some are inclined to think they may be classed as the product of the modem 
Indians who occupied the country after the quarry races had passed away. 

The Indians of today have no knowledge, theory or traditions concerning these 
remains. They have no knowledge of the system of mining these huge quarries, 
and never made an efifort to perform such laborious tasks. 


The above description applies to the first discovered aboriginal quarries loca- 
ted on the Dry Muddy. Recent explorations have brought to light other exten- 
sive workings, the most important being in the vicinity of Saw Mill Canyon, 
near the North Platte River, fifteen or twenty miles southeast of the Muddy 
workings in Converse and Niobrara counties. 

Dr. Harlem I. Smith in an article published in the Archaeological Bulletin of 
April, 1914, says: "On my last trip we discovered many miles south of the 
'Spanish Diggins' proper, another quarry district. The exact location of this 
cannot be made known at this time. Near these quarries are shop sites covering 
many acres where chips and cones are in such abundance as to stagger one's 
belief. Most of the material is black and yellow jasper and fine grained moss 

Mr. Gilder refers to this same locality probably when he says : "Another 
quarry territory discovered on one of my trips never explored is so difficult of 
access that I hardly know how to tell just where it is, but if you follow the 
canyon on the east bank of the Platte until west of the Saw Mill Canyon, you 
would reach a section so prolific in material, so tremendous in scale of work 
performed that you would never want to see another such district I am sure." 

Thus it will be seen that the exploration of this wonderful region which 
links us to remote ages, has only just begun. The experts, scientists and curi- 
osity hunters who have roamed over this area of some four hundred square miles 
have only seen surface indications and picked up such specimens as lay before 
the naked eye. There has been no systematic plan of exploration and no excava- 


tion of the pits to uncover the hidden rehcs of the race that worked and dreamed 
and passed "life's fitful fever" in these desolate wilds. 


In May, 1905, the writer addressed a letter to W. A. Richards, commissioner 
of the general land office, Washington, D. C, requesting the survey and with- 
drawal of these lands for the protection of pre-historic remains. Mr. Richards 
took up the matter with the United States Bureau of Ethnology which favored 
the project. The area however was so large, and so many private land titles were 
involved that action was deferred. The commissioner, however, said that if 
we could give him a description by survey of the section or sections upon which 
the principal quarries were found, he would recommend the reservation. At 
that time it was impossible to furnish that information and the national govern- 
ment had no surveyors in the field in this state. 

In the summer of 1914 I again took up the matter and succeeded in getting 
Governor Kendrick interested in the park or monument reserve. He gave me a 
strong letter to Secretary Lane, which I presented in person. The matter was 
referred to the Ethnological Department of the Smithsonian Institution and it 
v;as agreed to send out a party to survey and investigate the fields. Dr. Grace 
Raymond Hebard of the University of Wyoming took a deep interest in the 
plan and urged such resen^ation in letters to the Smithsonian people. 

Owing to the great extent of the region involved, 400 to 600 square miles, 
it was deemed impracticable to reserve it all, but it was agreed to reserve the 
most important of the "diggins"' for scientific research. This will undoubtedly 
be done. The next spring following the examination made by the Smithsonian 
Institution the government practically took charge of the principal workings and 
required all visitors who desired to take away specimens, to secure a permit from 
the Interior Department. 


The writer has visited ancient remains in New Mexico and Arizona and. 
while as objects they are picturesque and interesting, they cannot compare in 
impressiveness. weirdness and mystery to the Wyoming remains which are to 
be found on the American Continent. Personally I am strongly of the opinion 
that they belong to the stone age, for various reasons. The rock work was done 
with rock, they had no metal tools nor any domestic utensils except of rock manu- 
facture, they had no dwelHngs that show any signs of architectural skill, and 
nowhere can be found any foundations of buildings except the crude stone cir- 
cles that marked the skin covered tepees. 

• Mr. Robinson, who has made a thorough study of the ^Mound Builders, says : 
"The specimens of stone tools, implements, etc.. are the same as found in the 
mounds of the Mississippi \"al!ey credited to the handicraft of the Mound 
Builders. The theory is thus advanced that these quarries may have been the 
site of the workshops of the pre-historic men who roamed over the land ages 
before the American Indian made his appearance. Here they made their uten- 
sils and implements of war and the chase to be later carried down the Platte to 


the Missouri and ^lississippi to be left in Illinois and the various states bordering 
on these streams." 

Dr. F. B. Loomis of Amherst College wrote in June, 191 5, as follows: "I 
have in the Amherst Collections several implements from Arkansas and other 
nearer localities made from material which doubtless came from these quarries, 
so they must have been visited by tribes far and near, or at least the material 
must have been traded widely. I know of no other place where the quarrying 
of rock for making stone implements was carried on to anywhere near as large 
an extent." 


Robert F. Gilder in an article contributed to the "Records of the Past," Au- 
gust, 1908, gives an account of the Indian sites of Whalen Canyon. The loca- 
tion of this canyon, or rather valley, is a few miles east of Sunrise and winds in 
a southerly direction to the North Platte River through the Black Hills of Wyo- 
ming. It has always been a favorite resort of the wild tribes on account of the 
fine grazing, the mountain springs, that feed a small stream which flows along 
the base of the eastern range of hills, and the great bodies of red hematite iron 
ore, which the Indians used as a pigment to decorate themselves, and their domes- 
tic implements. Especially on war trips they made lavish use of the paint ores. 

From the north end of this valley where it is abruptly closed in by hills with 
nothing but a wagon road out to the plain, it extends some fifteen miles to the 
river with hills rising on either side giving ample protection from winds and 
storms to those who made it their home. It was selected by the Indians as an 
ideal camping ground and for five or six miles at the base of the eastern range 
of hills they may be traced by the tepee beds of numerous Indian villages. 

It was near here that Mr. Parkman the historian, spent nearly a year living 
with the Indians and studying their manners and customs which are so graphic- 
ally described in his book "The Oregon Trail." Among the hills at the north 
end of the valley was the scene of conflicts among the Indian tribes and one 
battle ground is marked by an extensive burial ground. 

Around the stone circles where their lodges were erected are found abundant 
collections of beautifully colored stones of agate, chalcedony and jasper, which 
they used in the manufacture of arrow, lance heads and hide scrapers, most of 
the implements being made for war and hunting purposes. These were un- 
doubtedly the work of the modern Indian tribes and have no relation to the 
pre-historic workings of the so-called "Spanish Diggins," as the former used 
different stones and produced much more finished specimens of handiwork. Oc- 
casionally there is found stone axes and hammers that were evidently brought 
from the ancient workings on the Muddy. 


At the northern end of the valley among the western hills there is a gorge 
hemmed in by limestone cliffs in which natural caves are found that evidence 
shows were once inhabited by human beings. On the lower part of these cliffs 
there are a dozen or more large and small caverns which were first explored by 


J. L. Stein, a miner and prospector whose home was in Whalen Valley. His 
researches showed that the walls were smoke stained and charcoal embers were 
found where fires had been made, and in the debris on the floor of the caves 
were found flint chippings showing that work had been done by the dwellers, 
either during storms or when hiding from tribes on the war path. 

In one cavern Mr. Stein discovered the skeleton of a man covered with dust 
and stone fragments. It had evidently lain there for centuries. The skull was 
incrusted with lime accretions. Mr. Stein sent the skull to Maj. J. W. Powell 
of the Smithsonian Institution and it is now a part of their ethnological collec- 
tions. These caverns were visited by Dr. George A. Dorsey in 1900, by Harlem I. 
Smith's expedition in 1907 and by Air. Gilder in 1906. Mr. Gilder found a jasper 
blade and stone awl lying on a shelf in one cave, ten feet from the entrance. 
Others found various flint instruments. The bones of rabbits and sage hens 
which had probably been used for food were found in these caves. 


Several discoveries of great interest have been made in the excavations made 
in opening up the iron mines six or eight miles south of the caves in the vicin- 
ity of Hartville and Sunrise. J. L. Stein and William Lauk, in running a tunnel 
into the hill, found at a depth of twenty feet, a stone mortar and grinding stone, 
an Indian necklace made of sinews strung with arrow heads, carved hoof bones, 
a stone tomahawk and the polished end of a horn. In another mine nearby rude 
stone paint mills were unearthed. 

These discoveries tell their own history. On account of the presence of 
large bodies of red hematite, the Indians made the region a favorite resort to 
obtain the brilliant, soft pigment for coloring their various articles of workman- 
ship and particularly when large bands were organized for the warpath, and as a 
first preparation for the campaign, their faces and parts of the body were painted 
red. The rude stone paint mills found in both these mines tell the story as 
vividly as if the red warriors were fighting their battles today. 

Hartville is rich in Indian and pioneer history. The old California and 
Alormon trail passes directly through the townsite. The very gulch in which 
the town is located was called "Indian Spring", as far back as the records of 
white men go. This spring gushes out of solid rock at the foot of a high cliff, 
and formerly furnished Hartville its supply of water. Along the outskirts of 
the townsite and covering a portion of it can be traced the tepee beds of the 
Indians who once resorted there, showing villages a mile in extent. It was also 
a favorite camping place of the ■49ers and Mormons on account of its excellent 
supply of water and wood, and its beautiful situation. 

About ten miles above Hartville situated in a wild and picturesque spot in 
the hills, between the old trail and the North Platte is Slade's canyon— the 
home of the famous desperado and his companions, and the place where they 
cached their plunder after foraging on the immigrant trains and stage travelers 
of that day. 



In this relation of Wyoming Antiquities the "medicine wheels" of the Big 
Horn range deserve especial mention, as having been recently discovered and 
still a subject of discussion and conjecture as to their origin and antiquity. 

In the American Anthropologist of March, 1903, C. S. Simms of the Field 
Columbian Museum gives an account of the wheels found on the summit of 
Medicine Mountain of the Big Horn range at an elevation of over 12.000 feet. 

Mr. Simms was conducted to the spot by "Silver Tip", a prospector and 
hunter who had lived among the Indians when a boy. The ascent was slow 
and difficult as there was no good trail and heavy snow drifts were encountered. 
The summit of the mountain is broad at the west end tapering to narrow limits 
on the east where the medicine wheel is located. This is described by Simms as 
consisting of an immense wheel built upon the ground with slabs and boulders 
of limestone. The circumference of the wheel measures 245 feet. In the center 
which corresponds to the hub of a wheel is a circular structure built of stone 
about three feet high and from this there radiates twenty-seven lines of stone 
forming the spokes. The outer circle or rim at seven different places is marked 
by stone structures all on the rim, except one on the south which is built several 
feet beyond but connected by one of the spoke lines. The eastern structure dif- 
fers from the others by being nearly square, and unlike the others is built higher 
and the opening is outside while the others open on the inside. On the project- 
ing slabs of this structure rested a perfectly bleached bufifalo skull which had 
been so placed that it looked to the rising sun. Within the central structure 
which resembles a truncated cone there is a slightly circular depression in the 
ground. Mr. Simms says he was told of the medicine wheel by the Crow In- 
dians, but none of them could tell anything of its origin, excepting that it "was 
made by people who had no iron." 

W. M. Camp, author of a "History of the Indian Wars" visited the medicine 
wheel in July, 1916, and wrote to Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard some of his ex- 
periences on the trip. He was accompanied by a Mr. Shepherd who unearthed 
beads of a peculiar character which he sent to experts in New York. They 
pronounced the beads to be of a pattern worked in Venice over 300 years ago. 
In his letter Mr. Camp says he discovered a second medicine wheel about forty 
miles north in a direct line from the first, this one being larger than the first and 
quite different in design and in its location to landmarks, more striking and 

Doctor Long, a Sheridan minister, recently made a trip to the Medicine 
Mountain wheel, going up through the main canyon of the Little Big Horn and 
gives a graphic description of his journey and the magnificent scenic views he 
enjoyed. He says the history and origin of the medicine wheel is veiled in ob- 
scurity. The Indians of today frankly acknowledge their ignorance of its origin. 
One Crow chief said, "It was built before the light came," meaning it was pre- 
historic. One said, "It was a shrine for the worship of the sun." 

Mr. Long has the idea it is in some way related to the worship of the Aztecs, 
or a people akin to the Aztecs of Mexico, who at one time inhabited this moun- 
tain region. Others think that its origin dates back to a much earlier period, or 
as the Indian says, "when the people had no iron." The Aztecs carried certain 


arts and manufactures to a high state of perfection. They were especially skilled 
in making potter)' and everywhere they lived in New Mexico and Arizona, may 
be found pottery and other specimens of their handiwork among their ruined 
structures. Here, none of many examples of Aztec manufacture and domestic 
life has been noted. The origin of the medicine wheel is therefore still open to 
conjecture and speculation. 


Prof. Joseph Leidy. of Hayden's Geological Survey of 1873, gives a very 
interesting report of the remains of primitive art which he discovered in Bridger 
Basin, or in the region adjacent to Fort Bridger, made up of table lands, val- 
leys, buttes and plains. He says: 

"In some localities the stones strewn over the lower buttes and plains are 
broken and flaked in such a manner as in many cases, to assume the appear- 
ance of rude works of art. Among those of rudest construction there are a 
few of the finest finish. In some places the stone implements are so numerous, 
and at the same time so rudely constructed that one is constantly in doubt when 
to consider them as natural or accidental and when to view them as artificial. 
Some of the plains are so thickly strewn with natural and artificial splintered 
stones that they look as if they had been the battlefields of great armies during 
the stone age." 

Representations of a few of the flaked stones are pictured in the report of 
which he says, "These with little doubt may be viewed as rude implements of 
art." He asked Dr. J. \'an A. Carter, residing at Fort Bridger and acquainted 
with the language, history and customs of the neighboring Indian tribes, about 
the origin of these specimens and the doctor said the present races of Indians 
knew nothing of them. He said the Shoshones look upon them as the gift of 
God to their ancestors. Of the illustrations given of sixteen specimens by 
Doctor Leidy all the rudest were manufactured from quartzite exactly corre- 
sponding with the stone of the great quarries first described in this chapter, 
and were of the same shape and type of workmanship, of coarse flaking. Un- 
doubtedly these impletnents came from the same locality and were used by 
the same ancient races. 

In this connection mention should be made of a beautiful vase that was 
found near one of the quarries on the Muddy, standing upon a stone block. 
This vase was 14 inches high, ten inches in diameter and the opening at the 
top was seven inches. This of course has no relation to the stone art, but was 
left by some late Indians or Mexicans that roamed that section. 


The ancient animal life of the earth is always interesting. The strangeness 
and mystery of this life, the peculiar types and the enormous size of many 
fossil specimens discovered, have made it the subject of much scientific inves- 
tigation and systematic research, as well as of extensive mining operations. 

Wyoming affords the most remarkable quarries and fields for this research 
and has for the last quarter of a century given to the scientific societies, col- 


leges and museums of the world the most rare and gigantic specimens ever dis- 

In this way the animals that roamed the western plains in pre-historic times, 
the enormous reptiles that plashed around in these inland seas, and the huge 
birds that tracked their shores, have been reconstructed from their discovered 
fossilized bones, and their environment visualized, so that we of the present 
day may realize their surroundings, habits of life, powers of locomotion and 
habitat. The principal fields of research for the remains of extinct animals in 
Wyoming that have been successfully worked, are found on Lance Creek, north 
of Lusk, in the foot hills north of Medicine Bow, and at Fossil, a few miles 
west of Kemmerer. Operations have also been carried on in other sections of 
the state where valuable examples of pre-historic animal life have been un- 

The question has been often asked, how many years ago did this or that 
animal live? Prof. Fred A. Lucas of the United States National Museum, 
says: "The time that has elapsed since the beginning of the Jurassic age when 
the dinosaurs held carnival, is variously estimated from six to fifteen million 

How these animals were exterminated or died off from natural causes is a 
matter of conjecture. Poisonous gases, lava, earthquakes, floods, etc., may 
have played a part. The earliest traces of animal life says Doctor Lucas, "are 
found beneath something like eighteen to twenty-five miles of rock !" 

If an animal is sunk in a quiet lake the waves accumulate mud and sand 
and deposit over it, a process of entombment takes place, the air is excluded 
and the lime or silica soon makes the strata a solid mass. The period of fos- 
silization, however, is very slow, often a matter of many centuries. 

Some are animals changed into stone, some are footprints made by animals 
in an impressible stratum, some are simply moulds of the form where the ani- 
mal lay, from which casts are made in restoring the subject. Among the animals 
found in Wyoming the dinosaurs claim distinction as being the largest known 
quadrupeds that have walked the face of the earth. The broiUosaurus or Thun- 
der Lizard, beneath whose mighty tread the earth shook, and his kindred were 
from 40 to 60 feet long, their thigh bones measuring from five to six feet. A 
tooth of the Mammoth of the elephant type in the United States National 
Museum has a grinding space five by eight inches and weighs over 15 pounds. 

The skull of a Triceratops when boxed for the museum weighed 3,650 pounds. 
This will give the reader a general idea of the gigantic size of some pre-historic 
animals. In the West of late years there has been a vast amount of collecting 
and much new information has been gained. In Wyoming attention was called 
to our precious animal deposits by Professor Hayden's reports in the United 
States Geological Surveys of 1868 to 1873. On his expedition in 1868, Hayden 
was accompanied by Professor Agassiz, the celebrated scientist, and during their 
explorations of this section Agassiz made his headquarters in Cheyenne, his 
especial studies being in the department of paleontology. The fossils then un- 
earthed were small sea-fish, shells, ferns, etc., and were studied with reference 
to the geologic periods of the formations examined. 

Impressions of feathers have been found in the Green River and Florrisant 
shales of Wyoming. In the rock formations at Fossil, many forms of marine 


life, various kinds of fish, as well as snakes, and queer birds, and various forms 
of typical vegetation are found in great abundance. The largest specimen taken 
from this field was a fish about ten feet long. The products of the Wyoming 
fossil fields may be found today in museums in many parts of the world, al- 
though the deposits have been only partially worked. 

Recent publications of the National Museum by Charles W. Gilmore, de- 
scribe "new species of fossil turtles," from the Lance formation and "the oste- 
ology of an orthopodous" from the same section in Wyoming. Professor Gil- 
more is curator of fossil reptiles for the museum and before going to Wash- 
ington, spent several years in the great fossil fields of this state while a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the University of Wyoming. 

The large reptiles are found in the shales, chalk or hard clay, and the work 
of excavating them comes under a special class of mining requiring expert di- 
rection. It is done with mining tools, picks, shovels, drills, hammers and 
wedges. Every bone or section must be carefully removed and is duly recorded 
by letter and number and its position designated so the parts can be assembled 
in the work room and the skeleton reconstructed. Single bones weighing from 
lOO to 500 pounds, even when shattered into fragments are reunited by the 
skill of the paleontologist, covered with plaster bandages and shipped by freight 
for a thousand miles or more. The real task of restoration is done at the 
museum. To clean a single vertebra of a large dinosaur requires a month of 
continuous labor, and a score of these are included in one back bone. In its 
remarkable fossil fields Wyoming has made notable contributions to science and 
to the study of pre-historic animal life on this continent. 






In the northwest corner of the State of Wyoming is situated the Yellow- 
stone National Park, which has justly been called "Nature's Wonderland." 
Probably no other spot of equal size on this planet presents as much romantic 
scenery of mountain, lake and plateau, or as interesting natural curiosities as 
the obsidian clifif and the great geysers, which may have been sending forth 
their volumes of hot water from the interior of the earth "when the morning 
stars sang together." The visitor to the park, as he gazes with awe from In- 
spiration Point down the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, or witnesses the 
action of the geysers in the Firehole Basin, may well be filled with wonder at 
why American citizens will travel in foreign countries to the neglect of the 
beauties of their own land. 


For years before the wonders of the Upper Yellowstone region became 
known to the white man, the country about the park was inhabited by Indian 
tribes of the Algonquian, Siouan and Shoshonean families. The Blackfeet, an 
Algonquian tribe, dwelt around the sources of the Yellowstone River. The 
Crow, a Siouan tribe, lived farther down in the valley of the Yellowstone and 
eastward to the Big Horn River. The Bannock Indians and another Shoshonean 
tribe called the Tu-ku-a-ri-ki (Sheepeaters) inhabited the country now embraced 
within the limits of the Yellowstone National Park. None of these Indians 
knew much about the wonders of the park, for the reason that their ancestors 
for generations had a superstitious fear of the geyser region, and brave, in- 
deed, was the red man who would venture into the district where the evil spirits 
held sway. 


Even in locating their trails, these aboriginal inhabitants studiously avoided 

close contact with the dreaded geysers. The principal Indian trail was the 

"Great Bannock," which ran westward from the Mammoth Hot Springs, in the 

northern part of the park, over the Gallatin Range to Henry Lake. At the Mam- 

• 45 


moth Hot Springs it was joined by a trail coming up the valley of the. Gardiner 
River. Another important trail followed the Yellowstone River from the 
northern boundary of the park to the foot of Yellowstone Lake, where it divid- 
ed, one branch running along the eastern shore of the lake until it intersected 
the trail leading to the valleys of the Snake and Wind rivers. The other 
branch followed the western shore of the lake, crossed the divide, and continued 
southward to the Jackson's Hole country and the Snake River. From the foot 
of Yellowstone Lake a trail ran westward along the base of the Continental 
Divide to the Madison Plateau. Nearly all these trails are now established routes 
of travel for tourists to the park. 


David Thompson, an English fur trader, who spent part of the winter of 
1797-98 among the Mandan Indians, was probably the first man to give the 
name "Yellowstone" to the river, which in turn gives its name to this land of 
scenic wonders. The Minnetaree Sioux called the river the "Mi-tsi-a-da-zi," 
which in their language means "Rock Yellow Water." The French called the 
river the "Roche Jaune" (sometimes written "Pierre Jaune"), signifying "Yel- 
low Rock," but when or by whom the name was thus first applied is not known. 
That there is good reason for the adoption of the name is seen in the report of 
Captain Jones, who visited the Upper Yellowstone in 1873. Says he: "In and 
about the Grand Canyon the rocks are nearly tinged a brilliant yellow." 


The centtal portion of the park may be described as a "broad, elevated, vol- 
canic plateau, with an average altitude of about eight thousand feet above the 
sea level." Different names have been given to different parts of this plateau. 
In the eastern part it is called "Mirror Plateau," in the southeast "Two Ocean 
Plateau," in the southwest "Pitchstone Plateau," and in the western part "Madi- 
son Plateau." At the northeast comer, where the Snowy and Absaroka moun- 
tain ranges meet, the surface is broken and the scenery equals any to be found 
among the Swiss Alps. The Snowy Range extends westward along the northern 
boundary of the park to the Yellowstone Valley. West of the Yellowstone lie 
the Gallatin Mountains, which extend to the northwest corner of the park, where 
Electric Peak, the highest elevation of the range, affords a commanding view 
of the surrounding country. Besides these mountain ranges, there are many 
peaks, buttes and hills that have been identified by name, such as Bison Peak, 
Mount Washburn, Folsom Peak, The Needles, Overlook Mountain, Pyramid 
Peak, Mount Hancock and Mount Hoyt, the last having been named in honor 
of one of the territorial governors of Wyoming. 

Over 150 streams of clear mountain spring water flow through the park, 
the principal ones being the Yellowstone, Lamar, Gardiner, Madison, Gallatin, 
Snake, Gibbon and Firehole rivers. Obsidian, Soda Butte, Boundary-, Slough 
and Clear creeks. Along the courses of these streams are numerous cascades 
and waterfalls, the best known of which are the Upper and Lower Falls of the 
Yellowstone, Tower Falls, Osprey Falls, Kepler Cascade, Fairy Falls, Gibbon 



Falls and the Virginia Cascade. These vary in height from 310 feet at the 
Lower Yellowstone Falls to 60 feet at the Virginia Cascade. 

Government reports on the park mention forty-four lakes, the largest of 
which is the Yellowstone and the one having the highest altitude is Gardiner 
Lake. Yellowstone Lake is about sixty miles in length. At the south end it is 
divided into two arms, between which is a beautiful headland called "The 
Promontory." and an arm extending from the west side is called "The Thumb." 

In 191 2 Arnold Hague, of the United States Geological Survey, made ex- 
tended investigations in the Yellowstone National Park, and his report gives 
many interesting and scientific facts concerning the phenomena of the geysers, 
the general geological formation, etc. Near the northeast corner of the park 
he found an extinct volcano, the summit of which has an altitude of 10,000 
feet. The rocks of this section he classified as granite, gneiss, schist, etc., be- 
longing to the pre-Cambrian series. Mingled with these rocks in places he 
found in abundance the volcanic rock known as "Andesite," which has played 
an important part in the production of the structural features of the mountains 
in- and about the park. 

Mr. Hague found evidence of glacial action in a huge granite bowlder — 
24 feet long, 20 feet wide and 18 feet high above the ground. This bowlder 
he found in a forest on the brink of the Grand Canyon, and the nearest stone 
of similar formation, so far as known to geologists, is some forty miles dis- 
tant. Think of the mighty force that must have been exerted by the great sheet 
of ice that covered the northwestern part of the United States at the close 
of the Pleistocene period ! 


The number of geysers, hot springs, mud pots, paint pots, etc.. scattered 
over the park, Mr. Hague estimated at over three thousand. "To which," says 
he in his report, "should be added the fumaroles and solfatores, from which issue 
in the aggregate enormous volumes of steam and acid sulphur vapors, by which 
the number of active vents would easily be doubled. Each of these vents is a 
center of decomposition of the acid lava." 

There are several well defined geyser basins, the most important of which 
are the Upper and Lower basins on the Firehole River, which takes its name 
from these wonderful phenomena of nature ; the Norris Basin, near the source 
of Obsidian Creek; and the Heart Lake Basin, at the north end of that lake 
in the southern part of the park. Of the large geysers there are sixty-seven. 
The action of these geysers is far from uniform. The one called "Old Faith- 
ful," because of the regularity of its eruptions, throws a column of hot water 
150 feet into the air every sixty-five minutes, the eruption lasting about 4>4 
minutes. Excelsior Geyser, the greatest in the park, throws water to a height 
of 300 feet and spouts at intervals varying from one to four hours. Mr. Hague 
estimated the discharge of this geyser at "forty-four hundred gallons of boil- 
ing water per minute." 




Other noted geysers, with the height of column and interval of eruption 
are: The Giant, 200 feet, once in six days, duration of eruption 13^ hours; the 
Giantess, 250 feet, every fourteen days, time of eruption twelve hours; the Bee 
Hive, 220 feet, once every twenty hours, eruption lasts eight minutes; the 
Grand, 200 feet, once in twenty hours, time of action twenty miirutes; the 
Castle. 100 feet, every twenty-four hours, lasts twenty-five minutes; the Mon- 
arch, 125 feet, at intervals of twelve hours, eruption lasts twenty minutes. 


To John Colter must be accorded the distinction of having been the first 
white man to behold the wonders of what is now the Yellowstone National 
Park. Colter was a private soldier with the Lewis and Clark expedition. In 
August, 1806, as the expedition was returning to St. Louis and when near the 
]\Iandan villages on the Missouri River, two trappers named Hancock and 
Dixon, visited the camp and pictured in such glowing language the excitement 
and profits of a trapper's life, that Colter was induced to ask for his discharge 
that he might join them on the Yellowstone River. The journal of the expedi- 
tion for August 15, 1806, contains the following entry. "As he had always per- 
formed his duty and his services might be dispensed with, we agreed that he 
might go, provided none of the rest would ask or expect a similar indulgence. 
To this they cheerfully answered that they wished Colter every success and 
would not apply for liberty before we reached St. Louis. We therefore sup- 
plied him, as did his comrades also, with powder, lead and a variety of articles 
which might be useful to him and he left us the next day." 

The following spring Colter passed through the Pryor Gap of the Big Horn 
Mountains and wandered about on Clark's Fork, the Stinking Water (now the 
Shoshone River), and it is believed he reached the headwaters of the Green 
River. On his return he struck the headwaters of the Wind River, which he 
mistook for the Big Horn, but finally found his way back to the camp of the 
previous winter. He then decided to return to St. Louis and set out alone in 
a log canoe. Near the mouth of the Platte River he met Manuel Lisa, who 
persuaded him to return to the L'pper Missouri country. Lisa established a 
trading post at the mouth of the Big Horn River and Colter again struck into 
the wilderness to the southward in pursuit of fur-bearing animals. Somewhere 
on this expedition he came in contact with a band of hostile Indians and wan- 
dered many miles out of his way in his efiforts to reach the trading post. It 
was on this occasion that he passed through what is now the Yellowstone 
National Park. In the spring of 1810 he returned to St. Louis, where he met 
his old commander. Captain Clark, who outlined the course described in the 
map of the Lewis and Clark expedition, marking it "CoUer's Route in 1807." 
By this means Colter's wanderings were given official recognition and made 
a matter of public record. 

From the map mentioned (Colter's description was not accurate in many 
particulars) the course of this first discoverer can be traced to the west of Yel- 
lowstone Lake and into the geyser district. That he saw the Grand Canyon of 
the Yellowstone, Tower Falls and Mount Washburn is almost certain. He no 
doubt followed the Indian trail leading from Yellowstone River to the Big 



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Horn, finally arriving at Lisa's trading post, after he had long been given up 
as lost. 

Colter's account of the wonders he had seen in the Rocky Mountains was 
not accepted by the public. Even his friends are said to have tapped their 
foreheads significantly when referring to the subject, as much as to say: "Poor 
Colter! He has told that story so often that he probably believes it himself, 
but his mind is evidently wandering." Others, in a spirit of derision, gave the 
name of "Colter's Hell" to the region that later explorers were to prove he 
had graphically and truthfully described. 


After Colter, the next man to visit the park region was probably Jim Brid- 
ger, the famous scout and frontiersman. Bridger was something of a romancer, 
and the stories he told of the wonders of the Yellowstone were somewhat "over- 
drawn," to say the least. One of his stories was that one day, while going 
through what is now the National Park, he saw an elk quietly grazing within 
easy rifle range. Taking deliberate aim, he fired his rifle, but much to his 
astonishment the animal kept on grazing as though it had not even heard the 
report of the gun. Two or three more shots were fired with no better results, 
so he determined to investigate. Approaching the elk stealthily he was again 
surprised when he came to a solid wall of glass, on the opposite side of which 
was the elk at which he had been shooting. Not only that, but the wall of glass 
acted as a magnifying lens and the elk was twenty-five miles away. No wonder 
it did not hear the reports of Bridger's rifle. 

The story was quite likely suggested to Bridger's imagination by his dis- 
covery of the obsidian cliff of black volcanic glass, about half way between the 
Norris Geyser Basin and the Mammoth Hot Springs, though the obsidian is 
opaque and it would be impossible to see an elk, or any other object through 
it at any distance. This volcanic glass was used by the aborigines for lance 
and arrow heads and other weapons, large numbers of which have been found 
in the vicinity of the park. 

Bridger told some of his wonderful stories to Captain Warner, Capt. W. F. 
Raynolds, Dr. F. V. Hayden and other early explorers, who received them with 
the proverbial "grain of salt," though they afterward found that the old scout's 
narrative contained a large percentage of truth. An editor of one of the lead- 
ing western newspapers stated in 1879, after the reports of Colter and Bridger 
had been verified by official explorations, that more than thirty years before 
he had prepared an article for publication, based upon Bridger's account of the 
Yellowstone region, but did not publish it because one of his friends advised 
him that he would "be laughed out of town if he printed any of old Jim Bridger's 
lies." He afterward apologized to Bridger for lack of confidence in his veracity. 


Capt. W. F. Raynolds of the United States topographical engineers, under 
orders from the war department, led an expedition from Fort Pierre on the 
Missouri into Wyoming, His orders were to explore "the country through 


which flow the principal tributaries of the Yellowstone River, the mountains 
in which they and the Gallatin and Madison forks of the Missouri have their 
source," etc. Dr. F. V. Hayden accompanied the expedition as geologist and 
James Bridger acted as guide. Captain Raynolds made his report in i860, but 
the Civil war came on the next year, which practically put a stop to further ex- 
ploration for almost a decade. 

During the war parties of gold seekers penetrated into the mountain ranges 
in the neighborhood of the park and some accounts of their discoveries were 
published in the newspapers. In September, 1869, David E. Folsom, William 
Peterson and C. W. Cook left Diamond City on the Missouri River and spent 
about a month in the vicinity of the Yellowstone Lake. In the Western Monthly 
for July, 1871, was published an article from the pen of Mr. Folsom which 
wielded considerable influence toward the sending of other expeditions into 
the country about the sources of the Yellowstone. 

What is generally known as the "Washburn-Doane Expedition" was organ- 
ized in Montana in the summer of 1870 and was provided with a military 
escort from Fort Ellis by order of Gen. P. H. Sheridan. The leader of this 
expedition was Gen. Henry D. Washburn, then surveyor-general of Montana. 
Among those who accompanied him were Nathaniel P. Langford, who wrote 
an account of the explorations for Scribner's Magazine, and who was after- 
ward the first superintendent of the park; Thomas C. Everts, ex-United States 
assessor for Montana ; Samuel T. Hauser, later governor of Montana ; Walter 
Trumbull, son of United States Senator TnmibuU, who also published an ac- 
count of the expedition in the Overland Monthly for June, 1871 ; and Cornelius 
Hedges, who was the first man to propose setting apart the region as a national 
park. This party entered the park on August 21, 1870, under the escort of a 
small detachment of the Second United States Cavalry commanded by Lieut. 
Gustavus C. Doane, whose name is coupled with that of General Washburn. 

From the heights of Mount Washburn (then unnamed) they saw at a 
distance the Canyon and Falls of the Yellowstone, the geyser basin on the 
Firehole River, which was pointed out to them by James Bridger, and then de- 
scended into the plateau for a more systematic examination of the natural won- 
ders. On September 9, 1870, Thomas C. Everts became separated from the 
other members of the expedition and wandered about through the wild region 
for thirty-seven days before his comrades found him almost dead from hunger 
and exposure. Mr. Everts, after his recovery, wrote an account of his experi- 
ences for Scribner's Magazine, which was widely read and was afterward re- 
produced by General Chittenden in his "History of Yellowstone National Park." 
In this history General Chittenden gives the following account of the origin of 
the national park idea : 

"The members of the party were sitting around the campfire after supper 
(September 19, 1870), conversing about what they had seen and picturing to 
themselves the important pleasure resort which so wonderful a region must soon 
become. The natural impulse to turn the fruits of discovery to their personal 
profit made its appearance, and it was suggested that it would be a 'profitable 
speculation' to take up lands around the various objects of interest. The con- 
versation had not gone far in that direction, when one of the party — Cornelius 
Hedges — interposed and said that private ownership of that region, or any 


part of it, ought never to be sold by the government, but that it should be set 
apart and forever held to the unrestricted use of the people. This higher view 
of the subject found immediate acceptance with the other members of the 
party. It was agreed that the project should be at once set on foot and pushed 
vigorously to a finish." 

In 1871 the United States sent two expeditions to the Upper Yellowstone — 
one under the leadership of Dr. F. V. Hayden and the other under Captains 
Heap and Barlow of the engineer corps. The reports of this joint expedition 
aided materially the project brought before Congress set on foot by the VVash- 
burn-Doane expedition. In the Helena Herald of November 9, 1870, appeared 
an article from the pen of Cornelius Hedges, giving reasons why the country 
about the Yellowstone Lake should be set apart as a national reservation. A 
little later Nathaniel P. Langford addressed a meeting in Washington, D. C, 
presided over by James G. Blaine, then speaker of the national house of repre- 
sentatives. In this way the subject was brought to the attention of Congress. 


Mr. Langford and William H. Clagett, member of Congress from Mon- 
tana, drew up a bill providing for the establishment of the Yellowstone National 
Park. This bill was introduced in the house on December 18, 1871. by Mr. 
Clagett, and Senator Pomeroy of Kansas introduced it in the senate. After 
receiving the approval of the secretary of the interior and Dr. F. V. Hayden, it 
passed both houses and was approved by President Grant on March i, 1872. 
The boundaries of the park, as defined by this act, are as follows: 

"Commencing at the junction of Gardiner's River with the Yellowstone 
River and running east to the meridian passing ten miles to the eastward of 
the most eastern point of the Yellowstone Lake; then south along said meridian 
to the parallel of latitude passing ten miles south of the most southern point of 
the Yellowstone Lake ; thence west along said parallel to the meridian passing 
fifteen miles west of the most western point of Madison Lake; thence north 
along said meridian to the latitude of the junction of the Yellowstone and Gardi- 
ner's rivers ; thence east to the place of beginning." 

Under the boundaries as thus established, the park extends two miles north 
of the northern boundary of Wyoming, and two miles west of the western 
boundary, being sixty-two miles long and fifty-four miles wide. The act placed 
the park under the control of the secretary of the interior, who was given the 
authority to grant leases, at his discretion, for periods not exceeding ten years, 
and all buildings erected by the lessees to be located and erected under his 
direction, the proceeds of such leases to be expended by his authority in the 
construction of roads, etc. 


The report of the park supervisor, Chester A. Lindsley, for the year 191 7 
says: "The park was governed by civilian superintendents, assisted by a few 
scouts, from the time it was set aside until August 10, 1886, when troops of 
United States Cavalry were detailed to police it, the commanding officer acting 




as superintendent under direct orders of the secretary of the interior. On Oc- 
tober i6, 1916, the troops were withdrawn from the park and a civihan super- 
visor, with a corps of twenty-five rangers, for patrol and protection work, and 
a few civilian employees for other duties, were appointed by the secretary of 
the interior to replace them. Under recent legislation by Congress, troops were 
returned to the park on June 26, 191 7. This action was necessary on account 
of a clause contained in the sundry civil appropriation act of June 12, 1917, 
making appropriations for the park for the fiscal year 1918. By virtue of this 
law, the park supervisor was relieved of so much of the park duties as pertain 
to 'protection'." 

Park headquarters are located at the Mammoth Hot Springs, five miles in- 
side the park line at the northern entrance. Here are located the water and 
electric light systems, the telephone exchange, etc. The maintenance and con- 
struction of roads, bridges and general improvements in the park are carried 
on by special appropriation under the war department, an officer of the engineer- 
ing department being in charge of the work. Automobiles were first admitted 
on August I, 191 5, but did not come into general use as a method of transpor- 
tation until 191 7, when practically all of the transportation of tourists 
was consolidated under one company — "The Yellowstone Park Transportation 
Company." During the season from June 20 to September 15, 1917, a total 
of 13,283 tourists were taken through the park by this company, and 21,915 per- 
sons visited the park with their own transportation and camping outfits. 

The Yellowstone Park Hotel Company operates all of the hotels in the 
park. There are four hotels — the Mammoth Hot Springs, the Upper Basin, the 
Lake House and the Canyon Hotel. At all of these hotels garages and supply 
houses are maintained and there are four free automobile camps and shelter 
houses in the park, placed on the main lines of travel, besides there are six 
other camping places, where oils and gasoline may be obtained by tourists. 

There are four main entrances to the park — north, east, south and west. 
The northern entrance may be reached by the Northern Pacific Railway, the 
west entrance by the Union Pacific, the east entrance by stage from Cody, 
where it connects with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and the 
south entrance can be reached only by automobile or other means of private 
conveyance. Each year witnesses improvements for the accommodation and 
comfort of tourists, the number of which is constantly increasing. 


Howard M. Albright, acting director of the National Park Service, in his 
report to the secretary of the interior for the fiscal year ending June 30. 1917, 
says : "The killing of wild animals, except predatory animals when absolutely 
necessary, is strictly forbidden in Yellowstone Park by law. The park is there- 
fore the greatest wild animal sanctuary in the world. We endeavor to refrain 
from calling it a game sanctuary, because park animals are not game in the 
popular sense of the term. The park is, however, the great source of game 
supply for the surrounding territory, and the states of Wyoming and Montana 
have widely sought to assist in the protection and control of this supply." 

Elk, antelope and both mule and white-tailed deer are numerous in the park. 


During the winter of 1916-17 more than two hundred tons of alfalfa were fed 
to these animals by the employees of the park service. Heavy snows drove large 
numbers of elk and antelope out of the park, in search of a lower altitude. They 
found shelter from the severe weather in the Jackson's Hole country in Wyo- 
ming and near Electric, Mont. It is in such cases that the protective laws of 
those states, mentioned by Mr. Albright, come into play. The animals were pro- 
tected by the state game wardens from the thoughtless sportsman and when the 
weather conditions improved they returned to the park of their own accord. 
Since 191 1 the total number of elk shipped from the park to other states or mu- 
nicipalities, "where their future protection is assured," was 2,263, and on June 9, 
1917, there were nearly twenty thousand in the park. A few moose are fre- 
quently seen, the tame herd of buffalo numbered 330 in June, 191 7, black and 
cinnamon bears are numerous, and there are 194 known varieties of birds to be 
found in the park. The United States Fish Commission maintains a branch fish 
hatchery in the park. It is located on the shore of Yellowstone Lake, near 
the Lake House. During the season of 1917 a total of 1,773,000 young fish were 
planted in the lakes and streams of the park. Fishing by visitors is permitted, 
and Mr. Lindsley says in his report for 1917: "The confining of fishing to the 
strict letter of the regulations has not been disappointing in its results, as its 
effects have already been noticed in the additional interest in fishing manifested 
by travelers ; and it has not proven as much of a disappointment to the hotels and 
camps as was expected, for the reason that tourists have taken an unusual inter- 
est in fishing and have caught many fish that have found their way to the tables." 
The object in planting fish in the waters, for tourists to catch, is "to make 
the national parks more popular as playgrounds of the people, where amusements 
can be found in addition to the scenery." The lover of rod and line should there- 
fore be attracted to the Yellowstone National Park, where he can "cast flies" 
to his heart's content, while at the same time enjoying the picturesque scenery 
and natural wonders of the park. 

From the Herbert l.i.n«-ii CuUc 


A Cheyeime Chief who led his tril>e in the fight with General Custe 









Before the white man the Indian; before the Indian, who? The question is 
more easily asked than answered. Archaeologists have found in Wyoming evi- 
dences of the existence of an ancient race, which some writers on the subject 
think was contemporary with the cliff dwellers of Colorado. Along the Big 
Horn and Wind rivers, and about the sources of the Yellowstone, have been 
found steatite vessels, lance and arrow heads, stone knives, celts and other 
weapons and utensils different from any found in the mounds in other sections 
of the country. Many of these utensils are of a green marble, marked by veins, 
or stones of volcanic origin, and no one has been able to determine from whence 
they came. Similar relics, as well as cotton and a coarse thread, have been 
found in the Santa Lucia \'alley in New Mexico, from which it is inferred that 
the aborigines of that section and those of Wyoming were closely related. Says 
Bancroft : "Heaps of bones, tools, ornaments, weapons, burial cairns and mining 
sliafts are among the proofs of their presence. At what period they disappeared 
and recent tribes took their place is among the secrets which the past refuses to 

Since the first investigations of Scjuier and Davis among the mounds of the 
Mississippi \'alley, about 1845 to 1850, a great deal has been written regarding 
the first inhabitants of the American continent. The early writers on the sub- 
ject were almost a unit in attributing to the aborigines a great antiquity, and in 
advocating the theory that they were of a separate race. Morfe recent explorations 
among the mounds and relics have disclosed the fact that their civilization — ■ 
if such it can be called — resembled in many particulars that of some of the Indian 
tribes encountered by the first white men who came to what now constitutes the 
United States. This is especially true of the tribes inhabiting the Lower Missis- 
sippi Valley and the country along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, who the 
first explorers in that region found using knives and other utensils of obsidian, 
very similar in appearance to those found in Wyoming and New Mexico. In 


the early part of the Seventeenth Century, the Natchez and other southern 
tribes of Indians were accustomed to the erection of burial mounds and cairns. 
These and kindred facts have been brought to light by the research of the 
United States Bureau of Ethnologv', and the general theory now is that the so- 
called Mound Builders and other aboriginal peoples were nothing more than the 
ancestors of the tribes that inhabited the country at the time it was first visited 
by white men. 


Probably more pages have been written relating to the Indian tribes of North 
America than on any other subject pertaining to American history. To the 
student of history there is a peculiar fascination in the story of these savage 
tribes — their legends, traditions and customs — that makes the topic always one 
of surpassing interest, and no history of Wyoming would be complete without 
some account of the tribes that inhabited the country before the advent of the 
white man. 

When Christopher Columbus made his first voyage to the New World in 1492, 
he believed that he had at last reached the goal of his long cherished ambitions, 
and that the country where he landed was the eastern shore of Asia. Early 
European explorers in America, entertaining a similar belief, thought the country 
was India and gave to the race of copper colored people they found here the 
name of "Indians." Later explorations disclosed the fact that the land discov- 
ered by Columbus was really a continent hitherto unknown to the civilized 
nations of the world. The error in geography was thus corrected, but the 
name given by the first adventurers to the natives still remains. 


The North American Indians are divided into several groups or families, each 
of -which is distinguished by certain physical and linguistic characteristics, and 
each group is subdivided into a number of tribes, each of which is ruled over 
by a chief. At the close of the Fifteenth Century, when the first Europeans began 
their explorations in America, they found the various leading Indian families 
distributed over the continent as follows : 

In the far north were the Eskimo, a people that have never played any con- 
spicuous part in history. These Indians still inhabit the country about the Arctic 
Circle, where some of them have been occasionally employed as guides to polar 
expeditions, which has been about their only association with the white man. 

The Algonquian family, the most numerous and powerful of all the Indian 
nations, occupied a great triangle, roughly bounded by the Atlantic coast from 
Labrador to Cape Hatteras and by lines drawn from those two points to the 
western end of Lake Superior. Within this triangle lived the Delaware, Shaw- 
nee, Miami, Pottawatomi, Sac and Fox and other powerful tribes, which yielded 
slowly to the advance of the superior race. Almost in the very heart of the 
Algonquian triangle — along the shores of Lake Ontario and the upper reaches 
of the St. Lawrence River — lived the Iroquoian group, which was composed 
of the Oneida, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca tribes. To the early 


settlers of New York these tribes were known as the "Five Nations." Some 
years afterward the Tuscarora tribe was added to the confederacy, which then 
took the name of the "Six Nations." 

South of tlie Algonquian country, extending from the Mississippi River to 
the Atlantic coast, was the region inhabited by the Muskhogean family, the lead- 
ing tribes of which were the Creek, Chickasaw, Cherokee and Choctaw. The 
Indians of this group were among the most intelligent as well as the most aggres- 
sive and warlike of all the North American tribes. 

In the great Northwest, about the sources of the Mississippi River and ex- 
tending westward to the Missouri, lay the domain of the Siouan family, which 
was composed of a number of tribes closely resembling each other in physical 
appearance and dialect, and noted for their warlike tendencies and military 

South and west of the .Siouan country lived the "Plains Indians," com- 
posed of tribes of mixed stock. Their domain extended westward to the foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains. Among these tribes were the Arapaho and Qiey- 
enne in the northern part and the Apache, Comanche and Kiowa farther to 
the south. All these tribes were bold and vindictive in disposition and skilful 

West of the Plains Indians dwelt the Shoshonean group, the principal tribes 
of which were the Shoshone, Bannock and Comanche. This group was one of 
the smallest on the continent. Farther south, in what are now the states of 
Arkansas and Louisiana was the Caddoan group, and scattered over other 
parts of the country were numerous minor tribes which in all probability had 
separated from some of the great families, but who, at the time they first came 
in contact with the white men claimed kinship with none. These tribes were 
generally inferior in numbers, often nomadic in their habits, and consequently 
are of little importance historically. 

In a history of such as this, it is not the design to give an extended account of 
the Indian race as a whole, but to notice only those tribes whose history is inti- 
mately connected with the territory now comprising the State of Wyoming. 
Foremost among these tribes are the Arapaho, Bannock, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, 
Crow, Shoshone, and certain minor tribes of the Siouan stock. 


Some ethnologists place the Arapaho among the tribes of the Siouan family, 
but the United States Bureau of Ethnology classifies them as one of the Algon- 
quian tribes, which separated from the main body of that group long before the 
first white men came to America. One of their traditions says that many hun- 
dred years ago the tribe lived in Western Minnesota, from which region they 
were driven by the Sioux. In their migrations they became divided into three 
tribes — the Gros Ventres of the prairie and the Northern and Southern Arapaho. 
This division took place when the tribe reached the Missouri River, early in the 
Nineteenth Century. The Gros Ventres then went north and joined the Black- 
feet, .seldom afterward visiting their brethren. 

Dorsey says the word Arapaho means the "tattooed people," and says a 
tribal tradition claims that these Indians once inhabited all the country between 


the sources of the Platte River and the Arkansas River. The Northern Arapaho 
call themselves "A-no-nai," which in their dialect means "the parent of na- 
tions," though the Southern Arapaho say that it means only "the men," or "the 
people." As a matter of fact the origin and meaning of the tribal name are 
matters of uncertainty. The men of the tribe are brave and intelligent, and 
both men and women resemble the Sioux Indians, which is no doubt responsible 
for the belief that the Arapaho are of that stock. 

In religion the Arapaho are monotheistic. They believe in a Great Spirit who 
is good and omnipotent, and an evil spirit which is constantly working for the 
downfall of humanity. They have a standard of right and wrong and believe 
that the good and bad deeds done on earth will be rewarded or punished after 
death. Ghosts and spirits of departed ancestors, especially their great chiefs, 
form a part of their superstitious belief, and fairy stories or folk lore was 
common among them when they were first met by the whites. The white buffalo 
they have always looked upon as a sort of deity. 


Sherman Coolidge, an educated Arapaho, some years ago wrote an account 
of the Arapaho tradition of the flood, from which the following has been 
adapted: Long ago. before there was any animal life on the earth, the entire 
surface of the planet was covered with water, except the top of one high moun- 
tain. Upon this mountain sat a lone Arapaho, poor, weeping and in great dis- 
tress. The Great Spirit saw him and felt sorry for him, and in his pity sent 
three ducks to the poor Indian. The Arapaho ordered the ducks to dive down 
into the waters and bring up some dirt. The first and second tried, but after 
remaining under water for a long time each returned without any dirt. Then the 
third went down and was gone so long that the surface of the water where he 
disappeared had become still and quiet. The Arapaho believed this duck to be 
dead when she returned to the surface with some dirt in her bill. As soon as 
the Arapaho received this bit of earth the waters began to subside. 

In a short time the waters had receded so far that they could not be seen from 
the top of the highest mountain, but this Arapaho, who was endowed with super- 
natural wisdom and power, knew that they surrounded the earth, even as they 
do to this day. The Arapaho, who had been saved by the ducks, then became 
the sole possessor of the land. He made the rivers and made the trees to grow 
along them, the buffaloes, elks, deer and other animals, all the birds of the air and 
the fishes in the waters, and all the trees and bushes and all other things that 
can be grown by planting seeds in the ground. 

Then all the other tribes — the Sioux, the Cheyenne, the Shoshone, etc. — 
cnme to this Arapaho, poor and on foot, and he gave them ponies. He also 
taught them to make bows and arrows and how to start a fire by rubbing two 
sticks together. This Arapaho god also had a peace pipe, which he gave to the 
people and told them to live at peace with each other, but especially with the 
Arapaho. The Cheyenne was the first of the tribes to come and receive gifts 
and knowledge of the Arapaho god. Among the gifts they received were ponies, 
in the use of which they became expert. The Shoshone had no lodges and the 


Chief of the Crow tribe. 


Arapaho taught them to construct skin tepees. Then all the tribes loved the 


Like the Arapaho, the Cheyenne Indians belong to the Algonquian family. 
A tribal tradition says these Indians once inhabited the valley of the Red 
River of the North, where they were friendly with both the Sioux and Ojibway 
while those tribes were at war with each other. In time the Ojibway became 
suspicious that the Cheyenne were aiding the Sioux and drove them westward 
into what is now North Dakota. From there they were driven by the hostile 
Sioux to the upper waters of the Platte River. After they became established 
there all the tribes of the plains acknowledged their superiority in their impetuous 
valor and as fierce, skilful warriors. 

When Bent's Fort was built on the Upper Arkansas River, in the early part 
of the Nineteenth Century, a portion of the tribe moved to that section of the 
country and became known as the "Southern Cheyenne." Those who remained 
in the Platte Valley extended their domain to the Yellowstone and became known 
as the "Northern Cheyenne." Since that time they have been recognized as two 
separate and distinct bands, the Northern Cheyenne becoming affiliated with 
the Sioux and the Southern with the Kiawa. By treaties with the United States 
they ceded their lands in Wyoming and were given reservations in Montana 
and Oklahoma, respectively. In 1910 there were about three thousand on the 
two reservations. After the separation of the tribe there was very little com- 
munication between them, though Brave Bear, a chief of the Southern Cheyenne 
brought a number of his warriors to assist his northern brethren in the Custer 

The Indian name of this tribe is Ab-sa-ro-ka, meaning "the hawk." They 
belong to the Siouan group, though they separated from the other Siouan tribes 
so far back in the past that their oldest traditions have failed to preserve the 
date. When first encountered by white men they occupied the Upper Yellow- 
stone Valley, where they were allowed to dwell in security by the other tribes, 
who knew too well their warlike dispostion and skill with arms. Formerly they 
were frequently at war with the adjacent tribes, particularly the Sioux, until 
they had firmly established themselves in their domain, but they were generally 
at peace with the whites, often furnishing scouts to detachments of United 
States troops against the hostile tribes. 

When the first trappers and agents of the fur companies came into the Crow 
country, the Indians stole their traps and occasionally ran ofT their horses. 
Concerning this, the artist Catlin says: "While these people have sometimes 
been called rascals and thieves, and rogues of the first order, yet they do not 
consider themselves such, for thieving in their estimation is^ a high crime, and in 
their eyes a disgraceful act; that while they sometimes capture and run off a 
trader's horse and make their boasts of it, they consider it a kind of retaliation 
or summary justice, which they think right and honorable for the unlicensed 


trespass through their country from one end to the other by the mercenary 
white men, who destroy the game, catch the beaver and drive other valuable 
furs off their country without paying them an equivalent, or in fact anything 
at all for it, and this, too, when they have been warned time and again of the 
danger they would be in if they longer persisted in such practices." 

The same writer pronounces the Crow Indians "the most honest and hon- 
orable race of people among whom I have ever lived." Catlin may have found 
them so in his relations with them, but the early settlers in the vicinity of the 
Crow country could no doubt tell a dift'erent story of depredations committed, 
live stock stolen, etc. 

Among the Crow Indians there were a number of military societies. To be 
a member of one of these societies was a privilege accorded only to those who 
had distinguished themselves in warfare. They also had many feasts and cere- 
moni;,ls, one of which was the planting of the sacred tobacco plant. After the 
tribe ceded its lands to the United States its members were given a reserva- 
tion in Southern Montana. 


The Shoshone (or Shoshoni) is the leading tribe of the Shoshonean family. 
Some authorities say this name was given to the tribe by the Cheyenne, but this 
is probably a mistake. The name signifies "People of the high land," and no 
doubt originated in the fact that these Indians inhabited the country along the 
eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains. They were sometimes called the Rocky 
Mountain Indians by the first explorers and travelers through the West. They 
were also called the Snake Indians. Says Haines : "It is uncertain why the 
term 'Snake' was given to this tribe by the whites, but probably because of their 
tact in leading pursuits by crawling off in the long grass or diving in the water." 

The first white men to give any account of the Shoshone were Lewis and 
Clark, who came upon a band of them in Western Montana in 1804, while on 
their way to the Pacific coast. The explorers called them Snakes, and in the 
journal of the Lewis and Clark expedition mention is made of Sac-a-ja-we-a 
(the bird woman), a member of the band, who acted as guide to the expedition 
to the sources of the Columbia River. From this woman and her husband, 
Lewis and Clark learned that the tribe inhabited the country now included in 
Western Wyoming and Montana, Southern Idaho, Northern Utah, Northeastern 
Nevada and Eastern Oregon. Those living along the eastern slopes of the Rocky 
Mountains had ponies and hunted the buffalo, but they never ventured very far 
from their mountain homes for fear of the warlike tribes of the plains. 

A Shoshone tradition says that many years ago they dwelt in a country far to 
the southward, where the rivers were filled with alligators. Consequently, when 
a Shoshone crosses a strange river he always offers a brief prayer to the alliga- 
tors that may be in it to spare his life. After leaving that country they came 
to the Rocky Mountains, where they had lived for nearly fifty years before 
the first trappers and traders came into their country. During that period they 
had frequently been compelled to resort to arms to repel invasions by the Sioux, 
Crow, Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. 

They were superstitious, with a firm belief in ghosts, fairies, little devils. 


water babies, etc. They also believed in a demon of bad luck, who resembled 
a short, stocky human being dressed in goatskin clothing, and who carried a 
quiver filled with invisible arrows. Any person shot with one of these arrows 
did not die, but was certain to suffer some reverse of fortune or health. If a 
member of the family fell ill, or a horse went lame, it was considered proof 
positive that one of the invisible arrows had done its work, and the only relief 
was removal to another part of the country. To hear a coyote howl at full 
moon was an omen of good luck, and if a family, removing at such a time to 
another place to get rid of the evil influence of the invisible arrow should hear 
the howl of a coyote, the head of the family would give the order to return to the 
old home, satisfied that the spell was broken. 

Kindred tribes of the Shoshonean group are the Comanche, Bannock, Piute, 
Flathead and a few minor mountain bands bearing different names, but all off- 
shoots from the parent stock. The Bannock Indians at one time inhabited 
Eastern Oregon and Southern Idaho, though some of this tribe lived with the 
Shoshone in Western Wyoming, and after the treaty of 1868 occupied for a 
time a portion of the Wind River reservation. In 1871 they quarreled with the 
Shoshone and were removed to Fort Hall, Idaho. Four years later the Shoshone 
agreed to allow the Arapaho to occupy part of the reservation. The arrangement 
was made, and, although the two tribes had long been enemies, they have since 
dwelt together in peace. 


Washakie, one of the best known of the \\'yoming Indians, became the head 
chief of the Shoshone in 1857, being at that time about forty years of age. 
He was a real friend of the white men and it was through his influence that 
the southwestern part of the state was ceded to the United States in 1868, when 
the Wind River reservation was established. In 1876 Washakie, with 213 of his 
warriors, joined General Crook in the campaign 'against hostile tribes. On this 
campaign General Crook consulted Washakie daily as to the habits of the Indi- 
ans of whom they were in pursuit, and in nearly every instance the information 
imparted was found to be correct. His men also performed valuable services 
as scouts. 

After the campaign. President Grant sent to the old chief a fine horse and 
saddle, through Doctor Irwin, the Indian agent. When presented with the 
horse Washakie said nothing. The agent suggested that he ought to send his 
thanks to General Grant, whereupon the old chief replied : "Do a favor to a 
white man, he feels it in his head and the tongue speaks. Do a kindness to an 
Indian, he feels it in his heart ; the heart has no tongue." 

Washakie ruled his people with an iron hand, though he was always earnest 
in his efforts to improve their condition. On one occasion the agent complained 
that one man of the tribe was making trouble by getting drvmk and fighting. 
Washakie called the man before him and admonished him to improve his con- 
duct. A little later the agent again complained of the Indian's drunkenness and 
disorderly behavior. The old chief said nothing at the time, but the following 
day assured the agent that the fellow would give him no further trouble. Then 
the agent learned that the chief had taken the Indian out and shot him. Another 


time, when he was going to be away for a few days, he left orders with his wife 
to remove the tepee to another location while he was gone. Upon his return 
he found the lodge in the same place and inquired why his Dvders had not Ix'cn 
obeyed. His wife said it was because her mother objecteil. W ashakie then asked 
his mother-in-law why she opposed his wishes. The old squaw promptly in- 
formed him that it was because she wanted the tepee to remain where it was. 
Washakie then killed her and ordered his wife to remove the tepee. This time 
his order was obeyed. 

He was a polygamist, with several wives and numerous children. In this 
respect he merely followed the custom of the Shoshone chiefs for generations 
and saw nothing wrong in his having a number of wives, although he was one 
of the most intelligent of the Shoshone Indians. Washakie died about the 
beginning of the present century. 


In addition to the tribes above mentioned, the Blackfeet, Arikara, Assiniboine, 
Gros \'entre, Mandan and certain bands of the Siou.x Indians either claimed 
land within the present limits of Wyoming or hunted therein. These tribes joined 
with the Cheyenne, Arapaho, etc., in making treaties with the representatives of 
the United States. 

The Blackfeet were originally allied with the Algonquian family, but left 
that group and wandered up the Missouri River, where they became affiliated 
with the Siouan tribes, especially the Teton, Unkpapa and Brule (or Bois Brule) 
bands, and in time came to be recognized as one of the Siouan tribes. It is 
said that they received the name of Blackfeet because when they came up the 
Missouri River their leggings were black from marching over the burned prairie. 
At one time the Blackfeet were estimated at forty thousand. In 1910 there 
were 2,100 on the reservation in Montana and 3,000 in the British Possessions. 

No Indian tribe of the Northwest was more uncertain in temper and con- 
duct than the Arikara. Some ethnologists place these Indians as an offshoot of 
the Fox, but they belonged to the Caddoan group. One of their traditions 
states that they lived in Western Missouri about 1780, where they were driven 
out by hostile tribes and ascended the Missouri. They were friendly to Lewis 
and Clark in 1804 and 1806, but were hostile to Ensign Pryor's party in 1807 
when escorting the Alandan chief to his home after visiting Washington. They 
traded with the Missouri Fur Company in 181 1; robbed two trading houses of 
the company near Great Bend in 1820 ; were friendly to Joshua Pilcher in 1822, 
and the next year attacked the trading house of the Missouri Fur Company in 
the Sioux country and were hostile to W. H. Ashley's first expedition up the 
Missouri, after first making a show of friendship. 


When Cortez was commissioned captain-general of New Spain in 1529, he 
was directed to "give special attention to the conversion of the Indians ; to see 
that no Indians be given to the Spaniards as servants ; that they pay such 
tribute to His Majesty as they can easily afford; that there shall be a good cor- 


respondence maintained between the Spaniards and the natives, and that no 
wrong shall be offered the latter either in their goods, families or persons.'' 

Such were the instructions of the Spanish Government, but notwithstanding 
this, during the conquest of Mexico and Central America the treatment of the 
nati\es was cruel in the extreme, many of them being captured and forced to 
work in the mines. Don Sebastian Ramirez, bishop and acting governor after 
Cortez, tried to carry out the humane orders of the commission. Antonio de 
Herrera says that under his administration "the country was much improved and 
all things carried on with equity, to the general satisfaction of all good men." 

The Spanish authorities never accepted the idea that the Indians owned all 
the land, but only that part actually occupied, or that might be necessary to 
supply their wants. All the rest of the land belonged to Spain by right of dis- 
covery, and the policy of dealing with the natives was based upon this theory. 

The French had no settled policy regarding the title to lands. In the letters 
patent given by Louis XV to the Western Company in August, 1717, was the fol- 
lowing provision : 

"Section IV — The said company shall be free, in the said granted lands to 
negotiate and make alliance with all the nations of the land, except those which 
are dependent on the other powers of Europe; she may agree with them on 
such conditions as she may think fit, to settle among them, and trade freely 
with them, and in case they insult her she may declare war against them, attack 
them or defend herself by means of arms, and negotiate with them for peace 
or a truce." 

In this section it will be noticed there is nothing said about the acquisition 
of lands. As a matter of fact the French cared but little for the lands, the 
principal object being to control the fur trade. The trading post did not require 
a large tract of land, and outside of the site of the trading house and a small 
garden, the Indians were left in full possession. Xor did the French become 
the absolute owners of the small tracts at the trading posts. In case the post 
was abandoned the site reverted to its Indian owners. Under such a liberal 
policy it is not surprising that the French traders were almost always on friendly 
terms with the natives. 

The English policy treated the Indian as a barbarian and in making land 
grants ignored any claim he might make to the soil. The so-called "Great Patent 
of New England," which was issued to the Plymouth Company and embracing 
the land from 40° to 48° north latitude, made not the slightest allusion to the 
Indian title. The settlers bought the land from the tribal chiefs, and in numer- 
ous instances failure to quit the Indian title by purchase resulted in 
disastrous wars. In the charter granted by Charles I to Lord Baltimore, the 
grantee was given the authority "to collect troops, wage war on the 'barbarians' 
and other enemies who may make incursions into the settlements, and to pur- 
sue them even beyond the limits of their province, and if God shall grant it, to 
vanquish and captivate them ; and the captives to put to death, or, according to 
their discretion, to save." 

All the nations of Europe which acquired territory in America, asserted in 
themselves and recognized in others the exclusive right of the discoverer to 
claim and appropriate the lands occupied by the Indians. Parkman says: 


■'Spanish civilization crushed the Indian; Enghsh civihzation scorned and neg- 
lected him ; French civilization emhraced and cherished him." 


The early colonies in this country . adhered to the policy of the country to 
which they belonged. By the treaty of September 3, 1783, which ended the Rev- 
olutionary war, all the rights and powers of Great Britain descended to the 
United States. The Articles of Confederation, the first organic law adopted by 
the American Republic, provided that: 

"The United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive 
right and power of regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indi- 
ans not members of any of the/states, provided that the legislative right of any 
state within its own limits be not infringed or violated." 

On March i, 1793, President Washington approved an act to regulate trade 
and intercourse with the Indian tribes, in which it was expressly stipulated "That 
no purchase or grant of lands, or any title or claim thereto, from any Indians, 
or nation or tribe of Indians, within the bounds of the United States, shall be 
of any validity, in law or equity, unless the same be made by a treaty or conven- 
tion entered into pursuant to the constitution." 

The penalty for each violation of this act was a fine of $1,000 and impris- 
onment not exceeding twelve months. With amendments this law remained the 
basis of all relations with the Indians of the country until the passage of the 
act of JNIarch 3, 1871. Cyrus Thomas, of the United States Bureau of Ethnology, 
says: "By the act of March 3, 1871, the legal fiction of recognizing the tribes 
as independent nations, with which the United States could enter into solemn 
treaty, was, after it had continued nearly one hundred years, finally done away 
with. The effect of this act was to bring under the immediate control of the 
Congress the transactions with the Indians and reduce to simple agreements what 
had before been accomplished by solemn treaties." 

The first treaties made by the United .States with the Indian tribes were mere- 
ly treaties of peace and friendship. On .August 3, 1795, a great council was held 
at Greenville, Ohio, at which time the Miami, Pottawatomi and associated tribes 
ceded to the United States certain lands in Indiana and Ohio for military posts 
and roads. This was the first cession of lands made to the United States by 
Indians after the adoption of the Federal Constitution. A little later the Del- 
aware Indians ceded a portion of their domain for settlement by the white 
people. From that time treaty after treaty followed, each extending the white 
man's territory farther to the westward until aliout the middle of the last century, 
when his progress reached the present State of \\'yoming. 


For about twenty-fi\e years after the opening of the Oregon Trail, it was 
used freely by the fur traders. The Indian tribes living within reach of the 
trail found it easier to meet the traders at some point along its course than 
to go to the trading posts on the Missouri River to dispose of their furs. The 
discovery of gold in California in 1849 brought a different class of white men 


into the Indian country. The gold seekers brought no goods to trade and had no 
desire for furs. Almost every day brought a train of ox teams on the way to 
the new gold fields. The emigrants killed the buffaloes indiscriminately, and 
what they did not kill they scared away, leaving the Indians without their cus- 
tomary means of subsistence. This naturally drove the savages to adopt a policy 
of retaliation. It was not long 'until hunters and outriders were killed, stock 
stampeded and emigrant trains attacked. 

On October 13, 1849, Col. D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian aft'airs, 
wrote to the department advising a grand council at Fort Laramie, which 
should be attended by a military force sufficient to awe the Indians into making 
a treaty of peace, and at the same time fix the boundaries of each tribe. The 
council assembled about the first of September, 185 1, and remained in session 
for twenty-three days. Ten thousand Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Assiniboine, 
Crow, Arikara and other Indians gathered at the Fort. The wagon train of sup- 
plies sent by the Government was delayed and the vast assemblage was actually 
in need of provisions. On the 17th Colonel Mitchell succeeded in concluding 
a treaty, thus giving the Indians an opportunity to go out and hunt buffalo for 
food, but very few of them left the council. On the 20th the provision train 
arrived, when the whites and Indians joined in a grand feast. By the terms 
of the treaty the United States agreed to pay the several tribes the sum of 
$50,000 annually for ten years for the right of way for the trail through their 
lands, and each tribe accepted certain boundaries, beyond which they were not 
to stray without the consent of the Government. 

The bounds of the Sioux nation were set forth in the treaty as follows: 
"Commencing at the mouth of the White Earth River, on the Missouri River; 
thence in a southwesterly direction to the forks of the Platte River; thence up 
the north fork of the Platte River to a point known as Red Bute, or where the 
road leaves the river; thence along the range of mountains known as the Black 
Hills to the headwaters of the Heart River; thence down the Heart River to its 
mouth ; thence down the ]\Iissouri River to the place of beginning." 

This tract included only a part of what was afterward recognized as Sioux 
territory. The domain included in the above described boundaries lay chiefly 
in South Dakota and Nebraska, but some years later the Sioux became joint 
claimants with the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne to that portion of Wyoming 
lying north of the Platte and east of the Powder River and Rattlesnake Moun- 

The Arikara, Gros \'entre and ]Mandan tribes were assigned a tract with 
the following boundaries : "Commencing at the mouth of the Heart River ; 
thence up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Yellowstone River; thence up 
the Yellowstone to the mouth of the Powder River; thence in a southeasterly 
direction to the headwaters of the Little Missouri River; thence along the 
Black Hills to the head of the Heart Ri\er ; and thence down the Heart River to 
the place of beginning." 

Only a small portion of this territory ( between the Little Powder and 
Little Missouri rivers) lies in Wyoming. These tribes afterward claimed to 
own a large tract of country on the north side of the Missouri River, which was 
ceded to the United States by the treaty of July 27, 1866. but the treaty was 
never ratified. Relations between them and the Government remained unsettled 


until the executive order of April 12, 1870, when a reservation was assigned 
them on land recognized by the treaty of Fort Laramie, the remainder of said 
territory becoming the property of the United States. 

The Assiniboine country, as fixed by the treaty, is all within the present 
State of Montana, the boundaries being described as follows : "Commencing at 
the mouth of the Yellowstone Ri\er; thence up the Missouri Ri\'er to the mouth 
of the Musselshell Ri\-er ; thence from the mouth of the Musselshell River in 
a southeasterly direction to the headwaters of Big Dry Creek ; thence down that 
creek to where it empties into the Yellowstone River, nearly opposite the mouth 
of the Powder River; and thence down the Yellowstone River to the place of 

The blackfoot country boundaries began "at the mouth of the Musselshell 
River; thence up the ^Missouri River to its source: thence along the main range 
of the Rocky Mountains in a southerly direction to the headwaters of the north- 
ern source of the Yellowstone River; thence down the Yellowstone River to the 
mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek ; thence across to the headwaters of the Mus- 
selshell River; and thence down the Musselshell River to the place of beginning." 

This tract is all in ^lontana except a small triangular piece of land in Yel- 
lowstone National Park, extending southeastward into Lincoln County, Wyo- 
ming. By the treaty of October 17. 1855, which was concluded on the Upper 
Missouri, near the mouth of the Judith River, the Blackfoot domain was made 
a common hunting ground for that tribe, the Flathead and the Nez Perce In- 
dians. ' 

In the treaty the boundaries of the Crow country were described as "Com- 
mencing at the mouth of the Powder River, on the Yellowstone ; thence up the 
Powder River to its source ; thence along the main range of the Black Hills 
and the ^\'ind River ^Mountains to the headwaters of the Yellowstone River; 
thence down the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek ; 
thence to the headwaters of the Musselshell River; thence down the ^Musselshell 
River to its mouth ; thence to the headwaters of Big Dry Creek ; and thence 
to its mouth." 

More than half of this tract is situated within the limits of the present State 
of Wyoming. It concludes all that part of the state lying between the Powder 
and Yellowstone rivers and extending sou.thward to the \\'ind River and Rattle- 
snake Mountains. The counties of Bighorn, Washakie, Park and Hot Springs, 
and the greater part of Sheridan, Johnson and Natrona, the northern part of 
Fremont and the eastern part of Yellowstone National Park are all situated in 
what was once Crow territory. A portion of the tract was ceded to the United 
States by the treaty of Fort Laramie (May 7, 1868), and a reser\ation for the 
tribe was established in Montana. 

The boundaries of the territory assigned to the Southern Arapaho and Chey- 
enne were established and described as follows : "Commencing at the Red Butte, 
or the place where the road leaves the north fork of the Platte River ; thence 
up the said north fork of the Platte River to its source ; thence along the main 
range of the Rocky ^fountains to the headwaters of the Arkansas River ; thence 
down the Arkansas River to the crossing of the Santa Fe Trail; thence in a 
northwesterly direction to the forks of the Platte River; and thence up the 
Platte River to the place of beginning." 


All that part of Wyoming situated south and east of the North Platte River, 
Southwestern Nebraska, a strip about forty miles wide across the western part 
of Kansas to the Arkansas River, and about one-third of the present State of 
Colorado were included in the domain of the Arapaho and Cheyenne. In Wyo- 
ming the counties of Albany and Laramie, all that portion of Carbon east of the 
Platte River, the southeast corner of Natrona, the southwest corner of Con- 
verse, the southern half of Goshen and nearly all of Platte have been erected 
out of this territory, which was ceded to the United States by the treaty of 
Fort Wise, Kansas, which was concluded on February i8, 1861. 

The Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne were allotted the country between the 
Platte and Powder rivers, in what is now Northeastern Wyoming. Their 
domain included the present counties of Crook, Campbell, Weston, Niobrara, the 
northern half of Goshen, the northeast comer of Platte, nearly all of Converse, 
and a narrow strip along the eastern border of Sheridan and Johnson — that 
part of those counties east of the Powder River. A portion of Natrona County 
was also embraced in the domain of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. Some time 
after the treaty of Fort Laramie, the Sioux were permitted by the Cheyenne and 
Arapaho to hunt in their country, and that tribe united with the other two in 
the cession of the region to the United States by agreement on September 26, 1876. 

Gen. William S. Harney called Colonel Mitchell's agreement with the Indi- 
ans a "bread and molasses" treaty, as it promised a great deal to the Indians and 
received practically nothing in return. The tribes failed to keep within their 
respective jurisdictions, nor did they refrain from making attacks upon emi- 
grant trains and stealing their horses and cattle. Hence it was not long until 
other treaties became necessary, especially as a few white people had already 
settled in the West soon after the close of the Civil war and others were looking 
with longing eyes at the broad prairies of that section, where they were anxious 
to obtain homes. 


During the Civil war the Sioux Indians gave the United States authorities 
considerable trouble by their uprising in ^linnesota, and after the war was over 
they showed signs of dissatisfaction and at times threatened to break into open 
hostilities. In the spring of 1868 Gen. W. T. Sherman, Gen. William S. Hamey, 
Gen. Alfred H. Terry, Gen. C. C. Augur, John B. Sanborn, Samuel F. Tappan, 
Nathaniel G. Taylor and J. B. Henderson were appointed commissioners to 
hold a council and negotiate a treaty that would insure peace on the part of the 

The council was held at Fort Laramie and on April 29. 1868, the treaty 
was concluded, ceding to the United States all the Sioux lands within the present 
limits of South Dakota that had been allotted to them by the treaty of Sep- 
tember 17, 1 85 1, and a reservation was set apart for the tribe in South Dakota. 
The country north of the Platte and east of the summit of the Big Horn Moun- 
tains was considered to be unceded and was retained by the Indians as part of 
their hunting grounds. The treaty was signed by the chiefs Red Cloud, Medicine 
Eagle, Black Tiger, Man Afraid of his Horses, and a number of minor chiefs. 



On May 7, 1868, Generals Sherman, Harney, Terry and Augur concluded a 
treaty with the chiefs and head men of the Crow tribe at Fort Laramie, by which 
these Indians ceded the greater part of their lands in Wyoming, allotted to them 
by the treaty of September 17, 1851, and accepted a reservation in :Montana, 
lying between the northern boundary line of Wyoming and the Yellowstone 
River. The remainder of the Crow territory in ^^'yoming was ceded to the 
United States by the agreement of June 12, 1880. 


Three days after the above treaty with the Crow Indians was concluded, 
the same commissioners met the chiefs of the Xorthern Cheyenne and Xorthern 
Arapaho and concluded a treaty by which those tribes relinquished all claims 
to their lands in \\'yoming and agreed to accept a home either with the Southern 
Arapaho and Cheyenne, on their reservation in Colorado, or on the Big Sioux 
reservation in Dakota. They were established on the latter. In 1875 the 
Arapaho, with the consent of the Shoshone, were given a home on the Wind 
River reservation. That portion of Wyoming included in the cession made by 
this treaty, embraces the district between the Platte and Powder rivers, extend- 
ing southwest to the Rattlesnake ]\Iountains. After the Cheyenne and Arapaho 
were quartered on the Sioux reservation they learned that the territory had been 
reserved by that tribe as hunting ground in the treaty of April 29, 1868. Some of 
the Cheyenne and Arapaho then tried to renew their claims, and the tract was 
finally ceded to the United States by all the tribes through the agreement of 
September 26, 1876. 


After negotiating the treaties with the Crow, Cheyenne and Arapaho at Fort 
Laramie in May, 1868, Generals Sherman, Terry, Augur and Harney went to 
Fort Eridger and called a council of the Shoshone and Bannock chiefs. On 
July 3, 1868, the chiefs of the eastern bands of those tribes entered into a 
treaty, in which they agreed to relinquish all claims to their lands in Wyoming 
and accept a reservation bounded as follows: "Commencing at the mouth of 
Owl Creek and running due south to the crest of the divide between the Sweet- 
water and Popo-Agie rivers; thence in a westerly direction along the crest of 
said divide and the summit of the Wind River Mountains to a point due south of 
the mouth of the north fork of the Wind River; thence due north to the mouth 
of said north fork and up its channel to a point twenty miles above its mouth ; 
thence in a straight line to the headwaters of Owl Creek, and along the middle 
channel of Owl Creek to the place of beginning." 

The reservation thus established is known as the "Wind River Reservation." 
The territory ceded included all that part of Wyoming west of the North Platte 
River and south of the Wind River Mountains, extending northward to the 
old Blackfoot boundary in Yellowstone National Park. This cession now em- 
braces the counties of Uinta and Sweetwater, all of Lincoln except a little 


of the northeast corner, that part of Carbon west of the North Platte River, the 
southern part of Fremont and a Httle of the southwest corner of Natrona. 

The treaty was ratified on February i6, 1869, and on the loth of the 
following December, Governor Campbell approved a memorial adopted by the 
first Territorial Legislature of Wyoming, setting forth that "the reservation had 
been occupied by citizens of the United States for mining and agricultural pur- 
poses ; that the mining community known as Hamilton City or 'Miners' Delight,' 
and numerous other gold producing creeks and gulches are within the limits of 
said reservation; that while the occupants were bona fide settlers for a year 
before the conclusion of the treaty their interests had not been consulted in es- 
tablishing the reservation; that the Shoshone and Bannock Indians cannot live 
in peace there, owing to the proximity of their hereditary enemies, the Sioux; 
that no game can be found on or in the immediate vicinity of the reservation," 
etc. The memorial asked Congress to abrogate that provision of the treaty and 
establish a reservation elsewhere, to the end that the lands might be reopened for 
preemption and settlement. 

Congress declined to grant the request and the Indians remained in possession 
of the reservation. On March 3, 1871, President Grant approved the act which 
did away with the custom of making treaties with the Indians, and on Septem- 
ber 26, 1872, an agreement was made with the Shoshone by which they ceded to 
the United States that part of their reservation "south of a line beginning at a 
point on the eastern boundary of the reservation due east of the mouth of the 
Little Popo-Agie at its junction with the Popo-Agie and running from said 
point west to the mouth of the Little Popo-Agie ; thence up the Popo-Agie to the 
north fork and up the north fork to the mouth of the canyon; thence west to 
the western boundary of the reservation." 

The Bannock Indians had no part in this agreement, having previously 
quarreled with the Shoshone and been removed to the Fort Hall reservation in 
Idaho. Subsequent agreements have reduced the Wind River reservation to the 
territory bounded by the \Mnd River on the north ; the lines established by the 
agreement of September 26, 1872, on the south, and the original western bound- 
ary between those two lines on the west. On May 21. 1887, President Cleve- 
land set apart a tract of 1,405 acres "more or less" at the forks of the Little 
Wind River, in tlie Wind River reservation, as a military reserve for Fort 

The treaty of Fort Bridger was the last important treaty made with the 
Indians of Wyoming. Several agreements were made after that time to perfect 
the title of the whites to the land ceded, but possession came with the treaty 
of July 3, 1868. During the half century since that treaty was concluded a 
dififerent Wyoming has come upon the map of the nation. Railroads have taken 
the places of Indian trails ; the school house has supplanted the council wigwam 
of the savage; the howl of the wolf and the war-whoop are no longer heard, but 
in their stead have come the herds of the husbandman and the hum of peaceful 
industry. And all these changes have been made within the memory of persons 
yet living. To tell the story of this development is the province of the subsequent 
chapters of this history. 





The first civilized nation to lay claim to the territory now comprising the 
State of Wyoming was Spain. In 1493, the year following the first voyage of 
Columbus to the Western Hemisphere, the pope granted to the King and Queen 
of Spain "all countries inhabited by infidels." As the x\merican aborigines 
were not Christians in the accepted meaning of the term, they were regarded as 
infidels and the country was made subject to exploitation by the Spanish mon- 
archs. At that time the extent of the continent discovered by Columbus was 
not known, but in a vague way this papal grant included the present State of 


The uncertain grant of the pope to "infidel countries" was strengthened in 
1541-42 by the expedition of Hernando de Soto into the interior of what is 
now the United States. De Soto was born in Spain about four years after 
Columbus made his first voyage of discovery and had been connected with 
some of the early expeditions to Peru, in which service he demonstrated his 
qualifications to command and won the favor of his royal master. In the spring 
of 1538 Charles I, then King of Spain, appointed him governor of Florida and 
Cuba. Acting under orders from King Charles, he left Cuba on May 12. 1339. 
with about one thousand men, for the purpose of exploring the interior of 
Florida, the extent of which was at that time very indefinite. 

Early in June he left the coast and marched in a northwesterly direction. At 
a place called Tascaluza by the survivors of the ill-fated expedition, he met a 
large body of hostile Indians and gave them battle. The fight lasted for several 
hours, when the savages fled, leaving a large number of their warriors dead 
upon the field. The Spanish loss was seventy killed and a number wounded, 
De Soto himself being among the latter. Uike nearly all the early Spanish 
explorers, De Soto's chief object was to discover rich mines of the precious 
metals. After wandering about in the wilderness for several months he came 
to the Mississippi River in the spring of 1541, not far from the present City 
of Memphis, Tennessee. He then made an effort to reach the Spanish settle- 


ments in Mexico, but was stricken with fever, died near the mouth of the Arkan- 
sas River, and was buried in the great stream he had discovered. The remnant 
of the expedition, after many hardships, succeeded in reaching the Gulf coast 
and made a report of their adventures. Upon this report Spain claimed "all the 
territory bordering on the Grande River and the Gulf of Alexico." 


As early as 1611 Jesuit missionaries from the French settlements in Canada 
were among the Indians living along the shores of Lake Michigan and Lake 
Superior. A few years later the King of France granted a charter of the 
"Company of One Hundred" to engage in the fur trade. In 1634 the company 
sent Jean Nicollet as an agent to open up a trade with the Indians. He explored 
the country about the Green Bay, and went as far west as the Fox River, in 
what is now the State of Wisconsin. Nicollet is said to have been the first 
man to make a report upon the region west of the Great Lakes; 

In the fall of 1665 Claude Allouez, one of the most zealous of the Jesuit 
fathers, held a council with representatives of several of the western tribes of In- 
dians at the Chippewa Village on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Allouez 
promised the chiefs of the Chippewa, Sioux, Sac, Fox, Pottawatomi and Illini — the 
tribes represented at the council — the protection of the great French father and 
opened the way for a profitable trade. At this council some of the Illini and 
Sioux chiefs told the missionary of a great river farther to the westward, "called 
by them the Me-sa-sip-pi, which they said no white man had yet seen (these 
Indians knew nothing of De Soto's expedition of more than a century before), 
and along which fur-bearing animals abounded." This was the first definite 
information the French received regarding the great Father of Waters. 

In 1668 Father Allouez and Father Claude Dablon founded the mission of 
St. Mary's, the oldest white settlement within the limits of the present State 
of Michigan. The French authorities in Canada, influenced by the reports 
Nicollet and the missionaries, sent Nicholas Perrot as the accredited agent of 
the French Government to arrange for a grand council with the Indians. The 
council was held at St. Mary's in May, 1671, and friendly relations with the 
tribes inhabiting the country about the Strait of Mackinac were thus established. 
Before the close of that year Jacques ]\Iarquette, another Jesuit missionary, 
founded the mission at Point St. Ignace for the benefit of the Huron Indians. 
For many years this mission was regarded as the key to the great unexplored 
West. Thus little by little the French pushed their way westward toward the 
great ^^lississippi \'alley. 


Father Marquette had heard the reports of the great river to the westward, 
soon after the council at the Chippewa \'illage in 1665. and was filled with a 
desire to discover it, but was deterred from the undertaking until after Perrot's 
council in I\Iay, 1671. Although that council resulted in the establishment of 
friendly relations with the Indians, which would have made an expedition to 
the river possible, other circumstances intervened to delay him for almost two 


vears. In the spring of 1673, having received the necessary authority from the 
Canadian otificials, he began his preparations at Michilimackinac for the voyage. 
It is related that the friendly Indians there tried to dissuade him from the 
project by telling him that the tribes living along the river were cruel and blood- 
thirsty, and that the stream was the abode of terrible monsters that could easily 
swallow a canoe loaded with men. 

These stories had no effect upon the intrepid priest, unless it was to make 
him more determined, and on May 13, 1673, accompanied by Louis Joliet, an 
explorer and trader, with five voyageurs or boatmen and two large canoes, the 
little expedition left Michilimackinac. Passing up the Green Bay to the mouth 
of the Fox River, they ascended that stream to the portage, crossed over to the 
Wisconsin River, down which they floated until June 17, 1673, when their canoes 
shot out upon the broad bosom of the Mississippi. Turning their canoes south- 
ward, they descended the Mississippi, carefully noting the landmarks as they 
went along, until they reached the mouth of the Arkansas. There they met 
with a tribe of Indians whose language they could not understand and decided 
to proceed no further. Retracing their steps, they arrived at the French settle- 
ments about Michilimackinac after an absence of four months, during which 
time they had traveled about two thousand five hundred miles. 

Joliet was a good topographer and he prepared a map of the region through 
which he and Marquette had passed. The map and the reports of the voyage, when 
presented to the Canadian authorities, convinced them that the Mississippi River 
was not a myth, and it was not long until steps were taken to claim the country 
drained by it for France, 

LA S.KLLE's expeditions 

The year following the voyage of Marquette and Joliet, Robert Cavelier, Sieur 
de La Salle, was granted the seigneury of Fort Frontenac, where the City of 
Kingston, Canada, is now situated, and on May 12, 1678, he received from 
Louis XIV, then King of France, a permit to continue the explorations of 
Marquette and Joliet, "find a port for the king's ships in the Gulf of Mexico, 
discover the western parts of New France, and find a way to penetrate Mexico." 

Late in the year 1678 La Salle made his first attempt to reach and descend 
the Mississippi, but it ended in failure, mainly for the reason that his prepara- 
tions had not been made with sufficient care. Affairs at his seigneury then 
claimed his attention for about three years, though he did not relinquish the idea 
of finding and exploring the great river. In December, 1681, he started upon 
his second, and what proved to be his successful expedition. This time he was 
accompanied by his lieutenant, Henri de Tonti ; Jacques de la Metarie, a notary : 
Jean Michel, surgeon of the expedition ; Father Zenobe Membre, a Recollet mis- 
sionary; and "a number of Frenchmen bearing arms." 

It is not necessary to follow this little band of explorers through all its 
vicissitudes and hardships in the dead of winter and a wild, unexplored coun- 
try. Suffice it to say that the river was reached, and was descended to its mouth. 
On April 8, 1682, La Salle and Tonti passed through two of the channels at 
the mouth of the Mississippi leading to the Gulf of Mexico. The next day they 
came together again and La Salle formally took possession of "all the countn,' 


drained by the great river and its tributaries, in the name of France, and con- 
ferred upon the territory thus claimed the name of Louisiana, in honor of the 
French King." 

To the casual reader it may seem that the early French explorations have 
little or nothing to do with the present State of Wyoming. But it should be 
borne in mind that the voyage of Marquette and Joliet opened the way for 
the later voyage of La Salle and his claim to the country 'drained by the Missis- 
sippi, under which all that portion of Wyoming whose waters reach the Mis- 
sissippi became a dependency of France. Spain had made no effort to enforce 
her claim, based upon the discovery of the river by De Soto, and the European 
powers recognized the claim of France, based upon the work of La Salle. In 
1762 France ceded the Province of Louisiana to Spain, which nation retained 
possession until 1800, when it was ceded back to France, and in 1803 it was sold 
by France to the United States, an account of which is given in the next chapter. 
By this sale the greater part of Wyoming became territory of the United States 
and the way was opened for its present status. 


Alexico once owned the territory comprising the present states of California, 
Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, the western part of Colorado and the 
southwest corner of Wyoming. When James K. Polk was inaugurated President 
on March 4, 1845, it soon became the dream of his administration to acquire 
California, though the means by which the dream was to be realized were vincer- 
tain. The territory might be acquired by conquest ; it might be secured by filling 
it with emigrants from the United States, who would bring it into the Union 
as Texas had been annexed ; or it might be possible to win the good will of the 
citizens, who were already chafing under jMexican rule. Early in 1846 John 
C. Fremont's expedition entered the Sacramento Valley and introduced a fourth 
plan for the acquisition of the country. Fremont established an independent 
government, known as the "Bear Flag Republic," under the control of the Ameri- 
can settlers in the valley. When war was declared against Mexico by Congress 
on May 13, 1846, the "Bear Flag" was replaced by the Stars and Stripes. 

The Town of Santa Fe was captured by Col. Stephen W. Kearney, and New 
Mexico was acquired almost without loss of life. By the end of 1846 prac- 
tically all the territory desired by the administration was held by the United 
States military forces, though Mexico still remained unconquered. In the spring 
of 1847 President Polk sent Nicholas P. Trist, a Mrginian and chief clerk in 
the department of state, to Gen. Winfield Scott's headquarters for the purpose 
of entering into negotiations with the Alexican Government for the restoration 
of peace. He was instructed, among other things, to demand the cession of Cali- 
fornia and New Mexico and the recognition of the Rio Grande as the interna- 
tional boundary. On February 2, 1848, Trist succeeded in negotiating the Treaty 
of Guadalupe Hidalgo (a small place on the outskirts of the City of ]\Iexico), 
which embodied these features. All the territory held by Mexico north of the 
Rio Grande was ceded to the United States, Mexico receiving therefor the 
sum of $15,000,000, and the United States further agreed to assume the pay- 


ment of claims held by her citizens against the IMexican Government, provided 
the total amount of such claims did not exceed $3,250,000. 

That part of Wyoming ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo lies south of the forty-second parallel of north latitude and west of the 
line of 107° 30' west longitude. It embraces all of Sweetwater County except 
a strip about eighteen miles wide across the northern part ; the southwest corner 
of Carbon County (that part lying west of 107° 30') ; aU of Uinta County, and 
a tract thirty-six miles wide across the south end of Lincoln County. 


The greater part of Texas was originally included in the Province of Louisi- 
ana. In 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the United States and received in return 
all that part of the Louisiana Purchase included within the limits of Texas, 
which then extended northward to the forty-second parallel. Two years later 
Moses Austin obtained from the Spanish authorities the privilege of establishing 
an American colony in Texas. Mexico, by the revolution which separated her 
from Spain, became independent and succeeded to all the rights of the mother 
country over Texas. On October 4, 1824, the people of Mexico adopted a 
Federal Constitution, under which the Mexican Republic was formed, composed 
of separate states. Texas and Coahuila were united as one of those states and 
adopted a constitution, after the manner of the states of the American Union. 

In 1835 'I military revolution broke out in the City of Mexico, which was 
powerful enough to subvert the federal and state constitutions of the republic 
and establish Gen. ]\Iiguel Barragan as military dictator. At his order the 
Mexican Congress issued a decree converting the states into mere departments 
of a central government The Austin colony soon became a "thorn in the side'' 
of the military dictator. Texas revolted, and on ]\ larch 2, 1836, issued a declara- 
tion of independence, to the efifect that all political connection with Mexico was 
forever ended, and that "the people of Texas do now constitute a free, sovereign 
and independent republic." General Santa Anna, who had succeeded to the 
dictatorship, collected a force and marched into Texas for the purpose of forcing 
the people back to their allegiance. He was defeated at the battle of San Jacinto, 
April 21, 1836, and in May, while held as a prisoner by the Texans, was forced 
to enter into a treaty acknowledging the independence of the Texas Republic, 
with the Rio Grande as the western boundary. 

Previous to this time the United States had made repeated offers to purchase 
the territory forming the Republic of Texas, but they had all been rejected. 
The Constitution of Texas was ratified by the people in September. 1836. and 
Gen. Sam Houston was chosen as president. In the last days of President 
Tyler's administration the people of Texas made overtures for annexation to 
the United States and Congress passed an act giving the assent of the Government 
to the annexation, under certain conditions. On March 10, 1845, the people of 
Texas voted to accept the provisions of the act and Texas became a part of the 
United States. It was admitted into the Union as a state on December 20, 1845. 

By the annexation of Texas, all that part of Carbon County, Wyoming, lying 
east of 107° 30' west longitude and south of the forty-second parallel of north 
latitude, and that part of Albany County south of the forty-second parallel and 


west of 105° 30' west longitude, were annexed to the territory of the United 
States. Originally the dividing line between the territory of Texas and the 
Louisiana Purchase was supposed to be the summit of the Laramie Alountains, 
but in the cession to Spain, by the treaty of 1819, it was fixed at the line of. 
105° 30' west longitude, with which boundary it came back into the United 
States in 1845. 

The British flag was first carried to the coast of Oregon in 1579, by Sir 
Francis Drake. Captain Cook, another English adventurer and explorer, landed 
at and named Nootka Sound (Vancouver Island) in 1778. Upon the voyages 
of Drake and Cook, Great Britain claimed the country along the coast. This 
claim was disputed by the Spaniards in 1789, on the grounds of previous dis- 
covery, but in the end Spain was compelled to yield. In 1793 another expedition 
under Vancouver explored the coast on behalf of England, adding further 
strength to her claim. 

The American claim to the region began in the winter of 1788-89, when 
Capt. Robert Gray and a man named Kendrick passed the winter on the Nootka 
Sound. They had been sent out by some merchants of Boston to investigate 
the possibilities of the fur trade in the Northwest. Captain Gray made a second 
trip to the Pacific coast in 1792, when he ascended the Columbia River for 
several miles. Based upon the discoveries of Gray and Kendrick and the Louisi- 
ana Purchase (the old Spanish claim), the United States laid claim to the 
country. After the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1804-06, this claim was 
extended to "all the country drained by the Columbia River and its branches." 
In 181 1 the claim of the United States received substantial support by the estab- 
lishment of Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia, by the Pacific Fur Company. 

In 1818 a convention of commissioners appointed by the United States and 
Great Britain to fix the international boundary, reported in favor of the forty- 
ninth parallel of latitude from the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the 
Rocky Mountains, thence southward along vthe crest of the divide to the old 
Mexican boundary', and along that boundary to the^'coast. It was also agreed 
that the territory west of the Rocky ^fountains should be open to both the 
United States and Canada for ten years, "without prejudice to the claims of 
either." At the end of the ten years this privilege of joint occupation was 
extended indefinitely by agreement, by a convention held in London on August 
6, 1827. Either government was given the power to abrogate the agreement 
by giving the other twelve months notice. 

In the meantime, by the treaty of 1819, Spain quitclaimed her title to all land 
north of the forty-second parallel to the United States. In the negotiations with 
Russia in 1824-25, that nation agreed to establish no settlements on the Pacific 
coast south of the line of 54° 40' north latitude. During President Tyler's 
administration the controversy over the boundary was reopened when citizens 
of the LTnited States began moving into the disputed territory and establishing 
homesteads. John C. Calhoun, then secretary of state, proposed that the forty- 
ninth parallel should be the boundary line all the way to the Pacific coast, but to 
this the English minister (Pakenham) would not consent. The latter suggested 


the forty-ninth parallel to the Columbia River, and then that river to the coast. 
The agreement with Russia had created the impression in the minds of many 
of the people of the United States that the line of 54" 40' should be the inter- 
national boundary, and in the political campaign of 1S44 th*? democratic party 
adopted as its slogan "Fifty-four forty or fight." 

In April, 1846, Congress authorized the President, "at his discretion," to 
give England notice of the abrogation of the agreement for joint occupation. 
This was done and it led to another convention for the purpose of establishing 
an international boundary. On August 5, 1846, President Polk sent a special 
message to Congress, in which he said: "Herewith I submit a copy of a conven- 
tion for the settlement and adjustment of the Oregon cjuestion, which was con- 
cluded in this city (Washington) on the 15th of June last between the United 
States and Her Britannic Majesty. This convention has since been duly ratified 
by the respective parties and the ratifications were exchanged at London on the 
17th day of July, 1846." 

By this convention the boundary line between the United States and the 
British possessions was established as follows: "The forty-ninth parallel from 
the Lake of the Woods to the middle of the channel which separates A'ancouver 
Island from the continent, and thence southerly through the said channel and 
the Straits of Juan de Fuca to the Pacific Ocean, both nations to have at all times 
free navigation of the said channel and Straits of Juan de Fuca." 

Thus a controversy of long standing was finally settled and the United States 
came into the undisputed possession of a large tract of country west of the Con- 
tinental Di\ide and north of the old Mexican boundary. Included in this tract 
is that part of Wyoming constituting more than three-fourths of the northern 
part of Lincoln county; the southwestern part of Fremont County (all west of 
the divide) : that portion of Sweetwater County lying north of the forty-second 
parallel and west of the divide ; and the southwestern part of the Yellowstone 
National Park. 


On May 30, 1854, that historic piece of legislation known as the "Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill," creating the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, was signed 
by President Franklin Pierce. In section i of the bill the boundaries of Ne- 
braska are thus described: "Beginning at a point on the Missouri River where 
the fortieth parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said 
parallel to the east boundary of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains ; 
thence on said summit northward to the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude ; 
thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the Territory of Minne- 
sota ; thence southward on said boundary to the Missouri River ; thence down 
the main channel of said river to the place of beginning." 

These boundaries included all that part of Wyoming acquired by the Louisi- 
ana Purchase, while that portion west of the Rocky Mountains remained attached 
to the territories of Utah and Oregon. No further changes in boundary lines 
or conditions affecting the territory occurred until 1861, when Congress estab- 
lished the 



When first created, this territory extended from the forty-ninth parallel — the 
international boundary — on the north to the Missouri and Running Water rivers 
on the south, and from the western boundary of the states of Iowa and Minne- 
sota on the east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains on the west. It embraced 
all the present states of North and South Dakota, nearly all of Montana, and 
all that part of Wyoming east of the Rocky Mountains, except a small tract in 
the southeast corner, which still belonged to Nebraska. In the country west of 
the Rocky Mountains no change was made. This arrangement lasted but two 
years, however, when another redistricting of the United States domain in the 
Northwest was made by Congress. 

On March 3, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln approved an act establishing 
the Territory of Idaho. As originally erected, the Territory of Idaho was 
bounded on the north by the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude; on the east 
by the twenty-seventh meridian of longitude west from Washington (the present 
eastern boundary of the State of Wyoming) ; on the south by the forty-second 
parallel of north latitude ; and on the west by the Territory of Oregon. It there- 
fore included all that portion of Wyoming lying north of the old Mexican and 
Texas boundary. South of that line a tract about seventy miles wide and one 
hundred and eighty-five miles long still belonged to Utah, and the southeast 
corner (the present County of Laramie and the greater part of the counties 
of Albany. Carbon, Goshen and Platte) was attached to the Territory of Dakota. 
Five years later another change was made. The Territory of Wyoming was 
established by the act of July 25, 1868, with its present boundaries, and in 1890 
it was admitted into the Union with all the rights of statehood. (See chapters 
XI and XII.) 


The territory now consituting the State of Wyoming was first claimed by 
Spain under the grant of the pope in 1493, as part of the "countries inhabited 
by infidels." That claim was given greater force by the discovery of the Mis- 
sissippi River by De Soto in 1541, but the wisest of Spain's statesmen and geog- 
raphers knew iiot the vast extent of the Mississippi Valley. Hence, while 
nominally included in the Spanish possessions in America, Wyoming remained 
untenanted, save for the wild beast and the roving Indian. The Spanish claim 
to the country east of the Rocky Mountains was superseded in April, 1682, by 
that of France, based on the expedition of La Salle, who gave the territory the 
name of Louisiana. This province was ceded by France to Spain in 1762; 
ceded back to France in 1800; and sold to the United States in 1803. The 
greater portion of Albany and Carbon counties came to the United States through 
the annexation of Texas in 1845. The triangular shaped tract west of the 
Continental Divide and north of the line of forty-two degrees north latitude was 
acquired by the settlement of the Oregon question in 1846, and the southwestern 


part of the state was ceded to the United States by Mexico at the close of the 
Mexican war in 1848. During the next twenty years Wyoming was, in whole 
or in part, under the jurisdiction of Nebraska, Utah, Oregon, Dakota and Idaho. 
In 1868 it was made an organized territory of the United States, and in 1890 
a new star was added to the national constellation representing the sovereign 
State of Wyoming. 

Of all the states of the American Union, none presents as varied a history 
in the matter of jurisdiction as Wyoming. It is the only state composed of terri- 
tory acquired from all four of the principal western annexations. Portions of the 
state were claimed at times by Spain, France and Great Britain, and from the 
earliest record the land has been one of adventure. The mountain ranges afforded 
fruitful fields for the hunter, trapper and Indian trader and invited such men as 
Kit Carson, Jim Bridger, Ashley, Campbell, Sublette, Jim Baker and others, 
whose names are almost as familiar to the student of pioneer history as the names 
of Daniel Boone, Davy Crockett and Gen. Sam Houston. 







In the preceding chapter has been given some account of W'voming under 
different jurisdictions, and the reader may want to understand more fully how 
the territory now comprising the state came to be the property of the United 
States. To make this plain, it is necessary to give an account of one of the 
greatest diplomatic transactions in modern history. It will be remembered that 
under the claim of La Salle, in 1682, all the region drained by the Mississippi 
River and its numerous tributaries, which included practically all of Wyoming, 
became a French possession and remained so for eighty years. At the close 
of the French and Indian war in 1762' France lost every foot of land she pos- 
sessed in the New World, Canada and that part of Louisiana lying east of the 
Mississippi passing into the hands of England, and all her territory west of 
the Mississippi going to Spain. ^ 

By the Treaty of September 3, 1783, which ended the Revolutionary war, the 
western boundary of the United States was fixed at the ^Mississippi River, though 
the mouth of that great stream was wholly within Spanish territory. It was 
not long until the new American Republic became involved in a controversy with 
the Spanish officials of Louisiana over the right to free navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi. The final settlement of this question wnelded an unmistakable influence 
upon the present State of Wyoming. The river constituted the natural outlet 
for the products of a large part of the United States — a section which was rapidly 
increasing in wealth, population and political importance — but the Spanish author- 
ities established posts along the river and every boat descending the stream was 
compelled to land at these posts and submit to arbitrary revenue duties. This 
policy was kept up for several years, to the humiliation of the United States 
trader and a diminution of his profits. Through the influence of Don :Manuel 
Godoy, one of the wisest of the Spanish statesmen of that day. the Treaty of 
Madrid was concluded on October 27, 1795, one article of which stipulated 
"That the Mississippi River, from its source to the gulf, for its entire width, 
shall be free to American trade and commerce, and the people of the United 


States shall be permitted, for three years, to use the Port of Xew Orleans as a 
port of deposit, without payment of duty." 

About that time the French Revolution brought into prominence two of the 
most noted characters in European history — Xapoleon and Talleyrand. These two 
celebrated French diplomats and statesmen, feeling deeply the loss of their 
country's possessions in America, began to dream of rebuilding a colonial empire 
for France, one feature of which was to regain Louisiana. To that end nego- 
tiations were opened with the Spanish Government. Don Carlos I\' was then 
king of Spain, but Channing says : "The actual rulers of Spain were Dona Alaria 
Luisa de Parma, his queen, and Don Manuel Godoy, el Principe de la Paz. which 
title writers of English habitually translate "Prince of Peace.' '' 

Godoy well knew he was not liked by Napoleon and Talleyrand, and when 
they began their overtures for the transfer of Louisiana back to France he re- 
signed from the Spanish ministry, leaving the king withovit his most efficient 
adviser. Godoy and his objections being thus removed. Napoleon and Talleyrand 
offered in exchange for Louisiana "an Italian kingdom of at least one million in- 
habitants for the Duke of Parma, jjrince presumptive, who was at once son-in-law 
and nephew of the ruling monarchs." The offer was accepted, the State of 
Tuscany was chosen, and on October i, 1800, thq secret Treaty of San Ildefonso 
was concluded. So well was the secret guarded that the exchange was not known 
in the United States until nearly eight months later. 

The Treaty of San Ildefonso was confirmed by the Treaty of 3iladrid, which 
was concluded on March 21, 1801, and a copy of which was sent to President 
Jefferson by Rufus King, then the United States minister to England. It reached 
Air. Jefferson on May 26, 1801. L^pon the receipt of the copy of the treaty, Presi- 
dent Jeft'erson wrote to James Alonroe : "There is considerable reason to ap- 
prehend that Spain cedes Louisiana and the Floridas to France. To my mind this 
policy is very unwise for both France and Spain, and very ominous to us." 

In August following Robert R. Livingston went to France as the United 
States minister to that country. Immediately upon his arrival in Paris he asked 
Talleyrand, then the French prime minister, if the Province of Louisiana had 
been retroceded to France. Talleyrand denied that such was the case, and in one 
sense he was justified in making the denial, as the Treaty of Madrid was not 
signed by the Spanish king until in October, 1802. 

For more than twelve months after President Jefferson received the copy 
of the Treaty of Aladrid sent by Mr. King, his administration was kept in a 
state of uncertainty regarding the status of Louisiana and the navigation of the 
Mississippi River. On April 18, 1802, the President wrote a long letter to Mr. 
Livingston, in Paris, in which he said the American people w^ere anxiously watch- 
ing France's movements with regard to Louisiana, and set forth the situation as 
follows: I. The natural feeling of the American people for the French nation 
was one of friendship. 2. Whatever nation held New Orleans and controlled the 
lower course of the Mississippi became the natural and habitual enemy of Ameri- 
can progress, and therefore the enemy of the American people. 3. Spain had 
shown that she was well disposed toward the United States and as long as she 
remained in possession of those advantages the citizens of this country would be 
satisfied with conditions. 4. On the other hand, France possessed an energy 


and restlessness of character which would be the cause of constant friction 
between that country and the United States. He closed his letter by saying : 

"The day that France takes possession of New Orleans fixes the sentence 
which is to restrain her forever within her low water mark. It seals the union 
of two nations who in conjunction can maintain exclusive possession of the 
ocean. From that moment we must marry oursehes to the British fleet and 
nation. * * * The first cannon which shall be fired in Europe will be the 
signal for tearing up any settlement she may have made, and for holding the 
two continents of America in sequestration for the common purpose of the united 
British and American nations." 

I\Ir. Jefiferson did not desire an alliance with England, but greatly feared 
that the possession of Louisiana by France might drive the United States to adopt 
such a course. In November, 1S02, news reached Washington that the Spanish 
authorities at New Orleans had suddenly and unexpectedly withdrawn the right 
of deposit at that port, as originally conceded by the treaty of Madrid. Imme- 
diately the country — particularly the new settlements in the Mississippi and 
Ohio valleys — was ablaze with indignation. The federalists, Jefferson's politi- 
cal opponents, used all possible means to force the administration into a policy 
that would give them a political advantage, but their ettorts in this direction 
proved futile. Says Channing: "Never in all his long and varied career did 
Jefferson's foxlike discretion stand him in better stead. Instead of following 
public clamor, he calmly formulated a policy and carried it through to a most 
successful termination." 

In his message to the Congress which assembled in December, 1802, the Pres- 
ident said that the change in the ownership of Louisiana would necessarily 
make a change in our foreign relations, but did not intimate what the nature 
of the change was to be. On January 13, 1803, he wrote to Monroe that the 
federalists were trying to force the United States into war, in order to get into 
power. About the same time he wrote to Mr. Livingston that if France con- 
sidered Louisiana indispensable to her interests, she might still be willing to cede 
to the United States the Island of Orleans, upon which stands the City of New 
Orleans, and the Floridas. Or, if unwilling to cede the island, she might be in- 
duced to grant the right of deposit at New Orleans and the free navigation of the 
Mississippi, as it had been under the Spanish regime, and instructed him to 
open negotiations to that end. 

A few days later, believing that the cession could probably be best accom- 
pHshed by sending a man direct from the United States for that purpose, the 
President selected James Monroe to act as minister plenipotentiary, to co- 
operate with Mr. Livingston. The Senate promptly confirmed ^h. Monroe's 
nomination and placed the sum of $2,000,000 at the disposal of him and Mr. 
Livingston to pay for the island. It may be well to note, in this connection, 
that the success of Livingston and Monroe in their negotiations was doubtless 
aided in a great measure by a letter written by M. Pichon, the French minister 
to the L'nited States, to Talleyrand. In this letter Pichon advised the French 
prime minister that the people of the United States were thoroughly aroused 
over the suspension of the right of deposit, and that the President might be 
forced by public opinion to yield to a British alliance. 

W'rt between France and England had just been renewed, and Napoleon, re- 


alizing the superior strength of the British navy, saw that it would be a diffi- 
cult matter to hold Louisiana in the face of an alliance between that nation 
and the 'United States. A force under General \'ictor was ready to start for 
New Orleans, but when Xapoleon learned that an English fleet was lying in 
wait for its departure he countermanded the order for General Victor to sail. 

In the meantime Mr. Livingston had been trying to hasten the negotiations 
that would bring about the cession of the Island of Orleans and West Florida, 
believing that the Floridas were included in the Treaty of San Ildefonso. On April 
II, 1803, Napoleon placed the entire matter of the cession of the island in the 
hands of the [Marquis de Marbois, minister of the French treasury, and the same 
day Talleyrand startled JMr. Livingston by asking if the United States would not 
like to own the entire province of Louisiana. Livingston replied in the nega- 
tive, but Talleyrand explained that Louisiana would be worth nothing to France 
without the City and Island of New Orleans, and insisted that Livingston 
should make an offer for the entire province. Another conference was held on 
the morning of the 12th, and that afternoon Monroe arrived in Paris. That 
evening a long consultation was held by the two American envoys, Mr. Living- 
ston informing Mr. Monroe of all that had been done, and the result was it was 
decided that Mr. Livingston should conduct all further negotiations. 

Several days were then spent in discussing terms for the purchase of the 
whole territory of Louisiana, Marbois at first asking 125,000,000 francs for 
the province, though it was afterward learned that Napoleon had instructed him 
to accept 50,000,000 rather than to permit the deal to fail. The price finally 
agreed upon was 80,000,000 francs, of which 60,000,000 were to go directly to the 
French treasury and the remainder was to be used in settling the claims of 
American citizens against the French Government. The terms having been 
agreed upon, the next step was to embody them in a formal treaty. As this 
agreement gave to the United States a territory of nearly nine hundred thousand 
square miles, in which was included the greater part of the State of A\'yoming, 
it is here given in full. It is known as 


"The President of the United States of America and the First Consul of the 
French Republic, in the name of the French people, desiring to remove all sources 
of misunderstanding relative to objects of discussion mentioned in the second 
and fifth articles of the convention of the 8th Vendemaire, an 9 (30 September, 
1800), relative to the rights claimed by the United States, in virtue of the treaty 
concluded at Madrid, the 27th of October, 1795, between his Catholic majesty 
and the said United States, and willing to strengthen the union and friendship 
which at the time of said convention was happily reestablished between two 
nations, have respectfully named their plenipotentiaries, to wit : The President 
of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate of said states, Robert R. Livingston, minister plenipotentiary of the United 
States, and James Monroe, minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary' of 
the said states, near the Government of the French Republic; and the First 
Consul, in the name of the French people, the French citizen, Barbe Marbois, 


minister of the public treasury, who, after having respectfully exchanged their 
full powers, have agreed to the following articles: 

"Article I — Whereas, by the article the third of the treaty concluded at St. 
Ildefonso, the 9th Vendemaire an 9 (October i, 1800), between the First Consul 
of the French Republic and his Catholic majesty, it was agreed as follows: His 
Catholic majesty promises and engages on his part to retrocede to the French 
Republic, six months after the full and entire execution of the conditions and 
stipulations herein realtive to his royal highness, the duke of Parma, the colony 
or province of Louisiana, with the same extent that it now has in the hands of 
Spain, and that it had when France possessed it; and such as it should be after 
the treaties subsequently entered into between Spain and other states, and 

"\Miereas, in pursuance of the treaty, particularly of the third article, the 
French Republic has an incontestible title to the domain and possession of said 
territory; the First Consul of the French Republic, desiring to give to the United 
States a strong proof of his friendship, doth hereby cede to the United States, 
in the name of the French Republic, forever, in full sovereignty, the said terri- 
tory, with all its rights and appurtenances, as fully and in the same manner as 
they have been acquired by the French Republic in virtue of the above mentioned 
treaty, concluded with his Catholic majesty. 

"Article H — In the cession made by the preceding article, are included the 
adjacent islands belonging to Louisiana, all public lots and squares, vacant lands, 
and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not 
private property. The archives, papers and documents relative to the domain 
and sovereignty of Louisiana and its dependencies will be left in the possession 
of the commissioners of the United States, and copies will be afterward given 
in due form to the magistrates and municipal officers of such of said papers 
and documents as may be necessary to them. 

"Article III — The inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in 
the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible, according to the 
principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights, ad- 
vantages and immunities of citizens of the United States ; and in the meantime 
they shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, 
property and the religion which they profess. 

"Article IV — There shall be sent by the Government of France a commissary 
to Louisiana, to the end that he do every act necessary, as well to receive from 
the officers of his Catholic majesty the said country and its dependencies in the 
name of the French Republic, if it has not already been done, as to transmit it in 
the name of the French Republic to the commissary or agent of the United States. 
"Article ^' — Immediately after the ratification of the present treaty by the 
President of the United States, and in the case that of the First Consul shall 
have been previously obtained, the commissary of the French Republic shall 
remit all the military posts of New Orleans and other posts of the ceded territory, 
to the commissar}' or commissaries named by the President of the United States 
to take possession : the troops, whether of France or Spain, who may be there, 
shall cease to occupy any military posts from the time of taking possession, and 
shall be embarked as soon as possible, in the course of three months after the 
ratification of this treaty. 

"Article VI — The United States promises to execute such treaties and articles 


as may have been agreed between Spain and the tribes and nations of Indians, 
until Jjy mutual consent of the United States and the said tribes or nations, other 
suitable articles shall have been agreed upon. 

"Article VII — As it is reciprocally advantageous to the commerce of France 
and the United States to encourage the communication of both nations, for a 
limited tin>e, in the country ceded by the present treaty, until general arrangements 
relative to the commerce of both nations may be agreed upon, it has been agreed 
between the contracting parties, that the French ships coming directly from 
France or any of her colonies, loaded only with the produce of France or her said 
colonies, and the ships of Spain coming directly from Spain or any of her colonies, 
loaded only with the produce or manufactures of Spain or her colonies, shall be 
admitted during the space of twelve years, in the ports of New Orleans, and all 
other ports of entry within the ceded territory, in the same manner as the ships 
of the United States coming directly from France or Spain, or any of their colonies, 
without being subject to any other or greater duty on merchandise, or other or 
greater tonnage than those paid by the citizens of the United States. 

"During the space of time above mentioned, no other nation shall have a 
right to the same privileges in the ports of the ceded territory ; the twelve years 
shall commence three months after the exchange of ratifications, if it shall take 
place in France, or three months after it shall have been notified at Paris to the 
French Government, if it shall take place in the United States ; it is, however, 
well understood, that the object of this article is to favor the manufacturers, com- 
merce, freight and navigation of France and Spain, so far as relates to the 
importations that the French and Spanish shall make into the ports of the United 
States, without in any sort affecting the regulations that the United States may 
make concerning the exportation of the produce and merchandise of the United 
States, or any right they may have to make such regulations. 

"Article A'lII — In future, and forever after the expiration of the twelve 
years, the ships of France shall be treated upon the footing of the most favored 
nations in the ports above mentioned. 

"Article IX — The particular convention signed this day by the respective 
ministers, having for its objects to provide for the payment of debts due to the 
citizens of the United States by the French Republic prior to the 30th day of 
September, 1800 (8th Vendemaire 9). is approved and to have its execution in the 
same manner as if it had been inserted in the present treaty, and it shall be 
ratified in the same form and at the same time, so that the one shall not be ratified 
distinct from the other. 

"Another particular convention signed at the same date as the present treaty, 
relative to a definite rule between the contracting parties, is in like manner ap- 
proved and will be ratified in the same form and at the same time, and jointly. 

"Article X — The present treaty shall be ratified in good and due form, and the 
ratification shall be exchanged in the space of six months after the date of the 
signatures of the ministers plenipotentiary, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, 
the respective plenipotentiaries have signed these articles in the French and 
Engli-h languages, declaring nevertheless that the present treaty was originally 
agreed to in the French language ; and have thereunto set their seals. 


"Done at Paris, the tenth day of Floreal, in the eleventh year of the French 
Repubhc, and the 30th April, 1803. 

"Robert R. Li\'ingston (L.S.) 
"James Monroe (L.S.) 
"Barre Marp.ois (L.S.)" 

The "particular conventions'' referred to in the ninth article of the treaty 
related to the manner in which the debts due the citizens of this country should 
be discharged, and the creation of a stock by the United States Government of 
i?i 1,250,000, bearing interest at the rate of 6 per cent per annum, payable semi- 
annually in I'aris, London or Amsterdam. The original cost of the entire territory 
ceded by the treaty was about three cents an acre, but McMaster says: "L'p 
to June 20, 1880, the total cost of Louisiana was $27,267,621." 

Livingston and Monroe's original instructions were to obtain by purchase or 
otiierwise the Island of Orleans and the free navigation of the Mississippi. In 
concluding a treaty involving the purchase of the entire province, there is no 
question that they exceeded their authority, and for a time President Jei¥erson 
took the view that an amendment to the Federal Constitution (an "act of in- 
demnity'' he called it ) would be necessary in order to legalize the transaction, but 
when he saw the acquiescence of the American people was so nearly universal 
he abandoned the idea. On October 17, 1803, he sent to Congress a message re- 
lating to the purchase, in which he said : 

"The enlightened Government of France saw, with just discernment, the im- 
portance to both nations of such liberal arrangement as might best and permanently 
promote the peace, interests and friendship of both ; and the property and 
sovereignty of all Louisiana, which had been restored to them, have, on certain 
conditions, been transferred to the United States by instruments bearing date the 
5Cth of April last. "VMien these shall have received the constitutional sanction of 
the Senate, they will be communicated to the representatives for the exercise of 
their functions, as to those conditions which are within the powers vested by the 
Constitution in Congress." 

Congress lost no time in ratifying the treaty. On October 20th, three days 
after the President's message on the subject was delivered, the Senate gave its 
sanction to the treaty, with all the conditions it imposed, and five days later it was 
ratified by the House. On the last day of the month the President approved 
measures providing for the creation of the stock of $11,250,000 for the payment of 
the province, and authorizing him to "take possession of Louisiana and form 
a temporary government therein." In accordance with the latter act and Article 
I\^ of the treaty, President Jefferson appointed Gen. James Wilkinson and 
William C. C. Claiborne, governor of Mississippi, commissioners to receive the 
transfer of Louisiana from Pierre Laussat, the French commissary. The formal 
transfer of the province from Spain to France and from France to the L^nited 
States was made at New Orleans on December 20, 1803, when the Stars and 
Stripes were raised for the first time in token of sovereignty over the territory 
west of the Mississippi River. Thus the domain of the United States was ex- 
tended westward to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and the eastern three- 
fourths of W'yoming became a part of the territory of the American Republic. 
Out of the province acquired by the Treaty of Paris have been erected the fol- 


lowing states : Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Minnesota, North and South Dakota, nearly all of Montana, about one-third of 
Colorado, and three-fourths of Wyoming. 


Although the transfer of Louisiana to the United States was made on De- 
cember 20, 1803, the actual government of the upper or northern part of the 
province, which included Wyoming, did not begin until March 10, 1804. On that 
day ^laj. Amos Stoddard of the United States army assumed the duties of 
governor of Upper Louisiana at St. Louis. In his "Historical Sketches of Louisi- 
ana," JMajor Stoddard says : 

"The ceremony of the transfer (from Spain to France) occurred between the 
hours of II A. M. and 12 M., March 9, 1804. The Spanish flag was lowered 
and the standard of France was run up in its place. The people, although 
conscious that the sovereignty of France was being resumed but for a moment and 
simply as a necessary formality in the final transfer, nevertheless could not 
restrain their joy at seeing float over them once more the standard which even 
forty years of the mild sway of Spain had not estranged from their memory. So 
deep was the feeling that, when the customary hour came for lowering the flag, 
the people besought me to let it remain up all night. The request was granted 
and the flag of France floated until the next morning over the city from which it 
was about to be withdrawn forever. At the appointed time on the next day, 
"March 10, 1804, the ceremony of transfer from France to the L'nited States was 
enacted. The flag of the French Republic was withdrawn and the Stars and 
Stripes waved for the first time in the future metropolis of the \'alley of the 
^li^sissippi. Thus St. Louis became perhaps the only city in history which has 
seen the flags of three nations float over it in token of sovereignty within the 
space of twenty-four hours." 


On March 26. 1804. President Jefiferson approved an act of Congress dividing 
Louisiana into two parts, viz : The Territory of Louisiana and the District of 
I-ouisiana. The former embraced what is now the State of Louisiana and the latter 
included all the remainder of the purchase. Under the provisions of the act the 
District of Louisiana was made subject to the territorial government of Indiana 
of which Gen. William H. Harrison was then governor. Some historians state 
that by this act all of Copper Louisiana (which included Wyoming) was made 
a part of the Territory of Indiana. This is a mistake. The act merely regarded 
the District of Louisiana as unorganized territory and attached it to Indiana for 
judicial purposes, etc. 

About a year later a new arrangement was made. By the act of Alarch 3. 
1805. the name of the District of Louisiana was changed to the Territory of 
Louisiana, and the President was authorized to appoint a governor, secretary 
and two judges therefor. Pursuant to this act President Jefl^'erson appointed Gen. 
James A\'ilkinson as governor; Frederick Bates, secretary; Return J. Meigs and 
John B. C. Lucas, judges. St. Louis was named as the seat of government. No 


Legislature was provided for in the act, but the above named officials were em- 
powered to make such laws as they might deem necessary for the government of 
the territory. In the performance of this duty their task was not an arduous one, 
as outside of the City of St. Louis and its immediate vicinity there were no white 
inhabitants for whom legislation was necessary, consequently but few laws were 
made and those were of the simplest character. 

On [une 4, 181 2, President Madison approved the act creating the Territory 
of ^Missouri, which was cut out of the old District of Louisiana. By the act of 
March 2, 1819, the Territory of Arkansas was cut off. One by one other terri- 
tories were erected, and these were afterward admitted as states, until the original 
purchase now embraces twelve of the largest states in the Union. In any one of 
these states the assessed valuation of property far exceeds the sum paid for the 
Province of Louisiana. 











When the continent of North America was first discovered by Europeans, that 
portion of it lying above the thirty-sixth parallel of north latitude was the richest 
and inost extensive field in the world for collecting fine furs. The Indians used 
the skins of some of the fur-bearing animals for clothing, or in the construction 
of their wigwams, unaware of the fact that such skins were of almost fabulous 
value in the European capitals. When the white man came he brought new 
^\ar.t^ to the savage — wants that could be more easily satisfied by exchanging furs 
for the white man's goods than in any other way. The fur trade therefore became 
an inportant factor in the conquest and settlement of Canada and the great North- 
west. Lahontan, a French writer, in his "New \'oyages," published in 1703, says; 
"Canada subsists only upon the trade in skins, three-fourths of which come from 
the people around the Great Lakes." 

The French were the pioneers in the fur trade. Long before the above wa^ 
vv-ritten by Lahontan, they were trading with the Indians in the X'alley of the 
St. Lawrence River, with Montreal as the principal market for their peltries. 
From the St. Lawrence country they gradually worked their way westward, 
forming treaties of friendship with the new Indian tribes they met, crossed the 
low portages to the Alississippi \'alley and from there by way of the Missouri 
River to the Rocky Mountains. The first white men in Wyoming were the fur 
traders and trappers. In the development of the traffic three plans were pursued. 
First, and most popular, was the plan of trading with the Indians, giving goods 
for furs ; second, by organizing companies which sent hunters and trappers into 
the districts where fur-bearing animals were plentiful ; and, third, by free hunters 
and trappers who worked on their own account and sold their furs in the most 
profitable market. The first plan was the most profitable, because the Indians 
knew little or nothing of the actual value of their furs, or the goods which they 
received in exchange, and unscrupulous traders were not slow to take advantage 
of their ignorance. The plan adopted b)- the fur companies was more in the 


nature of a permanent business, but yielded less profits in proportion to the 
amount of capital invested. 

The language of the free traders and trappers was a strange medley of 
English, French, Spanish and Indian dialect. Their costume was fashioned after 
that of the Indian — buckskin hunting shirt and leggings — as being better adapted 
to the rough ways of the wilderness and therefore more serviceable than clothing 
brought from the "States." The trapper's outfit consisted of a number of traps, 
a short-handled ax, a hunting knife, a horse and saddle, a few simple cooking 
utensils, a small stock of provisions (often only a sack of flour and a little salt) 
and the inevitable rifle. If he followed the streams, a canoe took the place of the 
horse. His dwelling was a rude hut on the bank of some creek or river, but he 
often slept at night in the open, with a bufifalo robe for a bed, a pack of peltries for 
a pillow, and the canopy of heaven as his only shelter. 

The free trader was a similar character, except in the nature of his outfit, 
which consisted of a small stock of trinkets, bright colored cloth, etc., which he 
exchanged with the Indians for their furs. They went where they pleased, were 
generally well received by the Indians, and traded with all whom they met until 
their stock of goods was exhausted. Sometimes the free trapper and trader 
carried their furs to St. Louis, which city was for many years the center of the fur 
trade, or they were sold to the agent of one of the great fur companies at some 
trading post. In the latter case they realized less profit, but they saved the time 
and labor of going all the way to St. Louis. 

Scarcely had the United States come into the possession of Louisiana, when 
a desire arose on the part of many of the citizens to know more of the new acqui- 
sition. Hardy, adventurous spirits began to penetrate the remote interior, im- 
patient to learn more of its resources and possibilities. The greatest attraction, 
and for many years the only one. it offered in a commercial way was its wealth 
in furs. Hence the roving trapper and trader were the first to venture into the 
great, unexplored West, where the foot of the white man had never before pressed 
the soil, bringing back with him the products of his traps or the profits of his 
traffic with the natives. In fact, these trappers and traders were operating in 
Louisiana while it was still a Spanish possession. As early as 1795 a Scotchman 
named McKay had a trading post known as Fort Charles on the west bank of the 
Missouri River, a few miles above the present city of Omaha, Nebraska. In 
1804 Lewis and Clark met trappers returning from the Kansas A'alley with a 
raft loaded with furs, and on their return in September, 1806, they met several 
small parties wending their way into the heart of the wilderness the explorers had 
just left. Says Chittenden : 

'Tt was the trader and trapper who first explored and established the routes 
of travel which are now, and always will be, the avenues of commerce. They 
were the 'pathfinders' of the \\'est and not those later official explorers whom pos- 
terity so recognizes. No feature of western geography was ever 'discovered' 
by Government explorers after 1840. Everything was already known and had 
been known for a decade. It is true that many features, like the Yellowstone 
wonderland, with which these restless rovers were familiar, were afterward for- 
gotten and were rediscovered in later years ; but there has never been a time until 
very recently when the geography of the West was so thoroughly understood as 
it was by the trader and trapper from 1830 to 1840." 


Brigham Young's selection of the Salt Lake \'alley as a home for the Mormons 
was largely due to the information lie received from trappers and traders who had 
visited that region. Emigration to the Pacific coast passed over trails that were 
first tra\ersed by the trappers and traders. They acted as guides to Government 
expeditions, and the influence of the Santa Fe Trail and trade made an easy con- 
quest of the Southwest at the time of the [Mexican war. True, they carried 
corrupting vices and certain infectious diseases to the Indian, but they also carried 
to him his first lessons in the life he was to lead in his contact with the white man. 
;\Iany of the trappers married Indian women, learned the Indian language, lived 
according to Indian customs, and treated the red man as a brother except when 
business rivalry compelled them to adopt a different course. Says A. F. Chamber- 
lain, of Clark University : "The method of the great fur companies, which had no 
dreams of empire over a solid white population, rather favored amalgamation with 
the Indians as the best means of exploiting the country in a material way. Mani- 
toba. Minnesota and Wisconsin owe much of their early development to the 
trader and the mixed-blood." 

\\'hat is true of ^lanitoba, Minnesota and Wisconsin is also true to a greater 
or less degree of every northwestern state. The fur trade as carried on by the 
French was conducted by individuals or firms, some of whom were operating in 
the country about the Great Lakes as early as the middle of the Seventeenth 
Century. The English were not far behind the French, and they were the first 
to organize and equip one of the great fur companies mentioned by Professor 

XHii Hudson's u.w cgmp.anv 

On Alay 2, 1670, this company was granted a charter by the English authorities 
and it was the first of the great trading associations. It was given absolute 
proprietorship over a region of indefinite extent, with greater privileges than any 
English corporation had ever received up to that time. Its agents or factors were 
mostly English and Scotch, though a few Frenchmen entered its employ. As the 
name of the company indicates, its principal field of operation was in the country 
about Hudson's Bay, though it gradually extended its trade farther to the westward 
and for many years it was the leading power in the trade with the Indians. This 
great monopoly was opposed by the French traders and the Canadian authorities, 
who claimed much of the territory included in the company's charter. There 
is no positive proof that the agents of the Hudson's Bay Company ever traded 
in what is now the State of \^^•oming, though some writers state that its trappers 
were at one time operating in the valley about the Great Salt Lake. 


The Treaty of Paris in 1763, which ended the French and Indian war, left the 
English in undisputed possession of North America, except that portion west of 
the Mississippi River and extending to the Pacific coast. During that war the 
French fur trade suffered greatly and at the close of the war the greater portion 
of the trade in the country about Lake Superior and farther to the west was con- 
trolled by some Scotch merchants of ^Montreal. These merchants took steps to 


revive the trade and by 1780 it had reached a considerable volume. In their 
competition with the Hudson's Bay Company they had learned the advantages of 
cooperation, which induced them to organize the Xorth-West Company in the 
winter of 1783-84. Alexander McKenzie, one of the leading members of the 
company, made extensive explorations west of the Mississippi and in 1793 reached 
the Columbia \'alley on the Pacific slope. 

In 1801 this McKenzie, Simon McTavish and a few others seceded from the 
company and organized the new North-West Company (widely known as the 
"XY Company"), which in a short time became a formidable rival of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. This rivalry was made still more formidable in 1804, when 
McTavish died and a coalition was formed between the old and new North-West 
companies. In October, 1814, the company bought the trading posts of the 
American Fur Company at Astoria. About this time the relations between the 
Xorth-West and Hudson's Bay companies grew more strained than ever before, 
owing to the fact that in 181 1 the former had granted to the Earl of Selkirk 
a large tract of land in the Red River Valley, between the United States boundary 
and Lake Winnipeg, one of the most profitable trapping fields of the Xorth-^^'est 
Company. In 181 6 actual war broke out between the trappers and the Selkirk 
colonists, in v/hich li\-es were lost on both sides, though the latter were the 
greatest sufiferers. Three years of litigation then followed, in which over half 
a million dollars were expended, and in 1819 the question of the rights of the 
two companies came before the British Parliament. While it was pending the 
matter was settled by the consolidation of the two companies, a remedy that 
had been proposed by Ale.xander McKenzie twenty years before. 


On April 6, 1808, John Jacob Astor was granted a charter by the State of 
Now York under the name of the American Fur Company, with liberal powers to 
engage in the fur trade with the Indians. Astor began business as a fur dealer in 
Montreal in 1784. After the purchase of Louisiana by the United States, he was 
quick to see the advantages offered for engagin'g in the fur trade in the new 
purchase and removed to X'ew York. The charter has been called a "pleasing 
fiction," as Mr. Astor was in reality the company, the charter merely giving him 
the power to conduct his business along lines similar to those of the other great 
fur companies. It was not long, however, until the American Fur Company con- 
trolled by far the larger part of the fur trade of the Upper Missouri Valley and 
the Northwest. When a free trader could not be driven from the country by open 
competition, Mr. Astor would buy him out and then give him a lucrative position 
as agent or factor. By this method he associated with him such experienced traders 
as Ramsay Crooks, Robert McLellan, Duncan McDougall, Alexander McKay, 
Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Kenneth McKenzie, \Mlliam Laidlaw, Alexander Culbert- 
son, David Mitchell, John P. Cabanne, Daniel Lamont, Lucien Fontenelle, Andrew 
Drips. Joseph Robidoux, Thomas L. and Peter A. Sarpy, and a number of others, 
all of whom were well known to the Indians in the region where the company 

For the Northwest trade Mr. Astor adopted the name of the Pacific Fur 
Company, which Chittenden says was "in reality only the American Fur Company 


with a specific name applied to a specific locality." Articles of agreement for 
this company were entered into on June 2^, 18 10, though active work was not 
commenced until the following spring. Besides Mr. Astor, the active members 
of the Pacific Fur Company were : Wilson P. Hunt, Donald McKenzie, Joseph 
A'liller, David and Robert Stuart, and John Clarke, all experienced in the fur 
trade. Ramsay Crooks and Robert McLellan had been free traders before becom- 
ing associated with the Astor interests, having established a post on the Missouri 
River, near the mouth of the Platte, as early as 1807. 

Next to Mr. Astor himself, Ramsay Crooks was the strongest man in the 
American Fur Company. He was born in Greenock, Scotland. January 2, 1787, 
and came to America when about sixteen years of age. For several years he was 
employed by Alontreal fur traders. Next he was a plerk in the trading house of 
Robert Dickson at Mackinaw, and from there he went to St. Louis, where he 
met Robert McLellan and in 1807 formed the partnership with him, which lasted 
until both joined the American Fur Company. When the company established its 
western department, with headquarters at St. Louis, in 1822. Mr. Crooks was 
the virtual head of that department for twelve years. In 1834 he purchased the 
northern department and became president. He continued in the fur trade until 
the profits grew so small that there was no inducement to remain in it longer. 


In order that the reader may better understand the history of the American 
Fur Company, it is necessary to go back a few years and note the conditions of 
the fur trade about St. Louis and along the Missouri River. One of the first 
to engage in the trade in this section, after Louisiana became the property of 
the United States, was Manuel Lisa, who was born in Cuba in September, 1772, 
but came with his Spanish parents to New Orleans in his childhood. About 1790 
he went up the Mississippi River to St. Louis, where he entered the employ of some 
fur traders, learning the business in all its details. Ten years later he obtained 
from the Spanish authorities of Louisiana the exclusive right to trade with the 
Osage Indians living along the Osage River. For some twenty years this trade had 
been controlled by the Chouteaus. but Lisa understood the Indian character and 
quickly won the Osage to his side. In i8c2 he organized a company to trade in 
competition with the Chouteaus in other sections of the country, but the members 
could not agree and it was soon disbanded. Lisa then formed the firm of Lisa, 
Menard & Morrison, composed of himself, Pierre Menard and William Morrison, 
for the purpose of trading with the Indians on the Upper Missouri River. In 
1807 he ascended the Missouri to the mouth of the Big Horn River, where he 
established a trading post. The next year he returned to St. Louis and was the 
moving spirit in the formation of the Missouri Fur Company. He continued in 
the fur trade until a short time before his death on August 12, 1820. 


In the spring of 1808 Manuel Lisa and th^ other fur traders of St. Louis ^aw 
that if they were to compete successfully with the British traders of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, the French and Scotch representatives of the North-West Com- 


pany, and the newly organized America Fur Company, some system of cooperation 
was necessary. The resuh was the formation of the St. Louis Missouri Fur 
Company in August, 1808, though the "St. Louis" part of the name was dropped 
soon after the company commenced business. The original members of the com- 
pany were Manuel Lisa, Benjamin Wilkinson, Pierre and Auguste Chouteau, 
Reuben Lewis, William Clark and Sylvester Labadie, of St. Louis ; Pierre Menard 
and William Morrison, of Kaskaskia ; Andrew Henry, of Louisiana, Mo. ; and 
Dennis Fitz Hugh, of Louisville, Ky. 

The original capital stock of the company was only $17,000, a sum entirely 
insufficient for successful competition with the larger companies, a fact that the 
projectors were to learn at some cost a few years later. The company succeeded 
to the business of Lisa, Menard & Morrison and began trading with the Indians 
of the Upper Missouri country, with Lisa's post at the mouth of the Big Horn as 
the center of operations. It did not take Lisa long to ascertain that the trade 
in this section was not likely to be as profitable as had been anticipated and at 
his suggestion the company withdrew the posts on the upper river and concen- 
trated the trade at Fort Lisa. This post was established in 181 1. It was located 
a few miles above the present City of Omaha and commanded the trade of the 
Omaha, Otoe, Pawnee and other Indian tribes. From the time of its establishment 
until about 1823 it was the most important trading post on the Missouri River. 

On January 24, 1812, the company was reorganized and the capital stock was 
•increased to $40,000. A few weeks later another increase was made in the capital 
stock to $50,000. At that time Mr. Astor tried to purchase an interest, but was 
denied the privilege. Another reorganization was effected in 1819, with Manuel 
Lisa as president and the following stockholders : Joshua Pilcher, Andrew Drips, 
Robert Jones, John B. Zenoni, Andrew Woods, Joseph Perkins and Moses Carson. 
With the exception of Lisa not one of the original founders remained in the 
company, and Lisa, Pilcher and Drips were the only ones who had any experience 
in the Indian trade. When Lisa died in 1820, Pilcher became the head of the 
company, which continued in business until 1830, when it was disbanded. 

hunt's expedition 

Immediately after the organization of the Pacific Fur Company in June, 1810, 
Mr. Astor planned two expeditions to the Pacific coast. One of these, under 
the leadership of David and Robert Stuart, Alexander McKay and Donald Mc- 
Kenzie, was to go on the ship Tonquin around Cape Horn with men and materials 
for establishing a settlement at the mouth of the Columbia River. As this expe- 
dition has nothing to do with the history of Wyoming, it is not deemed necessary 
to follow its movements. 

The other expedition, under Wilson Price Hunt, was to go by land up the 
Missouri River, following the route of Lewis and Clark over the Rocky Moun- 
tains until it reached the sources of the Columbia River. One of the principal 
objects of this expedition was to select sites for trading posts. Hunt reached 
St. Louis on September 3, 1810, and began his preparations. Later in the 
autumn he left that city with three boats, but upon reaching the mouth of the 
Nodaway River, near the northwest corner of the State of Missouri, the season 
being far advanced, he decided to go into winter quarters. Here another boat 


was added during the winter and early in the spring of 1811 the expedition, con- 
sisting of sixty men, started up the Missouri. 

In the meantime the Missouri Fur Company was watching Hunt's movements 
and nineteen days after he broke camp at the mouth of the Nodaway, Manuel 
Lisa set out from St. Charles, ostensibly to find Andrew Henry and bring back 
the winter's collection of furs, but really to keep an eye on Hunt and see that he 
established no trading posts in the territory claimed by the Missouri Fur Com- 
pany. Lisa had a long keel boat — one of the best on the Missouri River — twenty- 
six picked men, well armed, and a swivel gun in the bow of his boat. He gained 
steadily on Hunt and upon reaching Council Blufi:'s was near enough to send a 
messenger to the latter asking him to wait, as it would be safer for the two expe- 
ditions to pass through the Indian country together. Hunt sent back word that 
he would wait, but instead of doing so pushed forward with all possible speed. 
Lisa also redoubled his efforts and overtook Hunt on June 2, 181 1, a short distance 
above the mouth of the Niobrara River. In this race Lisa broke all previous 
records for keel boat navigation on the Missouri River, having averaged over 
eighteen miles a day for sixty days. After overtaking Hunt, the two traveled to- 
gether through the Sioux country, arriving at the Ankara villages, not far from 
the present City of Pierre, S. D., on the 12th of June, where they parted company. 

Hunt's original plan was to ascend the Yellowstone River, but upon leaving 
the Arikara villages on June 18, 181 1, he altered his course to avoid the Blackfeet 
Indians and traveled in a southwesterly direction. About the first of August 
he struck the Little Powder River and crossed the northern boundary of the 
present State of Wyoming. From this point it is difficult to trace his course, but 
from the best authorities available it is believed he moved westward through 
what are now Campbell and Johnson counties and arrived at the Big Horn 
Mountains almost due west of the City of Buffalo. Here he turned southward, 
seeking a pass through the mountains, until he reached the middle fork of the 
Powder River. Ascending this stream to its source, he found a way through the 
range and struck the headwaters of the No Wood Creek. Following this creek 
to its junction with the Big Horn River, he ascended the latter until he came to 
the Wind River, near the present Village of Riverton in Fremont County. 

Considerable speculation has been indulged in regarding the movements of the 
expedition. It is reasonable to believe, however, that Hunt knew the general 
direction he wanted to pursue to reach the sources of the Columbia River, and, 
finding the Wind River coming from the northwest, decided to ascend that 
stream. There are abundant evidences that the party encamped for a short time 
near the present Village of Dubois, in the northwestern part of Fremont County. 
Then passing through the Wind River Range he struck the upper reaches of the 
Green River, where he halted for several days to take advantage of the excellent 
pasturage for his horses and procure a supply of dried buffalo meat. Crossing 
over to the Snake River he followed down that stream for some distance, then 
turned northward and finally reached the post known as Fort Henry, which had 
been established by Andrew Henry, on Henry's Fork of the Snake River the year 
before. At this point Hunt made the mistake of abandoning his horses and under- 
taking the remainder of his journey in canoes. After struggling with the difficul- 
ties of mountain river navigation, dodging rocks and shooting rapids, for a 
distance of 340 miles, the canoes were discarded and the journey was continued on 


foot. Un the last day of January, 1812, the party arrived at the Falls of the 
Columbia and on the 15th of February reached Astoria, having spent six months 
in a wilderness never before explored by white men. 


On June 29, 1812, a party of about sixty men left Astoria for the purpose of 
establishing trading posts in the Indian country. On the 28th of July Robert 
Stuart, Ramsay Crooks, Robert McLellan, Benjamin Jones, Andri Vallar and 
Francis Le Clerc separated from the main party in the Walla Walla Valley and 
set out for St. Louis, from which place they intended to go to New York. They 
followed in the main the course of Hunt's expedition. While passing up the 
Snake River they met John Hoback, Joseph Miller, Jacob Rezner and a man named 
Robinson, who had been dropped from Hunt's party the year before and had been 
engaged in trapping along the Beaver River. These four men reported that they 
had taken a large quantity of furs, but that they had been robbed only a short 
time before by a party of Arapaho Indians, losing not only the furs they had 
accumulated, but also their stock of provisions. They were provided with food 
and a new outfit and remained in the wilderness, where they passed the remainder 
of their lives. Whether they were killed by Indians or died natural deaths is not 
known, but they were never again seen by white men. 

On the first of October, Stuart and his party arrived at the tlrand Tetons, 
which they called the "Pilot Knobs," this name having been given to them by Hunt 
the preceding year. Here Robert McLellan left the others and went on alone. 
On October nth the party came upon his trail and the next day found him on a 
tributary of the Green River, sick, exhausted and without food. About this 
time Ramsay Crooks also fell ill. The condition of McLellan and Crooks necessi- 
tated a delay of several days, during which time the supply of provisions ran 
out. Le Clerc suggested that they cast lots to see which one should be 
killed to provide food for the others, but Robert Stuart threatened "to blow his 
brains out" if he persisted in advocating such a course. Not long after this one 
of the men killed a buffalo and the starving men had a feast. A few days later 
they came upon a camp of friendly Snake Indians, who furnished them with a 
supply of provisions sufficient for five days, and also sold them an old horse to 
carry their food and camp outfit. 

From the Snake Indians Stuart learned something of the direction he was to 
pursue and on the 26th the party reached the Sweetwater River. Here Ben Jones 
was fortunate enough to trap a beaver and kill two Inifl'alo bulls, which provided 
an addition to their food supplv. Passing on down the Sweetwater, three more 
buffaloes were killed, and on the 30th they came to the North Platte River, but 
as the streatn at this point flows in a northeasterly direction they failed to recognize 
it. They thought it was the Cheyenne, the Niobrara, or some other stream, and 
after following it for a day or two decided they had lost their way. This un- 
certainty as to their whereabouts, and the fact that winter was approaching, 
decided them to go into winter quarters. On November 2, 18 1 2, they began the 
construction of a cabin "upon a fine bend of the river with a beautiful wooded 
bottom, which afforded protection against storms, with abundant promise of 


This cabin, which stood opposite the mouth of Poison Spider Creek, about 
twelve miles above the City of Casper, is believed to have been the tirst house 
built by white men in the present State of Wyoming. As soon as it was finished 
the men turned their attention to providing a supply of meat to last them through 
the winter, and within a few days over thirty but^aloes were killed. About a 
month later a party of Arapaho Indians on a war expedition against the Crow 
tribe visited the cabin. They made no hostile demonstrations, but lingered in the 
neighborhood for two days, during which time they managed to get the greater 
portion of the buffalo meat. As soon as they were gone, Ramsay and Crooks 
advised moving on to some place farther away from the Arapaho country. The 
advice was accepted and on December 13th the partv left the cabin and proceeded 
on down the Platte. 

Two weeks later, after having traveled a distance they estimated at over 
three hundred miles, they encountered a severe snow storm which made walking 
laborious. They were now out of the timber and knew they were on the Platte 
River, but the season was too far advanced for them to reach St. Louis. They 
therefore retraced their steps for about seventy-five miles and established a second 
winter camp. This cam]) was not far from the present Town of Haig, Xeb. 
While located here they occu])ied their time in hunting and making canoes, in- 
tending to continue their journey by water as soon as the ice was out of the 

On March <S, 1813, they launched their canoes, but had not gone many miles 
until they found the sandbars in the Platte River too numerous for safe and easy 
navigation and the canoes were abandoned. When they reached Grand Island 
they were entertained for a few days at an Otoe Indian village, where they met two 
traders — Dornin and Roi — from St. Louis, from whom they learned that the 
United States was at war with England. Dornin provided the Astorians with a 
large boat made of elk skin stretched on a pole frame, with which they were 
able to navigate the Platte, and without further mishap or adventure they arrived 
at St. Louis on the last day of April, 1813. 


The Rocky Mountain Fur Company began with the following advertisement, 
which appeared in the Missouri Republican of St. Louis on March 20, 1822: 

"To ExTERPRisiNG YouNc. Men : — The subscriber wishes to engage one 
hundred young men to ascend the Missouri River to its source, there to be em- 
ployed for one, two or three years. For particulars enquire of Major Andrew 
Henry, near the lead mines in the County of Washington, who will ascend with 
and command the party, or of the subscriber, near St. Louis. 

"WiLLi.xM H. .Ashley." 

\\'illiam Henry .Ashley, the founder of the company, was born in Powhatan 
County, Virginia, in 1778. He came to St. Louis in 1802, but his early career in 
that city is not well known, further than that he was engaged for some time in 
the real e.state business and about the time of the War of 1812 was a manufacturer 
of gunpowder. He was next interested in mining operations, where he formed 
the acquaintance of Andrew Henry, with whom he afterward was associated 
in the fur trade. Mr. .Ashley was active in the organization and development of 


the Missouri militia. In 1813 he was commissioned a captain; was promoted to 
colonel in 1819, and in 1822 was made major-general. He was the first lieutenant- 
governor of Missouri, when the state was admitted into the Union in 1820, and in 
1824 was defeated for governor. In 183 1 he was elected to Congress to fill the 
unexpired term of Spencer Pettis, who was killed in a duel on August 27, 1831, 
with Thomas Biddle, and was afterward twice reelected. General Ashley died 
at St. Louis on March 26, 1838. 

Andrew Henry, the other active organizer of the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany, was a native of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and was about three years 
older than General Ashley. He went west before the United States purchased 
the Province of Louisiana and in 1808 he was one of the organizers of the Missouri 
Fur Company. Two years later he was engaged in a fight with the Black feet 
Indians at the Three Forks of the Missouri. He then crossed the divide and 
built Fort Henry on the stream that is still known as the Henry Fork of the 
Snake River. It is quite probable that his account of his adventures as a fur 
trader influenced General Ashley to engage in the trade. Major Henry died on 
January 10, 1832. 

Ashley and Henry both received license on April 11, 1822, to trade on the 
Upper Missouri. By that time the one hundred young men advertised for some 
three weeks before had been engaged, and on the 15th the "Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company,"' which was the name adopted by Ashley, sent its first expedition up the 
Missouri River. It was accompanied by General Ashley as far as the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, where a trading post was established. The next year he accompanied 
another expedition up the river to the Arikara villages, and that summer a post 
was established at the mouth of the Big Horn. 

In 1824 Ashley led a company to the Green River Valley and the next spring he 
made the first attempt ever made by a white man to navigate that stream. From 
the beginning the Rocky Mountain Fur Company was prosperous and in five 
years its founders accumulated a fortune. By 1824 the "Ashley Beaver" became 
widely known among fur dealers as the finest skins in the market. During the 
summer of 1825 Ashley explored a large part of the states of Colorado and LItah 
and established a trading post on LItah Lake. By that time the company had almost 
abandoned the Upper Missouri trade and was operating chiefly in what are now the 
states of Wyoming, Utah and Colorado. 


On July 18, 1826, Ashley and Henry sold out to Jedediah S. Smith, David E. 
Jackson and William L. Sublette, who had been associated with the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company from the beginning, and who continued the business 
under the old name. Although Jedediah S. Smith was really^ the promoter of 
the new firm, William L. Sublette soon became the controlling spirit. He 
was one of four brothers — Andrew, Solomon P., Milton G. and William L. — of 
Kentucky stock and all engaged in the fur trade. Andrew, William L. and Mil- 
ton G. answered Ashley's advertisement in the spring of 1822 and became asso- 
ciated with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company from the time of its organization 
Andrew was killed by the Black feet Indians in 1828, Milton died at Fort Laramie 
on December 19, 1836, after two amputations of his leg on account of an injury. 


and William L. died at Pittsburgh on July 21,, 1845, while on his way to Wash- 
ington, after having accumulated a fortune in the fur trade. 

On August 22, 1826, "Jed" Smith, as he was commonly called, set out with 
his rifle and Bible to explore Southwestern Utah and Colorado, going from there 
to California. Sublette and Jackson divided their employees into several small 
companies, led by Robert Campbell, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Moses Harris, James 
Bridger and James Beckwourth. Three of these men — Campbell, Bridger and 
Beck\!i'Ourth — are deserving of more than pasing mention, on account of the 
prominent part each took in the work of the fur companies and the development 
of the Great West. 

Robert Campbell was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, in 1804 and came to St. 
Louis when he was not quite twenty years of age. In 1825 he experienced some 
trouble with his lungs and decided to go to the mountains. He therefore joined 
Ashley's men and within twelve months had completely regained his health. Major 
Henry once remarked that "Bob Campbell takes to the Indian trade lika a young 
duck takes to the water," which must have been true, as he became one of the 
lieutenants of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company before he had been with it two 
years. After returning to St. Louis he became one of the city's leading busi- 
ness men ; was president of the old State Bank, which was afterward reorganized 
as the Merchants National Bank, of which he was also president for several 
years ; was United States commissioner to negotiate several treaties with the 
Indians, and was influential in many ways in promoting the industrial interests of 
St. Louis. He died in that city on October 16, 1879, aged seventy-five years. 

James Bridger, who has been called the "Daniel Boone of the West," was 
born in Richmond, Virginia, March 17, 1804, and went to St. Louis when he 
was eight years old. At the age of thirteen he was apprenticed to a blacksmith, 
which occupation he followed until he joined General Ashley's trappers in 
1822. He quickly developed into a skilful trapper, learned the Indian customs 
just as quickly, was a dead shot with the rifle, paid more attention to the 
geography of the country than did most of the others, all of which had a tendency 
to increase General Ashley's confidence in him, and the two men became firm 

Bridger had very little book learning, but he completed the course of study 
in the broader school of Nature. Army ofiicers and Government explorers always 
found him reliable as a guide and he probably knew more of the West in his 
day than any other living man. For several years after the firm of Smith. 
Jackson & Sublette was dissolved he was associated with Benito Vasquez in 
trapping for the American Fur Company. In 1843 he built Fort Bridger, in 
what is now LTinta County, Wyoming, and continued trapping for several years. 
In 1856 he bought a farm near Kansas City, Mo., and expressed his inten- 
tion to settle down and pass the remainder of his life in quiet pursuits. But 
the "call of the wild" was too strong, and, although more than fifty years of 
age. he was soon back at Fort Laramie. He was then employed by the United 
States Government as guide, which occupation he continued to follow until he 
grew too old to stand the hardships of plains life, when he retired to his farm 
and died there on July 17, 188 1. 

James Beckwourth, one of Ashley's first company, came to the mountains in 
1822. He was born in Fredericksburg, Va., in April, 1798. He was always 


fond of boasting that his father had been a major in the Revolutionary war, 
but of his mother he said little, because she was a negro slave. When Ashley 
sold out to Smith, Jackson & Sublette, Beckwourth went with the new company. 
Thomas Fitzpatrick sent him to open up a trade with the Blackfoot Indians, which 
up to that time had not been a success, but Beckwourth married a daughter of 
the chief and for some time did a thriving business with the tribe in consequence. 
He then joined the Crow nation and was made a chief. Some of tlie trappers 
charged him with instigating the Indians to steal the traps, furs and horses of 
the fur companies, but he always claimed that he was innocent of the charge. 

While living with the Crow Indians he had about a dozen wives. When 
Fremont passed through the Platte Valley in 1842, he found at Chabonard's 
ranch a Spanish woman who claimed to be the wife of Jim Beckwourth. After 
several years with the Crow nation, Beckwourth went to California, where he 
opened a hotel. His house was suspected of being the headquarters of a band 
of horse thieves and he was compelled to leave California to save his life. Return- 
ing to Wyoming, he remained there a short time and then went to Denver, where 
he engaged in the mercantile business, built a good house and married the 
daughter of a negro washerwoman. He never took the trouble to contradict 
the report of his numerous marriages. About 1867 he visited the Crow tribe, 
where he was given a cordial reception and a great feast. When the Indians 
learned that it was his intention to go back to Denver, they poisoned him rather 
than have him again desert them. Beckwourth was given to magnifying his 
exploits, and one of his biographers speaks of him as the "Baron Alunchausen 
of the Plains." Notwithstanding this and other faults, he was a brave man. a 
successful trapper, knew the country well and was a reliable guide, in which 
capacity he was frequently employed. 

In 1827 the firm of Smith, Jackson & Sublette, or the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, had about four hundred men engaged in trapping in Wyoming, North- 
em Colorado and Utah. This year the rendezvous was at the mouth of Horse 
Creek, near the line between Lincoln and Fremont counties, in Wyoming. Jed 
Smith returned to the Pacific coast, Sublette remained in the country until fall, 
when he went to St. Louis to dispose of the season's furs and obtain a new 
supply of goods, and Jackson spent the winter in the valley south of Yellow- 
stone National Park. When Sublette found him there in the spring of 1828, 
he named the valley "Jackson's Hole," and the lake there he called "Jackson's 
Lake," in honor of his partner. These names still apply to the locality. 

The rendezvous of 1829 was near the mouth of the Popo-Agie River. This 
year the supplies for the trappers and goods for the Indian trade were brought 
to the rendezvous in wagons drawn by mules. These were the first wagons 
ever brought to Wyoming. They came up the Platte and Sweetwater valleys, 
and returned to St. Louis loaded with furs. 

On .August 4, 1830, Smith. Jackson & Sublette sold out to a new company 
composed of Milton G. Sublette, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Henry Fraeb. Jean Bap- 
tiste Gervais and James Bridger, who continued the business under the old name 
of Rocky Mountain Fur Company. The old partners then engaged in the Santa 
Fe trade until Jed Smith was killed by the Indians in Southwestern Kansas in 
1831. Jackson then formed a partnership with David E. Waldo and went to 
California, and William L. Sublette went to St. Louis, where for some time he 



furnished the suppHes to the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and marketed 
their furs. 

The Rocky Mountain Fur Company came to an end in 1834. The next year 
Thomas Fitzpatrick, Milton G. Sublette and James Bridger formed a partner- 
ship, bought the post that had been built by Sublette & Campbell on the Laramie 
River, and entered the service of the American Fur Company. This firm was 
dissolved by the death of Milton G. Sublette in 1836. Bridger, Fitzpatrick, Henry 
Fraeb and Benito \'asquez then associated themselves in the fur trade and con- 
tinued in business together for several years. Associated with them as an 
employee was the well known scout, trapper and guide, James Baker. 

Jim Baker, as he was familiarly called, was born at Belleville, 111., Decem- 
ber 18, 1818. When he was about twenty years of age he joined a company 
of ninety recruits for the American Fur Company and came to Wyoming. The 
rendezvous that year (1838) was at the mouth of the Popo-Agie River. Baker's 
first trip as a trapper was up the Big Wind River to Jackson's Hole. After nine 
years with the American Fur Company he entered the employ of Bridger, Fitz- 
patrick, Vasquez & Fraeb, with whom he remained until the firm wound up 
its affairs. He was in Wyoming during the cold winter of 1845-46, when many 
of the wild animals froze to death. In 1857 he was guide to Colonel Johnston's 
Utah expedition, and later was chief of scouts under Gen. William S. Harney. 
In 1859 he built a home on Clear Creek, near Denver, where he lived until 1873, 
when he removed to a farm near Dixon, Wyo., in the southwestern part 
of Carbon County. His death occurred there in the spring of 1898, he having 
passed sixty years upon the western frontier. 

By the act of February 13, 1917, the Wyoming Legislature appropriated the 
sum of $750 to remove the "Jim Baker cabin" from section 13, township 12, 
range 90, in Carbon County, to a suitable site at or near Cheyenne, where it 
might be preserved as "a relic of public interest." Later in the same year the 
cabin was taken down, the logs carefully numbered and moved to Cheyenne, 
where the cabin was rebuilt exactly in its original form in the grounds of 
Frontier Park, near the main entrance, where it stands as an interesting monu- 
ment to the memory of the brave old frontiersman. 


When the Hudson's Bay and North-West companies were consolidated in 
182 1, a number of employees were dropped from each force. One of these 
was Joseph Renville, an experienced trader, who invited a number of the best 
men thus discharged to join him in forming a new company. Among those 
who accepted the invitation were Kenneth McKenzie and Williarn Laidlaw. The 
result was the organization of the Columbia Fur Company, with Kenneth Mc- 
Kenzie as president. This company established its headquarters on Lake 
Traverse, in what is now the State of Minnesota, and in a short time became a 
strong competitor of the older companies. Under the act of Congress, approved 
on April 29. 1816, foreigners were not permitted to engage in the fur trade 
within the limits of the United States, chiefly for the reason that they were 
accustomed to sell liquor to the Indians in exchange for furs. The Columbia 
Company, which was composed chiefly of foreigners, evaded this law by per- 


suading Daniel Lamont and other citizens of the United States to become stock- 
holders. These citizens acted as a subsidiary company under the name of "Tilton 
& Company.'' Their agents visited the upper Missouri and Yellowstone valleys, 
and possibly operated to some extent in Wyoming. In July, 1827, the Columbia 
Company was merged with the American Fur Company, Laidlaw, McKenzie 
and others going with the latter. 


This company was organized early in the Nineteenth Century by Fraser, 
Dickson, Cameron and Roulette, for the purpose of trading with the Indians 
about the Great Lakes. Gradually it extended its field of operations westward, 
and at the time the Hudson's Bay and North- West companies were united it 
was firmly established in the country west of the Great Lakes as far as the 
Mississippi River. Not long after that Astor and certain former members of 
the North-West Company purchased the interests of the Mackinaw Company 
and changed the name to the Southwest Fur Company. The object in changing 
the name was to make it correspond with the section to which it was intended 
to extend the trade, but when an effort was made to engage in the trade in 
Wyoming, Colorado and LTtah. Ashley and others were found to be so firmly 
entrenched that the project was given up and the Southwest Company was 


One of the earliest (perhaps the first) trading establishments within the limits 
of the present State of Wyoming was located near the junction of the north and 
south forks of the Powder River, in the southern part of Johnson County. 
Capt. W. F. Raynolds, who explored this part of the country in 1859-60, with 
Jim Bridger as guide, gives the following account of this post in his report : 
"On September 26, 1859, after a ride of about fifteen miles, we came to the 
ruins of some old trading posts known as the 'Portuguese Houses,' from the 
fact that many years ago they were erected by a Portuguese trader named 
Antonio Mateo. They are now badly dilapidated and only one side of the pickets 
remains standing. These, however, are of hewn logs, and from their character 
it is evident that the structures were originally very strongly built. Bridger 
recounted a tradition that at one time this post was besieged by the Sioux for 
forty days, resisting successfully to the last, alike, the strength and the ingenuity 
of their assaults, and the appearance of the ruins renders the story not only 
credible, but also probable." 

Fort William, so named for ^Villiam L. Sublette, was built at the confluence 
of the Platte and Laramie rivers by the firm of Smith, Jackson & Sublette in 
1834. The following year it was sold to Fitzpatrick, Sublette & Bridger, and 
after the death of Milton G. Sublette became a post of the American Fur Com- 
pany. This was the first trading post in Wyoming built by a citizen of the United 

Fraeb's Post, established about 1837 or 1838, was built by Henry Fraeb and 
James Bridger on St. Vrain's fork of the Elkhead River, a short distance west 


of the ^ledicine Bow Mountains. Fraeb was killed by Sioux Indians in August, 
1841, and the post was soon afterward abandoned. At the time Fraeb was 
killed the post was attacked by a large war party of Sioux. In the action the 
Indians lost ten killed and a number wounded, and the whites lost five. The post 
stood almost on the line between Wyoming and Colorado. 

Fort John, a post of the American Fur Company, was built not far from Fort 
William in 1839 and was named for John B. Sarpy, an agent of the company. 
The name was subsequently changed to Fort Laramie. The post was abandoned 
and the buildings demolished about 1846. 

Fort Platte, situated on the right bank of the Platte River, on the tongue 
of land between that stream and the Laramie River, was built about 1840. Two 
years later, when Fremont passed through Wyoming on his way to the Rocky 
Mountains, he mentioned this fort in his report as a post of Sabille. .\dams & 
Company. A year later it passed into the hands of Pratt, Cabanne & Company 
and a few years later was torn down. 

Fort Bridger, one of the best known and most enduring of the early posts, 
was built by James Bridger and Benito Vasquez in the fall of 1843. On Decem- 
ber 10, 1843, Bridger wrote to Pierre Chouteau, Jr., at St. Louis, ordering 
certain goods for the Indian and emigrant trade, and in the letter said : 

"I have established a small fort with a blacksmith shop and a supply of 
iron in the road of the emigrants, on Black's Fork of the Green River, which 
promises fairl}'. They, in coming out, are generally well supplied with money, 
but by the time they get here are in want of all kinds of suppHes. Horses, pro- 
visions, smith work, etc., bring ready cash from them, and should I receive the 
goods hereby ordered I will do a considerable business in that way with them. 
The same establishment trades with the Indians in the neighborhood, who have 
mostly a good number of beaver among them." 

Bridger evidently received the goods, as he remained at the fort for several 
years after that time, and the post became a landmark to guide emigrants on 
their way westward. The fort afterward became a military post of the L'nited 

Fort Davy Crockett and Fort LTintah, just across the line in Colorado, were 
posts that commanded a goodly share of the Wyoming fur trade, and Fort 
Bonneville, near the headwaters of the Green River, was another early post, 
but it was abandoned almost as soon as it was completed. x\n account of it 
will be found in the chapter on Explorers and Explorations. 








In an earlier chapter of this work reference is made to the early European 
explorations in America, and the conflicting claims to territory that arose, based 
upon the discoveries made by these explorers. Most of these early Europeans 
confined their efforts to the lands along the Atlantic coast, though at least two 
Spanish expeditions penetrated far into the interior about the middle of the Six- 
teenth Century. One of these was the expedition of Hernando de Soto, who 
discovered the Mississippi River in the spring of 1541, an account of which is 
given in the previous chapter mentioned, and almost contemporary with it was 
an expedition from Mexico, led by Francisco \'asquez de Coronado. Neither 
of these expeditions touched what is now the State of Wyoming, but they exerted 
an influence upon subsequent events, in that they gave the first information con- 
cerning the interior of the American continent. 


The leader of this expedition, a native of Salamanca, Spain, was appointed 
governor of New Gallicia. one of the northern provinces of Mexico, about I533 
or 1534. He has been described as "cold and cruel, ambitious, and always look- 
ing for an opportunity to distinguish himself and win favor with his royal 
master." .Such an opportunity came to him shortly after he had been appointed 
governor, when four men reached the City of Mexico, after having spent some 
time in wandering among the Sierra Madre Mountains and the sandy plains 
farther to the northward. One of these four, called Estevan or "Stephen the 
Moor." gave a circumstantial account of an expedition of some four hundred 
men which left Florida eight years before, but had been reduced by hardships, 
toil and captivity among the natives to the four men who had at last escaped 
and found their way to the Spanish settlements in ^Mexico. This Estevan also 
told of opulent cities, known as the "Seven cities of Cibola."' of which he had 
heard frequent mention while among the Indians, but which he had never seen. 


In these reports Coronado saw a chance to win fame and establish himself 
more firmly at court. He sent out a small expedition under Father Marcos de 
Niza, a Franciscan friar, to reconnoiter the seven cities, Estevan actmg as guide. 
The Moor, with a few men, went on in advance and afterward claimed to have 
reached the cities before the friar and the main body had covered half the dis- 
tance. Incited by that avarice which was a distinguishing characteristic of the 
early Spanish explorers in America, Estevan and his companions proceeded to 
plunder the houses and killed some of the natives who refused to give up their 
property. The entire population then took up arms against the invaders, with 
the result that the Moor and his associates were compelled to abandon their loot 
and beat a hasty retreat. 

Upon meeting Father de Niza, they told him of what had happened and 
advised him to proceed no farther. From this point accounts of the expedition 
differ. The friar, doubtless for the purpose of retaining the good will of the 
governor, reported that he went on until he came to an eminence, from which 
he could see plainly the cities of Cibola, the lofty houses, the abundant evidences 
of the great wealth of the inhabitants, etc., but some of the private soldiers who 
accompanied him reported that he turned back in great fright. In the light 
of subsequent events, the latter report seems to be the most plausible. 

Coronado, however, did not abandon the idea of leading an expedition to 
the fabled cities and appropriating their great wealth. Accordingly, in the 
spring of 1540, with 300 Spanish soldiers and 800 natives, he left new Gallicia 
and took up his march for the seven cities. Three accounts of the expedition 
were afterward published — one by Coronado himself, one by his Heutenant, Jara- 
millo, and the third by a private soldier named Castaneda. While the reports 
do not harmonize in many essential particulars, all agree that they reached the 
cities of which they had heard so much and found only seven insignificant native 
villages, with no lofty buildings, no gold and silver, no jewels. Some writers 
have attempted to show that the cities of Cibola were located northeast of Zuni. 
N. M., and that the Zuni ruins are the remains of the cities of which Coronado 
was in search. It is also asserted by some that a detachment of Coronado's 
troops under Lopez de Cardenas, discovered the grand canyon of the Colorado 
in August, 1540. 

Fearing the ridicule of his friends if he returned to New Gallicia empty- 
handed, Coronado asked the natives of the villages if there were not other cities 
within reach that it might be profitable to visit. Glad of the opportunity to rid 
themselves of the Spaniards, they told him of a rich province about one hundred 
leagues to the eastward. To this province Coronado led his followers, only to 
meet with another disappointment. True, he found some Indian villages, but the 
inhabitants were no more opulent than those he had just left. In his chagrin 
he made war upon the natives of these villages and practically annihilated their 
dwellings. Castaneda's account says they spent the winter at this place, which 
he calls Cicuye, and which archaeologists have located in the Pecos Valley, not 
far from the present Town of Puerto de Luna. 


While the expedition was at Cicuye an Indian, who claimed to be a prisoner, 
came to Coronado with an air of great mystery and gave a glowing account of 


a country called Quivira, some three hundred leagues farther to the northeast, 
in which there was a great river, nearly three leagues wide, with fish in it as 
large as horses. He said the ruler of this country was an old man named Tar- 
tarrax, quite wealthy, who worshiped the image of a woman and a cross of gold, 
and who prayed by means of a string of beads. He told his story in an impres- 
sive manner and proposed to Coronado that if the Spaniards would connive his 
escape he would guide them to this rich province. The offer was accepted and 
on May 5, 1541, the expedition left the Pecos Valley for the realm of Tartarrax. 

The Spaniards called their Indian guide "the Turk," because of some real 
or fancied resemblance to that people. Some of the more observing members 
of the expedition noticed that when they met some wandering party of Indians 
on the plains, if the guide was the first to talk to them, they confirmed his story 
of Quivira, but if the white men were the first to question them they knew 
nothing of such a province. This has led to the theory that the Turk was not 
a prisoner at Cicuye, but that his story was concocted for the purpose of luring 
the Spaniards away from that place, the guide being a member of the tribe 
who was willing to sacrifice his life, if need be, for the safety and comfort of 
his people. His life was sacrificed, for when Coronado reached the conclusion 
that the guide had deceived him he ordered the Indian to be hanged. Just before 
his death the Turk insisted that the cities to which he was guiding the expedition 
were "just a little farther on." 

A great deal of speculation has been indulged in regarding the location of 
Quivira. In his own report, Coronado says he went as far north as the fortieth 
degree of north latitude. If he was correct in his estimate, the northern limit of 
his travels was somewhere near the boundary line between Kansas and Nebraska. 
Attempts have been made to show that Quivira was somewhere near the head 
of the Gulf of California, and several places in Colorado claim the honor. Some 
think that the ruins called "Gran Quivira,'' in New Mexico, mark the site of the 
mythical province of Tartarrax. Near Junction City, Kan., a monument has 
been erected to mark the northernmost point of Coronado's wanderings. The 
engineers engaged in building the Union Pacific Railroad found near the mouth 
of the Loup River, in Nebraska, mounds and other evidences of once populous 
villages, which support to some extent the dying statement of the Turk, that 
the cities of which he had spoken were "just a little farther on." 


In 1599 Don Juan de Onate led an expedition from New Mexico in search of 
Quivira. The reports of his movements are conflicting and unreliable. He says 
he reached the "City of Quivira, which is on the north band of a wide, shallow 
river." .Some historians think the river mentioned is the Platte, and the location 
described by Onate corresponds fairly well to the ruins found by the Union Pacific 

Certain Spanish writers tell of an expedition that left Mexico some time 
prior to 1650 and established a settlement on a large tributary of the Missouri 
River, where they found gold mines, stone-built houses, arrastres for reducing 
the ore, but the entire party was killed by Indians about 1650. The story is 
probably largely traditional, as at that time the Spaniards had all they could do 


to hold their own in New Mexico, though in 1865 ruins were found in the 
Powder River Valley — foundations of houses and what appeared to be the remains 
of an arrastre — that give color to the story. 

Another Spanish expedition into the Missouri \'alley was that of the so-called 
"Duke of Penalosa" in the spring of 1662. Friar Nicholas de Freytas, who 
accompanied the expedition as chronicler, says that at the end of three months 
they came "to a wide and rapid river," where they made friends with a large 
party of Indians, who accompanied the expedition to Ouivira. After a march 
of several days they reached another large river and saw "a stream of consider- 
able size entering it from the north." Along this tributary, De Freytas says, 
could be seen "a vast settlement or city, in the midst of a spacious prairie. It 
contained thousands of houses, circular in shape for the most part, some two, 
three, and even four stories in height, framed of hard wood and skilfully thatched. 
It extended along both sides of this second river for more than two leagues." 

Penalosa encamped on the south side of the large river (which may have 
been the Platte), intending to cross over the next morning and visit the city. 
During the night his Indian allies stole out of the camp, crossed the river and 
attacked the city. All the inhabitants who were not killed fled in fright, hence 
Penalosa did not meet a single occupant of that fabled province which had so 
long commanded the curiosity of the Spanish adventurers of New Spain. This 
13 a rather fanciful story, but it doubtless served to increase Penalosa's impor- 
tance with the Spanish authorities, which was probably the chief purpose for 
which it was invented. 


In the early part of the Eighteenth Century a belief existed among the Euro- 
peans that there was a river which flowed to the South Sea, as the Pacific Ocean 
was then called. This belief was based upon reports given to traders by Indians, 
who said that near the mouth of the river the surface was so rough that it was 
dangerous to try to pass over it in canoes, while farther up the stream were 
great falls and rapids, unsafe for canoes. This description answers the Colum- 
bia, then unknown to white men. In the spring of 1 731 Pierre Gaultier de 
Varennes. Sieur de la \'erendrye. received authority from the French officials 
in Canada to discover the river. On June S. 1731, \'erendrye, with his three 
sons, a nephew and a number of Canadian voyageurs. left Montreal on his 
mission. Not much can be learned of his first efl:'ort to find the fabled river, as 
the expedition met with a war party of Indians and a fight ensued in which 
A'erendrye's youngest son and a number of the voyageurs were killed, and 
the project was for a time given up. 

In January, 1739, after repeated failures, \'erendrye reached the Maiidan 
villages on the Missouri River, near the present City of Bismarck, N. D. There 
his interpreter deserted him and he was forced to turn back. With his two sons, 
two Canadians and an interpreter, he again visited the Mandan villages, arriving 
there some time in the spring of 1742. From the Mandan villages he pressed 
on toward the West until he arrived at the P.lack Hills, where his interpreter 
again deserted him. Trusting to luck, he went on. and on January i, 1743. the 
party came within sight of the Big Horn Mountains, somewhere near the northern 


boundary' of Wyoming. One account says that after his interpreter deserted him 
at the Black Hills he found a friendly Indian, who acted as guide and interpreter, 
while he explored the Assiniboine, Upper Missouri, Yellowstone and Big Horn 
rivers. He then ascended the Shoshone River and crossed over to the Wind 
River. From the Indians living in the Wind River \'alley he learned of a river 
farther west, which flowed in southerly direction (probably the Green River), 
but the same Indians warned him that a hostile tribe inhabited the country about 
the pass through the mountains and that it would be dangerous to attempt to 
proceed farther in that direction. Verendrye then retraced his steps and in May, 
1744. arrived at Montreal, having spent thirteen years in seeking for a passage 
by water to the South Sea. 

X'erendrye and his associates were no doubt the first white men to set foot 
upon the soil of Wyoming. After his last expedition no further efiforts were 
made by the French to discover the river. A few years later came the French 
and Indian war. at the conclusion of which Canada passed into the hands of 
the English, who left the matter of exploration to the fur traders. 


After \'erendrye. no exploring expeditions were sent into the Great Northwest 
for more than half a century. In the summer of 1803 President Jefferson began 
making plans to send an expedition up the Missouri River to discover its sources, 
ascertain the character of the country, and whether a water route to the Pacific 
coast was possible. The Treaty of Paris, however, was not ratified until the 
fall of that year and the expedition was postponed until the spring of 1804. 
Mr. Jefferson selected as leaders of this expedition Capt. Meriwether Lewis 
and Capt. William Clark, officers of the regular United States army. 

Captain Lewis was born near Charlottesville. \'a.. in 1774. and was not quite 
thirty years of age when he received his appointment as one of the leaders of 
the expedition. He entered the army in 1795. received his commission as cap- 
tain in 1800. and from 1801 to 1803 was President Jefferson's private secretary. 
In 1807 he was appointed governor of Louisiana Territory, which office he held 
until his death. He died near Nashville. Tenn.. in 180Q, while on his way to 

Clark was also a Virginian and a brother of Gen. George Rogers Clark, who 
distinguished himself during the Revolution by the capture of the British posts 
in the Northwest. In 1784 he went with his family to Kentucky and settled where 
the City of Louisville now stands. In 1792 he was commissioned lieutenant and 
served under Gen. Anthony Wayne in the campaigns against the Indians of Ohio 
and Indiana. He resigned from the army in 1796 on account of his health, and 
settled at St. Louis. Regaining his health, he again entered the army, and in 
1813 was commissioned captain. In 1813 he was appointed governor of Mis- 
souri Territory and held the office until the state was admitted in 1821. The 
next year he was appointed superintendent of Indian affairs for the St. Louis 
district and remained in that position until his death at St. Louis in 1838. Ten 
years before his death he founded the City of Paducah, Kentucky. 

Such, in brief, was the character of the men chosen to conduct the first 
official explorations in the new purchase of Louisiana. The expedition consisted 


of nine young Kentuckians, fourteen regular soldiers, two French voyageurs or 
boatmen, an Indian interpreter, a hunter, and a negro servant belonging to Cap- 
tain Clark. The equipment embraced a keel-boat fifty-five feet in length, two 
pirogues and two horses, which were to be led along the bank, to be used in 
hunting game or in towing the keel-boat over rapids. The large boat was fitted 
with a swivel gun in the bow, a large square sail to be used when the wind was 
favorable, and twenty-two oars that could propel the boat forward when there 
was no wind. It also had a cabin in which were stored the most valuable 
articles, scientific instruments, etc. 

On May 14, 1804, the little company left the mouth of the Missouri River 
and started up that stream on their long journey. As they went along they 
named the creeks that entered the river, the names often being derived from 
some animal killed in the neighborhood, such as Antelope Creek, Bear Creek, etc. 
Near the northeast corner of Kansas is a stream which still bears the name of 
Independence Creek, because the expedition spent the Fourth of July near its 
mouth. The three rivers that united to form the Missouri they named the 
Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin, after the President and two of the leading 
statesmen of that period. 

At the Mandan villages, in what is now Xorth Dakota, Lewis and Clark 
employed Toussaint Charboneau and his wife to accompany the expedition as 
guides and interpreters. Mrs. Charboneau was an Indian woman, a member 
of the Snake tribe, who had been captured a few years before and sold to 
Charboneau, who married her. Her Indian name was Sac-a-ja-wea (the bird 
woman). She proved an invaluable guide, especially on the return trip through 
the Bozeman Pass. On the return from the Pacific coast the expedition divided 
on the east side of the Bitter Root Mountains, one party under Captain Lewis 
descending the Missouri River and the other, under Captain Clark, crossing 
over to the Yellowstone and descending that stream. They met at the mouth 
of the Yellowstone and on September 23, 1806, about noon, they arrived at 
St. Louis, having explored the Missouri River to its source, crossed over the 
divide and followed the Columbia River to the Pacific. 

Numerous accounts of the Lewis and Clark expedition have been published. 
The explorers did not touch the present State of Wyoming, but their report 
acquainted the people of the United States with the nature of the country pur- 
chased from France, encouraged the organization of the Missouri and Rocky 
Mountain fur companies, and hastened the day when white settlements were 
extended west of the Missouri River. 


Two Illinois men named Hancock and Dixon were engaged in trapping beaver 
on the Yellowstone in 1804, when the Lewis and Clark expedition was on its 
way to the coast. Two years later, as Clark passed down the Yellowstone, his 
party encountered the two trappers, who persuaded John Colter, one of the 
private soldiers with Clark, to join them. Colter was granted his discharge 
when the expedition was near the Mandan villages, and was supplied with the 
necessary outfit for his new venture. In the spring of 1807 Colter, and possibly 
one or both of his companions, passed through the Prv'or Gap of the Big Horn 


Mountains to Clark's Fort ; thence by way of the Stinking Water Pass to the 
Yellowstone; thence to the headwaters of Green River; back to the head of 
the Wind River, which he mistook for the Big Horn, and finally found his way 
back to the camp of the previous winter. An account of Colter's wanderings 
is given in the chapter on the Yellowstone National Park. 


On August 9, 1805, Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike left St. Louis for the purpose 
of ascending the Mississippi River to its source and holding councils with the 
Indian tribes that dwelt upon its banks. He returned to St. Louis in April, 1806, 
and soon afterward was commissioned to lead an expedition to the Rocky 
Mountain country south of where Lewis and Clark crossed over to the western 

With twenty men he passed westward through what is now the states of 
Kansas and Colorado, and discovered the lofty peak near Colorado Springs 
that bears his name. It was Pike's intention to descend the Arkansas River, cross 
over to the Red River and go down that stream to the Mississippi, but he made 
a mistake, struck the Rio del Norte instead of the Red River and got into Spanish 
territory. He and his men were arrested and taken to Mexico. His men were 
not disarmed and Pike saved most of his notes by concealing them in the barrels 
of the guns. When he explained his error to the Spanish authorities, the expedi- 
tion was escorted to Natchitoches, on the Red River, where all were released. 
Pike's report of his expedition, although part of his notes were confiscated by 
the Spanish, gave the country the first official information regarding the south- 
western portion of the Louisiana Purchase. 


As Lewis and Clark were returning to St. Louis in 1806, they induced one 
of the Mandan chiefs to accompany them to that city and from there to Wash- 
ington. In 1807 Ezekiel Williams was employed by the Government to escort 
the chief back to his tribe. Williams took with him twenty men, and after the 
chief had been safely conducted to the Mandan villages on the Missouri River, 
he went on up the river to the Blackfoot country to hunt and trap. The men 
were divided into two parties of ten men each. Near the mouth of the Yellow- 
stone one party was attacked by the Blackfeet and five were killed. The five 
survivors then joined the other party and the fifteen turned southward to the 
country inhabited by the Crow Indians. 

One of the party, a man named Rose, remained with the Crows, and Williams 
and the others went on toward the southwest, aiming to get to California by 
way of the South Pass. On the headwaters of the North Platte they were 
attacked by a Crow war party and lost five men. The remaining nine cached 
the furs and went on to the South Platte. One by one they were cut off by the 
Comanche bands wandering over the plains, until only Williams, James Work- 
man and Samuel Spencer were left. After many difficulties they reached the 
Arkansas River and passed down that stream into Kansas. In 1809 Williams 
returned with a party to the upper Platte and got the furs cached two years 


before, but tbey were in such a condition that they hardly repaid the expenses 
of the trip. 

long's expedition 

On .May 3, 1819, the steamboat Western Engineer left Pittsburgh, Pa., carry- 
ing Maj. Stephen H. Long and his party of topographical engineers, for the 
purpose of ascending the Missouri as far as the mouth of the Yellowstone. On 
September 15, 1819, the Western Engineer passed the mouth of the Platte River, 
being the first steamboat to ascend the Missouri to that point. Long tied up at 
Fort Lisa, a few miles above the present City of Omaha, where he spent the 
winter. In the summer of 1820 he explored the Platte River as far as the 
junction of the North and South forks, but did not reach Wyoming. His expe- 
dition demonstrated that the Missouri River was navigable for boats of light 
draft, a knowledge that had a great influence upon the fur trade during the next 
few years and upon the ultimate settlement of the \\'est. 


Nathaniel J. W'yeth was born at Cambridge, Mass., January 29, 1802. His 
father, Jacob Wyeth, was a graduate of Harvard. Nathaniel was fitted for col- 
'ege. after which he was engaged in various occupations until he was about 
thirty years old. After the failure of Astor's enterprise on the Columbia, Hall 
J. Kelley, a Boston schoolmaster, wrote a number of articles concerning Oregon. 
Many of the statements contained in these articles were incorrect, but they 
caused young Wyeth to become interested in the Great West and he read every- 
thing on that subject that he could find. In the winter of 1831-32 he undertook 
to organize an expedition of fifty men to engage in the fur trade, and made the 
following announcement : 

"Our company is to last for five years. The profits are to be divided in such 
a manner that if the number concerned is fifty, and the whole net profits are 
divided into that number of parts, I should have eight parts, the surgeon two, 
and the remaining forty parts should be divided among the forty-eight persons."' 

L'nder this arrangement Wyeth was to furnish all the necessary capital. On 
March i, 1832, the company of twenty men left Boston and at St. Louis met 
Sublette, McKenzie and other veterans of the fur trade. Says Chittenden : "With 
his perfect knowledge of conditions in the mountains, Sublette saw that he had 
nothing to fear from this new company and might very likely draw all the men 
aiid the outfit into his own business before he got through with them. He there- 
fore lent them a ready hand, set them on their feet, and ofl^ered them the protection 
of his own party as far as he should go.'" 

Under Sublette's guidance the two parties left Independence on ]\Iay 12. 
1832, and on the 8th of July arrived at Pierre's Hole, the annual rendezvous of 
the traders. Here eleven of Wyeth's men decided to return east, and later 
two others withdrew, reducing the number of the party to eleven. With this 
little handful Wyeth went on to Oregon. I'pon reaching the coast he learned 
that the vessel laden with supplies, which he had sent from Boston around Cape 
Horn, had been wrecked on a reef while coming northward in the Pacific. The 


trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company at X'ancouver gave the wanderers 
a cordial welcome and provided them with supplies for the return journey. 

wyeth's second expedition 

In 1833, while on his way east, Wyeth made a contract with Mihon G. 
Sublette and his associates to bring out to them their supplies in 1834. He then 
went back to Boston, where he organized the "Columbia River Fishing and 
Trading Company." Early in the year 1834 another vessel left Boston for Ore- 
gon, and on the 7th of March Wyeth left St. Louis on his second trip to the 
Rocky Mountain country. He was accompanied on this expedition by the nat- 
uralist, John K. Townsend, who afterward wrote an account of the journey 
across the plains. 

On May 18, 1834, the expedition reached the Platte River and on June ist 
was at the Laramie Fork. On the 19th Wyeth encamped on the Green River 
and spent the balance of that month in exploring the Green River \'alley. On 
July 4th he left Ham's Fork and crossed over to the Bear River, which stream 
he descended for four days, encamping on the 8th at a place called the "White 
Clay Pits." On the nth the expedition encamped near the Three Tetons, and 
on the 14th began the construction of Fort Hall. The old Fort Hall, built by 
Wyeth, was named for the senior member of the firm that furnished him the 
money to equip his second expedition. It was located about forty miles south- 
west of the Government post called Fort Hall, which was established in 1870. 
When Wyeth left Ham's Fork he passed beyond the boundaries of the present 
State of Wyoming and his subsequent movements have no bearing upon the 
state's history. 


Contemporary with Wyeth was Capt. Benjamin L. E. Bonneville, who spent 
some time in the Northwest and explored a large part of the country included 
in what is now the State of Wyoming. Captain Bonneville was born in France 
in 1796. His father was a printer, who, during the American Revolution, printed 
and circulated a number of pamphlets that awakened sympathy for the colonists 
in their struggle against British oppression, and he was a member of a republican 
club in Paris organized by Thomas Paine. After the French Revolution he 
printed something that was displeasing to Napoleon, who ordered him to be 
imprisoned. His wife and son were then brought to this country by Thomas 
Paine, who secured for the boy an appointment to West Point as soon as he 
was old enough to enter that institution. In the meantime the father had been 
released from prison, but was forbidden to leave France. He managed to make 
his escape, however, and joined his family in America. Young Bonneville grad- 
uated at West Point in 1819 and entered the army. When Lafayette visited this 
country in 1824 he made inquiries about the Bonneville family, and Lieutenant 
Bonneville was assigned his escort. He then returned with Lafayette to France 
for a visit. Upon coming back to America he was commissioned captain in the 
Seventh New York Infantry. 

In 1831, having become interested in the West, he asked for leave of absence, 


which was granted, his leave to extend to October, 1833, and he was instructed 
by Maj.-Gen. Alexander Macomb to provide suitable instruments, the best maps 
of the country he could obtain, and to make report as to the number of Indians 
in each tribe he visited, their manner of making war, etc. 

Although Bonneville s object in asking for a leave of absence was to engage 
in the fur trade. General Macomb's order made him more of an explorer than 
a fur trader. On May i, 1832, with no men, he left Fort Osage on the Mis- 
souri River, taking with him twenty wagons laden with provisions, ammunition 
and goods for the Indian trade. His destination was Pierre's Hole, the rendez- 
vous of the fur traders. On the 26th of the same month he encamped on the 
Laramie River. The next six weeks were spent in examining the country along 
the North Platte and Sweetwater rivers, and on July 20th he came in sight of 
the Wind River Mountains. Here he met Lucien Fontenelle with a party of 
American Fur Company trappers and went with him through the South Pass 
to the Green River. His wagons were the first to go through the South Pass. 

While on the Green River an incident occurred that caused an estrangement 
between Bonneville and Fontenelle. From the Osage Mission Bonneville had 
obtained several Delaware Indians as hunters. Fontenelle saw that these Indians 
were skilful in bringing in game and lured them away from their employer by 
offering them better wages. Bonneville knew that Fontenelle was waiting for 
a party of free trappers to join his party, and intercepted them. He then opened 
a keg of whisky, treated the trappers to a banquet, and persuaded them to join 
his expedition instead of going on to Fontenelle's camp. 

About five miles above the mouth of Horse Creek, in what is now the eastern 
part of Lincoln County, Wyoming, in the fall of 1832, he built Fort Bonneville. 
Trappers called this fort "Bonneville's Folly" and "Fort Nonsense." W. A. 
Ferris, in his "Life in the Rocky Mountains." gives the following description 
of the fort : 

"It is situated in a fine open plain, on a rising spot of ground, about three 
hundred yards from Green River, on the west side, commanding a view of the 
plains for several miles up and down that stream. On the opposite side of the 
fort, about two miles distant, there is a fine willowed creek, called Horse Creek, 
flowing parallel to Green River and emptying into it about five miles below the 
fortification. The fort presents a square enclosure, surrounded by posts or pickets 
of a foot or more in diameter, firmly set in the ground close to each other, and 
about fifteen feet in length. .\t two of the corners, diagonally opposite to each 
other, blockhouses of unhewn logs are so constructed and situated as to defend 
the square outside of the pickets and hinder the approach of an enemy from 
any quarter. The prairie in the vicinity of the fort is covered with fine grass 
and the whole together seems well calculated for the security of both men and 

It was not long until it became apparent that the trappers had good grounds 
for calling the place "Fort Nonsense." They were *o doubt better acquainted 
with the character of the Indians in that section than was Captain Bonneville. 
The hostility of the tribes near the fort compelled, him to evacuate it almost as 
soon as it was completed, and he went over to the headwaters of the Salmoij 
River, where he established his winter quarters. ^ 

Captain Bonneville spent nearly three years in the mountains. Most^of tha# 


time he was on the move, making maps and notes, trying to carry out the instruc- 
tions given him by General Macomb. When he went to Washington to make 
his report, he was informed by General Macomb that, as he had greatly over- 
staid his leave of absence, it had been taken for granted that he was dead and 
his name had been dropped from the rolls of the army. He then appealed to 
President Andrew Jackson, who ordered him to be reinstated with his original 
rank of captain, but the war department refused to accept and publish his report. 
He then began the work of rewriting his report, with a view of publishing it 
himself. While engaged in this work he met Washington Irving, to whom he 
submitted his manuscript, and gave Mr. Irving the privilege of publishing it in 
such manner as he might deem most advisable. The result was Irving's volume 
giving an account of Bonneville's adventures. In February, 1855, Captain Bonne- 
ville was made colonel of the Third United States Infantry. He remained 
in the army until September 9, 1861, when he was retired, and died at FQrt 
Smith, Ark., June 12, 1878. 


Early in the Seventeenth Century Jesuit missionaries were among the Indian 
tribes inhabiting the country about the Great Lakes. As the traders and settlers 
pushed their way farther westward these missionaries always formed part of 
the advance guard, far into the Nineteenth Century. Pierre Jean de Smet was 
born in Belgium on the last day of January, 1801. He came to America in 
boyhood, joined the Jesuit Society at an early age, and was sent as a missionary 
to the tribes living along the Missouri River, in what are now the states of 
Missouri, Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska. His labors on the frontier so impaired 
his health that when he was about thirty years old he returned to his native land. 

In 1837 he came back to America and soon afterward was appointed as mis- 
sionary to the Flathead Indians. On April 5, 1840, he left St. Louis with an 
American Fur Company party bound for the Northwest. This party reached 
the Green River on June 30, 1840, and on the following Sunday (July 5th) 
Father De Smet celebrated the first mass ever observed in what is now the 
State of Wyoming, his audience being a motley crowd of trappers and Indians 
gathered at the rendezvous, the improvised altar being decorated with the wild 
flowers of the prairie. The place where this mass was celebrated was for a 
long time known as "The Prairie of the Mass." 

The next day, with an Indian called Ignace as guide. Father De Smet set 
out for the Flathead country. He met the main body of the tribe at Pierre's 
Hole and shook hands with the Indians, after which Chief Big Face addressed 
the priest thus: 

"Black Robe, my heart was glad when I heard that you were coming among 
us. Never has my lodge seen a greater day. As soon as I received the news of 
your coming I had my.big kettle filled to give you a feast in the midst of my 
people. I have had my best three dogs killed for the feast. They are very fat. 
You are welcome.'' 

After some time amoiig the Flathead Indians, Father De Smet went to the 
»Blackfeet and established missions in what is now Montana. He then visite^d 
the Crow tribe, but their chief was rather skeptical and determined to put the 


missionary to a test. Pointing out an old buffalo bull near the encampment, the 
chief asked Father De Smet to go out and put his hand on the buffalo's head. 
Here was a dilemma. The priest realized the danger of approaching a wild 
buffalo, but at the same time he knew that if he refused he would be looked 
upon by the Indians as an impostor. Slowly he approached the bull, who raised 
his head and gazed with astonishment at the intruder. Upon his breast the mis- 
sionary wore a golden crucifix, which seemed to exert some sort of hypnotic 
power upon the beast, and as his eyes were fixed upon the glittering emblem, 
Father De Smet came nearer, finally laying his hand upon the bull's head. He 
then returned to the Indians, who had been intently watching his movements. 
The chief grasped him by the hand and acknowledged that he had been sent 
by the Great Spirit. 

Father De Smet remained among the Indians of the Northwest for several 
years. On horseback he traveled over Montana, Wyoming, Idaho. Oregon. 
Washington and that part of the Dakotas west of the Missouri, and it has been 
said he "knew every foot of the country.'' In 1842 he made a trip to Europe 
to solicit aid for his Indian missions. He came back in 1842, accompanied by 
one Belgian and two Italian priests and some sisters of Notre Dame as teachers 
of the Indian children. A little later he was taken from his labors among the 
red men and sent to St. Louis, where he wrote a number of interesting letters 
regarding his travels and missionary work. In 1868 he visited the mountains 
and spent several days at Cheyenne. He discovered and named Lake De Smet, 
in the northern part of Johnson County, and it is said that he was the first white 
man to find gold in Wyoming. 


John Charles Fremont was born in Savannah, Ga., January 21. 1813. 
In 1818 his father died and his mother removed to Virginia, where he was 
educated. At the age of thirteen years he began studying for the ministry, but 
being of a mathematical turn of mind, became a surveyor instead. In the spring 
of 1833 he was appointed teacher of mathematics on the sloop of war Natchez, 
and in July of the same year was commissioned second lieutenant in the topo- 
graphical engineers. In 1837 he was employed on the survey of a railroad 
from Charleston to Cincinnati, and in 1840 he was on the geological survey of 
the Northwest. He then went to St. Louis, where on October 19, 1841, he 
married Jessie, daughter of Thomas H. Benton, one of the L^nited States senators 
from Missouri. 

Senator Benton was not altogether friendly to the marriage of his daughter 
with a young lieutenant, but when in 1842 the Government decided to send an 
expedition to the Rocky Alountains. he secured the command of the expedition 
for his son-in-law "over the heads of all his superior officers of the engineer 
corps." The principal object of the expedition was to select sites for a line of 
military posts from the Missouri River to the mouth of the Columbia, the pur- 
pose of which was two-fold : First, to protect the fur traders from the encroach- 
ments of the English fur companies, and second, to encourage immigration to 
and settlement of the Pacific slope by protecting emigrant trains from Indian 


Fremont organized his expedition at Chouteau's trading post on the Kansas 
River, six miles above its mouth. He left there on June lO, 1842, with twenty- 
two men, and Kit Carson as guide. Carson at that time was thirty-three years 
of age and had lived the greater part of his life in the West. His home was 
then at Taos, N. M. He was of slender build, but possessed greater physical 
strength than many men who were his superiors in height and weight. His 
courage was proverbial and he was well acquainted with the country through 
which the expedition was to pass. Ruxton calls him "the paragon of moun- 

Accompanying the expedition were Henry Brant, a youth of nineteen years 
and a son of Col. J. B. Brant of St. Louis, and Randolph Benton, Fremont's 
twelve-year-old brother-in-law. Fremont first went to St. \' rain's Fort on the 
South Platte, not far from the present Town of Greeley, Colorado, arriving there 
on the afternoon of July loth, just a month after leaving Chouteau's post on 
the Kansas. From St. Wain's he followed the mountains in a northwesterly 
direction and on the 13th arrived at old Fort Laramie. Two days later the 
expedition was at Fort Platte, the trading post of Sabille, Adams & Company, 
at the junction of the Platte and Laramie rivers. On the 28th he came to the 
place where the trail is crossed by the Platte River and on the 30th he came to 
the Sweetwater. Moving up the Sweetwater Valley, he passed Independence 
Rock and Devil's Gate, and on August 8th reached the South Pass. On the 15th 
he unfurled the Stars and Stripes from the top of the most lofty peak of the 
Wind River range ( 13,570 feet) which mountain he christened "Fremont's Peak.'' 
Concerning this achievement, Bancroft says : 

"Considering that the Government paid all the costs, and that he had an 
experienced mountain man. Kit Carson, for a guide, it must be admitted that 
the eternal mountains might be put to nobler use than to perpetuate such achieve- 

This was the farthest point west reached by the expedition. Soon after naming 
Fremont's Peak, the explorer started upon the return trip. He arrived at St. 
Louis on October 17, 1842, and after a short stay there went on to Washington, 
where he made a report of his explorations and received authority to conduct 
another expedition to the mountains the following year. 


Fremont decided upon Kansas City, Mo., as the rendezvous and starting 
point of his second expedition and sent word to a number of the men who were 
with him in 1842 to meet him there in May. In making his preparations early 
in the year 1843, he obtained from the arsenal at St. Louis a twelve-pounder 
howitzer and a quantity of ammunition. This came very near getting him into 
trouble. After he had left St. Louis a letter came from Washington sum- 
moning him to that city to explain, as the expedition was "to be scientific rather 
than military." ]\Irs. Fremont did not forward the letter containing the order, 
but instead wrote to her husband to lose no time in starting on his expedition. 

On May 29, 1843, he left Kansas City with thirty-three men, several of 
whom had been with him the preceding year. Kit Carson was again his guide, 
and the naturalist, John K. Townsend, accompanied the expedition. Following 


the route of 1842, Fremont reached St. Vrain's Fort in time to celebrate the 
Fourth of July there. Some three weeks were then spent in Colorado, exploring 
the country. On the 26th the men were divided into two companies. Fremont, 
with thirteen men, moved directly to the Big Laramie River, and Thomas Fitz- 
patrick, with the remainder of the expedition, was to go by way of Fort Laramie, 
the Sweetwater and South Pass to Fort Hall. 

On August I, 1843, Fremont arrived at the Medicine Bow Mountains and 
encamped on the Medicine Bow River. He then moved toward the North Platte 
River, up the Sweetwater Valley to South Pass, where in his report he says 
he met on August 4th "a war party of Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians, who had 
surprised one of the Shoshone villages at Bridger's Fort on Ham's fork on Green 
River." From the South Pass he followed "the emigrant road to Oregon," until 
he struck Green River, where he despatched Kit Carson to Fort Hall to make 
arrangements for a supply of provisions. From the Green River to the Bear 
River he followed the route taken by Ezekiel Williams in 1807 until he arrived 
at Salt Lake. 

Turning his course northward again, he met Fitzpatrick's party at Fort Hall 
on September 19, 1843, and on the 22d the entire party left that post for Oregon. 
They struck the Columbia River and followed that stream almost to the mouth. 
when they turned southward and on March 8, 1844, arrived at Sutter's fort 
on the Sacramento River. There Fremont obtained some much needed supplies 
and after a brief rest resumed his journey. He arrived at St. Louis on August 
6, 1844, having been gone for a little more than fourteen months. Nothing had 
been heard from him for some time prior to his return, and the secretary of war 
offered to send a company of dragoons in search of him, but Mrs. Fremont 
declared it was unnecessary, as. if he could not find his way out the dragoons 
would not be likely to find their way in. 

Fremont afterward conducted two expeditions to the Pacific coast, but as 
neither of them touched Wyoming they form no part of the state's history. 
Through his explorations he acquired the sobriqttet of the "Pathfinder." 


In 1849 Capt. Howard Stansbury was commissioned by the L'uited States Gov- 
ernment to explore the Great Salt Lake \'alley and make a report on its topography, 
etc. After performing that duty he was to make a reconnaissance for a railroad 
route from Salt Lake City to Fort Bridger, and from Fort Bridger eastward to 
some point in the Platte Valley near Fort Laramie. When the Union Pacific 
Railroad was built some years later, it followed in general the route suggested 
by Captain Stansbury, but passes over the south end of the Laramie Mountains 
instead of going through Cheyenne Pass as he recommended. 

At the time of Captain Stansbury's explorations in Wyoming the California 
gold fever was at its height, and in his report he gives considerable attention to 
the companies of gold hunters that he saw crossing the plains. The first mention 
of the Wyoming coal beds may be found in his report, coal being the only mineral 


warren's expedition 

Lieut. G. K. Warren of the United States topographical engineers, afterward 
a general in the Union army in the Civil war, made an exploration of Wyoming 
from Fort Laramie to the western slope of the Black Hills in 1857. At the Black 
Hills he was stopped by the Sioux Indians. His report deals largely with the 
geology of the section through which he passed, particularly the deposits of 
building stone. He was probably the first man to advance the theory that the 
valleys of Northeastern Wyoming could be made profitable for farming purposes 
by irrigation. His report also states that he found gold in paying quantities in 


In July, 1859, under orders from the war department, Capt. W. F. Raynolds 
left Fort Pierre on the Missouri River to explore the country in the vicinity of the 
Black Hills. In the party were the following scientists : Lieut. H. E. May- 
nadier and J. H. Snowden, topographers; J. D. Hutton, topographer and artist; 
H. C. Fillebrown, meteorologist and astronomer ; Antoine Schonbarn, meteorolo- 
gist and draftsman ; F. V. Hayden, geologist ; Dr. F. E. Hayden, surgeon ; M. C. 
Hines, assistant surgeon. The escort was commanded by Capt. John Mullan. 

After exploring and making maps of the Black Hills region, the party pushed 
on westward and explored the valleys of the Powder and Big Horn rivers. The 
winter was passed on the Platte River and the next spring Captain Raynolds 
submitted his report, in which he refers to Jim Bridger as guide and gives an 
extended account of the geology of the country. He states that gold was found 
in several places, but as the escort was composed chiefly of adventurers the matter 
was kept secret for fear they would desert. In his report he also gives the descrip- 
tion of the "Portuguese Houses" quoted in another chapter. 

Through the reports of the explorers above mentioned, the people living east 
of the Mississippi River obtained a better idea of the character of the western 
country than they had before entertained, as the earliest maps designated prac- 
tically all the region west of the Missouri as the "Great American Desert." The 
success of the Mormons in the Salt Lake Valley, with the opinions of Warren and 
others that farms could be profitably cultivated in the valleys of the western 
rivers, taught many that the "Great American Desert" was largely a myth and 
hastened the day of settlement. 





The story of the Mormon emigration westward is intimately interwo\en with 
the history of the State of Wyoming. That event is more closely related to the 
settlement of the country than was the emigration to Oregon or California for the 
reason that quite a number of the Mormons stopped at various places on the 
way westward and became permanent settlers. In connection with the story of 
this emigration, although not an essential part of Wyoming's history, it may be of 
interest to the reader to know something in general of this peculiar sect. 

The Mormon Church, or, more properly speaking, the "Church of Jesus Christ 
of the Latter Day Saints,"' was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. Smith was 
born at Sharon, Vt., in December, 1805. His mother took a deep interest 
in religious matters, though at times she was somewhat visionary. It is said 
that she predicted soon after her marriage that a prophet would come out of her 
family. When Joseph was about ten years of age the family removed to Palmyra. 
N. Y., where he acquired the merest rudiments of an education — all the 
schooling he ever received. In the spring of 1820 a series of religious meetings 
were held in Palmyra. Toward the close of the revival, Joseph, who had inherited 
from his mother a fondness for all subjects of a supernatural nature, announced 
that he had seen a vision, in which two personages appeared above him in the air. 
■'They told me," said he, "to join no denomination, for all their creeds are an 
abomination in the sight of the Lord.'' 

His second vision came to him on September 21, 1823, about three months 
before he was eighteen years old. In this vision, according to his account, an 
angel appeared to him and revealed the hiding place of the golden plates upon 
which was recorded the history of the ancient peoples of America. The next day, 
guided by the angel, he went to the hill of Cumorrah, near Manchester, N. Y., 
and saw the plates, but the angel would not let him take them away. Each 
year thereafter for three years, on the 22d of September, he visited the place 
and saw the plates, but each time the angel told him that the time for their re- 
moval had not yet come. On September 22, 1827, he paid his fourth visit to the 
place and again saw the golden plates. This time the angel gave him permission 
to take them away, .^s they were written in a strange language, he was endowed 


with the supernatural power of translating them into English. More, than two 
years were spent in this work, but in the spring of 1830 the '"Book of Mormon" 
was published. 


Converts to the new faith came in considerable numbers and a colony was 
founded at Kirtland, Ohio. Opposition to the Mormons soon de\eloped and 
Smith had a "revelation" to go to Independence. Mo., and build a temple. 
But the Mormons were no more popular in Independence than they had been in 
Ohio, and in the fall of 1833 they were driven out of the place. They then took 
refuge in what is now Caldwell County, Missouri, where they founded the Town 
of Far West and again began the erection of a temple. Once more they be- 
came unpopular with the people living in the vicinity and Governor Boggs issued 
a proclamation ordering them to leave the state. They were expelled by force in 
the fall of 1838 and took refuge at Nauvoo, 111., which city they founded. 

Meantime elders of the church had been sent to Europe for the purpose of 
winning converts, and about the time the main body settled at Nauvoo they were 
joined by eight shiploads of converts from beyond the sea. The political leaders of 
Illinois saw that the Mormons were likely to become a power in public aiifairs 
and the Legislature granted them a charter for the Town of Nauvoo "which con- 
ferred extravagant and dangerous power upon the municipal officials." An Iowa 
writer says : "Under this charter Nauvoo became a breeding place for outlaws, 
and probably the true story of all the outrages committed by these outlaws will 
never be told. Fugitives from justice sought refuge there, and if anyone should 
be arrested witnesses could always be found to prove an 'alibi.' " 

Governor Boggs of Missouri was shot and seriously wounded in 1842, and the 
attempted assassination was charged against the Mormons because of his procla- 
mation four years before. An opposition was thus started, which was continued 
until in January, 1845, when the Illinois Legislature revoked the Nauvoo charter. 
In the meantime Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum had been arrested and 
confined in the jail at Carthage, 111., where both were killed by a mob on the 
night of June 27, 1844. The loss of their prophet and the continued opposition 
on the part of the people of Illinois determined the Mormons to seek a more 
congenial climate. 

Brigham Young was chosen as Smith's successor. He divided the "forces of 
Isreal." as the members of the church were called, into companies of hundreds, 
fifties and tens, and in the spring of 1846 they began their emigration westward. 
In their march across Iowa they moved with as perfect a precision as an army 
of well trained soldiers. By the middle of May. 2,000 wagons and 15,000 Mormons 
were on their way to the Missouri River. It was a wet. backward spring, the 
roads in many places were almost impassable and they made slow progress. 
Several hundred stopped at Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah, in Iowa, for the 
purpose of raising a crop. On the 14th of June the advance guard, under the 
leadership of Brigham Young, reached the Missouri River opposite where the 
City of Omaha now stands and there established a "camp of Israel" until a ferry- 
boat could be built. 



The war with Mexico was then in progress and the United States Government 
sent Capt. James Allen to the Mormon camp with instructions to raise a battalion 
of five companies among the emigrants. The Mormons readily answered the call 
and the volunteers were organized by Col. Thomas L. Kane, a brother of the 
Arctic explorer. At Fort Leavenworth each Alomion volunteer received a bounty 
of forty dollars, which was sent back to his family. Colonel Kane taking it upon 
himself to see that the money reached its destination. The battalion was assigned 
to the command of Col. Stephen W. Kearney and marched to Santa Fe, thence to 
California, where it arrived after the war was over. Some of the Mormons then 
worked in the construction of Sutter's millrace and were there when the first 
gold was discovered. Others returned to their families which had been left in 
the camp on the Missouri River. 


After the departure of the battalion, those who remained behind, feeling 
the loss of so many of their best men, decided to establish suitable quarters for 
the approaching winter. The first step was to insure the friendship of the Potta- 
watomi and Omaha Indians — the former tribe occupying the lands on the east 
side of the Missouri and the latter the lands on the west side. A council was held 
with the Omaha, at which Brigham Young made known the wants of his people. 
At the close of his remarks, the chief. Big Elk, replied as follows: 

"My son, thou hast spoken well. All you have said I have in my heart. I 
have much to say. We are poor. When we go to hunt game in one place we meet 
with an enemy, and so in another place our enemies kill us. We do not kill 
them. I hope we shall be friends. You may stay on these lands two years or more. 
I hope we shall be friends. Our young men shall watch your cattle. We should 
be glad to have you trade with us. We will warn you of danger from other 

Young applauded the old chief's speech, but he was not willing to accept a mere 
verbal promise for the possession of the land. He drew up a formal lease for five 
years, which was signed by Big Elk and other leading Omaha chiefs. After the 
council was over the Mormons gave a banquet to the Indians. A ferry was 
then established across the Missouri and the "Winter Quarters" were located 
where the Town of Florence, Neb., now stands, about six miles up the river 
from Omaha. Here the Mormons built several hundred log cabins, nearly one 
hundred sod houses, and an octagon council house. Mills and workshops w^ere 
also built and operated. In the fall of 1846 it was estimated that there were fifteen 
thousand Mormons encamped in the Missouri Valley on the Omaha and Potta- 
watomi lands. They had raised a crop and, although they divided the products of 
their gardens and fields with their Indian friends, their industrial activity de- 
stroyed so much timber and drove away the game- that the Omaha chiefs com- 
plained to their agents. An investigation showed that the Indians had good 
grounds for their complaints and the Mormons were ordered to vacate the Omaha 



On January 14, 1847, Brigham Young had a revelation to seek a new location 
farther to the west. It is possible that the order of the Indian agent to vacate 
the Omaha lands had something to do with the "revelation,'' but at any rate 
Oliver P. Gleason, George Chatelaine, Miles Bragg, J. P. Johnson, Solomon 
Silver and William Hall were appointed a committee by Brigham Young to go on 
in advance and select a site for the new settlement. This committee reached 
Fort Laramie in the spring, where they learned something of the Great Salt Lake 
\^a!ley and employed O. P. Wiggins and Jim Beckwourth to guide them to the 

Meantime the main body of Mormons did not wait for the return of the 
committee, but hurried forward their preparations to obey the order of the Indian 
agent. On April 14, 1847, just three months after Young's "revelation," the 
first company of 143 persons, three of whom were women, with 73 wagons loaded 
with provisions and supplies, left the winter quarters for an unknown "Land of 
Promise." This company was under the leadership of Heber C. Kimball and 
was accompanied by Brigham Young as far as the Elkhom River — a distance 
of about twenty-five miles. A few days later a company of 1,553 Persons, with 
560 wagons and a number of domestic animals left, under the guidance of John 
Taylor and Parley P. Pratt. Early in May a third company, numbering 1,229 
people, with 397 wagons, under the personal direction of Brigham Young, followed 
those who had gone before. Heber C. Kimball turned over the command of the 
first company to Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow and returned to lead another 
company, which left the winter quarters in July. It consisted of 226 wagons and 
662 persons. A week or so later Willis Richards led 526 persons, with 169 wagons, 
up the Platte Valley, and with the departure of this company the Omaha lands 
were vacated. Those who did not go west recrossed the Missouri and settled on 
the Pottawatomi lands in Western Iowa. 

As the first company went up the north side of the Platte River, guide posts 
were set up at intervals for the benefit of those in the rear. On Bufifalo skulls 
along the route were painted the dates when such places were reached, and inside 
the skulls were placed written communications conveying information as to the 
route it was intended to follow. Aided by these instructions and the guide posts. 
Young's company overtook the second detachment near the present boundary 
line between Nebraska and Wyoming, where both encamped on May 29, 1847. 
Here an incident occurred that demonstrated Brigham Young's qualifications as a 
leader. The morning of the ,^oth was cold and damp and some of the men wanted 
to wait until the weather conditions were improved before continuing the journey. 
About half past ten Young, who had assumed command, gave the order to harness 
up. The response was slow and Young ordered a council to be called. When all 
were assembled he told the delinquents plainly that he intended to be obeyed, 
and if they were unwilling to accept his authority they mi^ht remain where they 
were or return east. This little speech had the efTect of bringing the recalcitrants 
into line and by hard travelinsr Fort Laramie was reached on the ist of Jtme. 
James Bordeau, the aeent of the American Fur Company, gave the Mormons a 
cordial welcome and furnished them with" some much needed supplies. 

On June 12, 1847, the caravan arrived at the Platte River, two miles above the 


present City of Casper, where it was intended to cross the stream. Boats and rafts 
were constructed, but the river was running bank full and a whole week was 
spent in effecting a crossing. On the 19th the entire party was across the river 
and ready to proceed. The 20th was Sunday, but so much time had been lost 
that the emigrants traveled all day. On the 26th they went through the South 
Pass, where they met a party of trappers led by Moses Harris, who gave them in- 
formation regarding the course they were to pursue. Two days later they met Jim 
Bridger, from whom they obtained additional information. This was the first 
meeting of Bridger and Brigham Young, and both their parties encamped while the 
leaders held a conference. 

Upon reaching Green River on the last day of June, the company was met by 
Elder Brennan of California, who urged Brigham Young to go to Yerba Buena 
(now San Francisco) but the committee sent out early in the year had reported 
in favor of the Salt Lake X'alley and Young would not alter his course. Green 
River was crossed on the 3d of July and a rest of two days followed. From this 
point five men were sent back to pilot the other trains. On the 6th the company 
encamped on the site of the present Town of Granger, Wyo., and on the 7th 
arrived at Fort Bridger. 

Jim Bridger was exceedingly skeptical about the Salt Lake \'alley being a 
place to establish a farming community and it is said he offered Brigham Young 
$1,000 for the first bushel of grain grown in the valley. To this Young merely 
replied "Wait and see.'' 

On Tulv 21, 1847. the first company, led by Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow, 
saw from the top of an elevation the panorama of the Great Salt Lake \"alley 
and sent a messenger back with the information that they had reached the place 
recommended by the committee of investigation. Young had made such head- 
way with his company that he arrived on the 24th, only three days behind the 
leaders, though the latter had a start of nearly a month from the Missouri River. 
The day before his arrival some of the first company plowed the first ground ever 
broken between the Platte River and the Sierra Nevada ^Mountains. 

An August 16, 1847, Brigham Young started back to the Missouri River to in- 
form those left behind of the character of the country and the prospects for the 
future. A history of the Mormons entitled "Route from Liverpool to Great Salt 
Lake \'alley." was published in 1853, edited by one James Linforth. It gives 
the following account of the emigration to Utah : 

"The next consecutive event of importance in President Young's career after 
his arrival at Kanesville or Council Bluffs, was his starting in the spring of 1847, 
at the head of 143 picked men, embracing eight of the Twelve Apostles, across 
the unexplored country in search of a new home for the Saints beyond the Rocky 
Mountains. (Young really accompanied this company only as far as the Elkhorn 
River.) The pioneer band pursued their wav over sage and saleratus plains, 
across unbridged rivers and through mountain defiles, until their toilsome and 
weary journey was terminated by the discovery of Great Salt Lake \^alley and 
the choice of it for the gathering place of the Saints. They then returned to 
Council Bluffs, where they arrived on the 31st of October, and an epistle was 
issued on the 23d of December by the Twelve Apostles, noticing the principal events 
since the expulsion from Kauvoo and the discovery of the Great Salt Lake Valley." 

While the above statement is correct in the main, it is not true that the entire 


143 "picked men" returned to the Missouri. Those who returned were Brigham 
Young and the committee which had been sent out to select a location. 

In the march across the plains every man among the Mormons carried a 
rifle or a musket, and such discipline was maintained that it is said the Indians 
would frequently allow a small party of Mormons to pass unmolested and attack 
a much larger body of other emigrants, who were not so well organized for 
defense. The route the emigrants followed from the Mississippi River near 
Keokuk, Iowa, became known as the "Mormon Trail.' In after years the Mor- 
mon Trail westward from the Missouri River became the route of the great Union 
Pacific Railway. 

The number of Mormons who passed up the Platte Valley and through Wyo- 
ming in 1847 was 3,113. In 1848 Brigham Young personally conducted 1,200 
men, women and children to the new home of the Saints and a number of smaller 
parties came in under other leaders, so that in the fall of that year the Salt Lake 
Valley had a population of about five thousand. During the next five years it is 
estimated that one hundred thousand Mormons crossed the plains on their way 
to Salt Lake. They opened and developed farms, built irrigation systems, and 
transformed the desert into a veritable garden spot. 

THE SC.VRE OF 1 857-58 

At the time the first Mormons settled in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847, the terri- 
tory was outside of the boundaries of the L'nited .States. By the Treaty of Guad- 
alupe Hidalgo, in 1848, which concluded the Mexican war, Utah, with other ter- 
ritory in the Southwest, was ceded to the United States by Mexico. The Mor- 
mons then organized the "State of Deseret," adopted a constitution and sent a 
delegate to Washington to urge the admission of the state into the Union. Con- 
gress refused to admit the state, or to recognize the delegate, but in 1850 the 
Territory of Utah was organized and Brigham Young was appointed governor. 

In the latter '50s a number of outrages were committed upon emigrant trains 
and some of these outrages were attributed to the Mormon organizations known 
as the "Danites" and the "Avenging Angels." In 1857 trouble arose between 
Brigham Young and the other territorial officials appointed by President Buchanan. 
Perhaps the officials may have been incompetent to a certain degree, as claimed 
by Young, but the Territorial Legislature of Utah had already adopted the laws 
of the State of Deseret and it was apparent that the Mormon Church was de- 
termined to rule the territory. Instructions from Washington were disregarded 
and in some cases Young openly defied the United States authorities. It was 
finally decided by the administration to send a military expedition to Utah, to pre- 
serve order in the territory and prevent further depredations against peaceful 

When the announcement was made public in the fall of 1857, that the Govern- 
ment was about to send an expedition into LTtah, considerable anxiety was felt 
among the settlers of the West, for fear that the Mormons would retaliate by 
sending companies of the "Danites" and "Angels" against the frontier settle- 
ments. Gen. William S. Harney was first selected as the leader of the expedition, 
but he was succeeded by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston, who was afterward killed 
at the Battle of Shiloh. in April, 1862. while commanding the Confederate forces. 


The expedition left Fort Leavenworth in the fall of 1857, and, although there was 
little actual fighting, the Mormons harassed Johnston's movements to such an 
extent by burning supply trains, etc., that the troops did not occupy Salt Lake 
City until in June, 1858. 

While the expedition was en route the "scare' reached its greatest height. In 
April, 1858, a communication signed "Fair Warning'' was published in the Omaha 
Times, in which the writer said : "When our army shall enter the \'alley of the 
Salt Lake the ]\Iormons en masse will rise in hostile array, for they are sworn 
to resist. At that moment let the good people west of us look well to their*, 
safety. We hesitate not to say that those 1,000 Mormons near Loup Fork, armed 
and equipped as they are, can and will sweep from existence every Gentile village 
and soul west of the Elkhorn. As to Omaha City, the nursling of a government 
hostile to ]\Iormon rule, the rival of Mormon towns and the victim of sworn 
Mormon vengeance, how shall she share in this strife? In the space of one night 
the 100 Saints now here could lay in ashes every house in the city, whilst the 
armed bands in our vicinity should pillage and revel in our blood. The Deseret 
News proclaims to the wide world from the great leader of the hosts of the 
anointed thus : 'Winter quarters is mine, saith the Lord. Nebraska will I lay 
waste. With fear and with sword shall my people blot out from the face of the 
earth all those who kill the prophets and stone the Lord's anointed.' " 

The Deseret News, from which the writer quoted, was a Mormon newspaper 
published at Salt Lake City. Truly this "Fair Warning'' was a pessimistic prophet 
— a veritable "calamity howler" — but events failed to justify his doleful prediction. 
When Johnston's army arrived at Salt Lake, Brigham Young was removed as 
governor of the territory and the worst of the trouble was over. A garrison was 
maintained there for several years, however, as a precautionary- measure against 
further insubordination on the part of the IVIormon leaders. 

"westward ho" 

Som.e five years before the departure of the Mormons from their winter 
quarters on the Missouri, the tide of em.igration westward had commenced. As 
early as 1841 a party of fifteen, a few of whom were women, passed the fur 
companies' posts in Wyoming on their way to the country west of the Rocky 
Mountains. Later in the same year Bidwell's California company crossed the 
plains. In 1842 Elijah White led 112 men, women and children through \\''yoming 
on the way to Oregon. These emigrants were equipped with eighteen Conestoga 
wagons, a number of cattle, and several pack mules and horses. In crossing the 
plains the emigrants found resting places at Fort Laramie and other trading posts, 
where they could purchase supplies, though they sometimes grumbled at the prices 
charged by the post traders. 

In 1843 the number of emigrants who crossed the plains was estimated at one 
thousand. By that time the western coast was no longer an unknown land. Those 
who went west in 1843 carried with them oxen and horses, herds of cattle, farm 
implements, household goods, etc., which indicated that they had "come to stay." 
By that time, too. the beaver had been almost exterminated in the valleys along 
the Wyoming streams and many of the trappers employed by the fur companies 


were diverting their attention to occupations that promised greater profits, or 
leaving for other fields where the beaver were more plentiful. 


Among those who settled in California prior to the Mexican war was John 
Sutter, who was born of Swiss parents in Baden, Germany, in 1803. He came to 
California in July, 1839, and the next year became a Mexican citizen. Alvarado, 
the revolutionist, was then in power as the governor of the province. He took a 
liking to Mr. Sutter and made him an official of the government. The same }-ear 
Mr. Sutter bought out some Russian settlers on the Sacramento River and built 
a small fort. It was at this fort that Fremont's second expedition arrived on 
March 8, 1844. 

Late in the year 1847 Mr. Sutter employed James W. Marshall to build a saw- 
mill near the fort. As the mill was to be run by water power it was necessary 
to excavate a mill-race, and it was in this race that gold was discovered. Mr. 
Marshall, who made the discovery, afterward gave the following account of how- 
it occurred : "One morning in January (it was the morning of January 24, 1848), 
as I was taking my usual walk along the race, after shutting off the water, my 
eye was caught with the glimpse of something shining in the bottom of the ditch. 
There was about a foot of water running then. I reached my hand down and 
picked it up; it made my heart thump, for I was certain that it was gold. The 
piece was about half the size and shape of a pea.'' 

]\Ir. Marshall showed the nugget to Mr. Sutter and a few of the men whom 
he thought he could trust, and all kept a lookout for more. Within a few days 
they had collected about three ounces of the metal, which was subjected to tests 
and proved to be gold. They tried to keep the matter a secret, for fear their 
workmen would desert in the hope of getting rich quickly by searching for gold, 
but it happened that some ex-soldiers at the fort learned of the discovery and the 
news spread rapidly. There was no trans-continental telegraph in those days, but 
it was not long until every hamlet in the Union knew that gold had been found on 
the western coast. 

Gold had been found in placers near Los Angeles in 1841, and it is said that 
Jedediah S. Smith found gold near Mono Lake on his first trip to the coast in 1827. 
Neither of these discoveries created the least ripple of excitement when compared 
with the discovery at Sutter's mill. Within one year nearly one hundred thousand 
people from the older states went to California with the expectation of accumulat- 
ing a fortune in a few months. There were three ways of getting to the El 
Dorado: i. By going by sea around Cape Horn; 2. By the land and water route 
via the Isthmus of Panama ; and 3. Overland via the Oregon, California and 
Salt Lake trails. Each of the three routes was soon crowded to its utmost 


The principal starting points for the journey across the plains were at Inde- 
pendence and St. Joseph, Mo., though a little later inany crossed the Missouri 
River where the Citv of Omaha is now located. California Street in that eitv takes 


its nijine from the fact that it marks the course followed by the gold seekers 
of the early '50s. In April, 1849, some twenty thousand people left the Missouri 
River bound for the nev/ gold iields. Ihe plains were dotted with the vehicle 
known as the "prairie schooner," some rode on horseback, and many undertook the 
long, wearisome journey on foot. One argonaut, who afterward returned to his 
home east of the Mississippi, said he counted 459 wagons in going a distance of 
nine miles. In outfitting at the starting place, many of the wagons were laden 
with tools, provisions, etc., but as the journey proceeded and the teams began to 
show signs of weariness, many of the heaviest articles were thrown away, espe- 
cially as the driver saw others passing him on the road. The main object was to 
get to the diggings before all the paying claims were "staked off." Capt. Howard 
Stansbury, who was then engaged in making some explorations in the West for 
the Government, says in his reports : 

"The road was literally strewn with articles that had been thrown away. Bar 
iron, steel, large blacksmith anvils, bellows, crowbars, drills, augers, gold wasliers, 
chisels, axes, lead, trunks, spades, plows, grindstones, baking ovens, cooking 
stoves without number, kegs, barrels, harness, clothing, bacon and beans were 
found along the road in pretty much the order enumerated." 

Some clung to everything with which they started and in the end found it had 
paid them to do so. Prices in California soared. Flour sold as high as seventy- 
five dollars per barrel, bacon fifty cents to one dollar per pound, and other things 
in proportion. Those who came too late to secure a paying claim, but brought 
v.'ith them a supply of provisions, made about as much money as, perhaps more 
than, the average gold hunter. San Francisco grew from a straggling hamlet to 
a thriving city almost over night and was the chief source of supply for the gold 
diggings. "The days of '49" have been celebrated in song and story. A few 
acquired fortunes, but a large majority of the argonauts were glad to get back to 
the homes they had left, many of them poorer than when they started for the 
land of gold. 

The first gold found in California was what is called "free gold," being 
easily taken from the places where it had been deposited in the sands of the 
streams. No costly machinery, such as stamp mills and smelters, was needed to 
extract the precious metal. By 1856, eight years after the first gold was found by 
Mr. Marshall, $450,000,000 had been taken from the California placers. 

While the excitement was at its height. Fort Laramie, Fort Bridger and the 
other posts in Wyoming did a thriving business in furnishing supplies to the 
argonauts. Those who acquired wealth in the diggings usually returned east by 
the water route, while those who had failed and returned overland had little 
money with which to purchase supplies. All they wanted was a "bite to eat and 
a place to sleep." They carried information, however, concerning the West that 
had its influence upon many who, a few years later sought homes beyond the 
great "Father of Waters." In this way the argonauts of '49 paved the way for 
the settlement of Wyoming and some of the adjoining states. 

Neither Marshall nor Sutter, who made the first discovery of gold, derived 
any substantial profit from it. They expected to make money from their saw- 
mill, and did make money for a time, but as the timber was cut off near the 
mill and logs had to be brought from a distance, their profits were reduced. 
Added to this, the gold fever subsided and the demand for lumber correspond- 


ingly decreased. Both were granted pensions in their old age. Marshall died 
at the age of seventy-three at Coloma, and was buried in sight of the spot where 
he found the first nugget of gold in January, 1848. Over his grave stands a 
statue of himself in bronze, of heroic size — a poor reward for a man who gave to 
the world a gold field that has produced millions of dollars. 







The adventures and experiences of the early settlers of Wyoming, with all 
their humorous, tragic and romantic phases, become more interesting, to the 
reader and more valuable historically, as the days go by, when the actors dis- 
appear and the curtain falls on the thrilling and realistic scenes of frontier life. 
The old frontier is disappearing, in fact, has disappeared, and we realize the truth 
of the old saying, "Distance lends enchantment to the view." Today the auto- 
mobile is everywhere, and wherever that swift moving machine glides through 
the landscape there is no frontier — there is no explorer, for the remotest nook 
and corner is explored — and even the hunter and trapper by mountain or stream 
can no longer be a recluse in silence and solitude, for from the banks of a stream 
or on the side of a mountain he may hear the chug of a motor car or look up into 
the sky and see that bird of a new ci\ilization, an aeroplane. Therefore we may 
dwell with peculiar interest on the memories and stories of the old pioneers. 

From many sources have been gathered the personal narratives, sketches 
and relations that follow, many of them from the lips of the men who were actors 
in the scenes they describe, and they are given without regard to time, place or 
order of occurrence, promising only that they are true and illustrate historically 
the early days of Wyoming. To begin with some of the early experiences of the 
author, in which I have given some notes of what I saw and ''a part of which 
I was." 


In the Territorial Legislature of 1882 I was a member of the house. We 
passed a pretty good game bill for that period. On the last night of the session 
while the house was indulging in a good deal of horse-play. Judge J. M. Carey 
informed me that Pete Downs, a member from Uinta County, had just been ap- 
pointed fish commissioner and suggested that I announce it and get a rise from 
the gentleman. I made the announcement and suggested to Downs that he 
should introduce terrapin in Crow Creek waters, plant clams in the Sweetwater 
and make certain experiments with pickeled eel's feet, etc. Pete Downs was 


an original character of a jovial nature and tuiiversally popular. He never made 
a speech longer than a motion to adjourn. As I finished the members began to 
call Downs, and yell "Speech! speech!" 

Pete got up somewhat flustrated and said : "Boys you know I can't make a 

"Yes you can, go on, go on," shouted the members. 

He hesitated, cleared his throat and assumed a belligerent attitude. 
"I tell you I'm no speech maker, but I want you fellers to understand if I 
tackle this job I am going to do it right. I'm told that fish is the greatest brain 
food in existence. If that's the case, I'm going to stock up our streams to beat 
the band, and I'm going to make it my special business to see that the next 
Legislature has a damn sight more brains than this one has !" 

As he said this his voice rose and rang through the hall, he swung his fist 
around and hit the desk a resounding whack and sat down. The house broke out 
in a roar of laughter and applause. I have heard many orations and speeches 
but none so instantaneously effective. 

I wish to state here, sub rosa, that since then, several Wyoming Legislatures 
have convened and adjourned, that certainly appeared to be shy on brain food. 


In attendance at the Oregon Trail monument celebrations, I met and had 
some interesting talks with old timers. In the evening of the celebration at Fort 
Laramie several of us were swapping stories under the piazza of the old cavalry 
barracks which resembles the palaces of South American presidents. The build- 
ing is about three hundred feet long and has a balcony extending along the whole 
front. Joe Wiley is now governor general of this famous building and grounds. 
Talking about game animals in that section in early days, Ed. Patrick asserted 
that he had seen "5,000 antelope in one bunch near Rawhide Buttes, and they 
^ were so tame it was a shame to kill one." 

"That's good," said I, "but when I crossed the plains in 1864, I saw 10,000,000 
buffalo in practically one herd extending along the Arkansas River for five hundred 

"How do you know there were 10,000,000" said Patrick. 

"I counted 'em," said I. 

This raised a laugh on Patrick and he came back with this : 

"How did you count them?" 

"Psychologically and in my mind's eye," said I. 

There might have been more but a million or so difference in the estimate 
wouldn't cut much figure. Our route lay along the Arkansas Valley from Man- 
hattan to Ben's old fort and being in the month of November all the big herds of 
the North were moving South and found their best feeding grounds in this section. 
They therefore delayed in crossing south during the pleasant weather and rap- 
idly accumulated in numbers. The western Indians were on the warpath then 
and might be classed as wild animals, but that makes another storj'. 

Showing how tame wild game was at that time, Mr. Patrick mentioned the 
incident of a young antelope getting in between his team of horses for protection 
from a dog. 



In August, 1878, I came to Cheyenne to take the position of mihtary store- 
keeper at Camp Carhn which was then the largest supply depot in the West. It 
had fourteen large warehouses full of military supplies, several large manufac- 
turing and repair establishments, a garrison of soldiers, officers and employees 
quarters, corrals and stables for five large wagon trains. Ten forts located at 
points in Wyoming, Utah, Nebraska and Idaho were supplied from this great 
depot, and from three hundred to four hundred civilians were given constant 
employment as teamsters, wagon makers, blacksmiths, saddlers, packers, etc. 
The military depot was located about half way between Fort Russell and 

In the summer of 1879 with my wife and children, I made a camping out 
trip to and through North Park for a month's vacation. We took a tent, camp 
equipage and grub. There were few ranches and for days at a time we saw no 
human habitations. Game was very plentiful, especially antelope. At the southern 
end of the pa^rk we camped near a ranch where the owner had seven or eight 
elk he had captured and was training them for work and selling them to animal 
collectors. These elk were as tame as a domestic cow. 

On the trip we had a dog who was fired with the ambition to catch an ante- 
lope, but he got his lesson and quit. In the last attempt he started after a 
bunch when the leader, a big buck, turned around suddenly and jumped on him 
with his forefeet, stiff-legged. The dog, who was hit only by a powerful glanc- 
ing stroke, rolled over down the hill yelling in terror. He came back to the 
wagon with scars on his head and the side of his body and never chased any 
more antelope. 

Twice on the trip we found little baby antelopes in the sage brush where 
the mother had left them. One little one that was running around we captured 
and took along for a pet, feeding him on canned milk, warm and diluted. He 
thrived well for several days, but at one of our camping places got away long 
enough to drink some very cold spring water, which caused his death. 


On this trip we saw for the first time a bunch of mountain sheep in the 
vicinity of Sherman. They were some five hundred yards from the road when 
first sighted and quite near a ranch we had just passed. On seeing us they be- 
came very curious, perhaps on account of our children, and walked quietly 
toward the wagon until they reached a knoll looking down upon us about fifty 
yards away. There they stopped, a big buck in the front with massive horns and 
five ewes grouped around him. I stopped the team, got out my rifle, they watch- 
ing us and I them. I got a bead on the big buck and was about to fire, when 
my wife said, "They can't be wild mountain sheep. They're too tame. They 
must be some breed of goats belonging to that ranch we passed. I wouldn't shoot 
them." We discussed the matter, the sheep still looking and wondering what on 
earth we were there for. As I put away the gun and continued the journey the 
sheep turned around and quietly walked away. If any visitor at our apartments 
fails to see that splendid pair of big horns on the walls they can blame Mrs. 
Bartlett for her mistaken opinions and merciful kindness. 



Incidental to this trip we visited Teller City, a new mining camp where great 
gold discoveries had just been reported. There was a great rush there. A town 
had been laid out in the timber and many houses, shacks and cabins were being 
buih. A new hotel, roughly constructed of pine boards, was being built and I 
applied for a room. The proprietor said all the completed rooms were taken, but 
explained that the carpenters would have another room enclosed by night if we 
wanted to take it. We took it and the room was built round us during the day. 
The windows and door were put in and the boarding of the walls completed 
while we occupied the room. It was the first time I had ever seen a room "built 
around you while you wait." That night we had a grand reception. The 
mountains on the east were lit up by a great forest fire making a scene almost 
terrific in grandeur. 

Another thing — in laying out the streets a great many pine trees had to be 
cut down. Therefore the streets and roadways were full of stumps and it re- 
quired the utmost skill in a driver to get through without smashing a wagon or 
breaking the horses' legs. Therefore, there were many stump speeches made, brief 
and emphatic, interlarded with "strange oaths" unfit for publication. However, 
we escaped safely with our team and our morals. 


Going back a little, on our way to North Park we visited Cumming's City on 
the Laramie River, near Jelm Mountain. It was then the most noted mining 
camp in Wyoming and had among its population of gold hunters, many who 
afterward became Wyoming's most prominent citizens and officials. Bill Nye was 
one who made the camp the scene of some of his most excruciating stories. Judge 
Groesbeck, who afterwards became chief justice of the State Supreme Court, was 
another. Judge Bramel, who was at that time an enthusiastic mining pioneer 
was among the choice spirits of this camp. Women and children were rare in 
the camp and our coming through as campers attracted a great deal of interest. 
We put up at the big hotel and were invited around to see the wonderful gold 
mines, some of them capitalized at $1,000,000. Everybody seemed bent on making 
our visit enjoyable. The extent to which this effort was carried was seen the 
next morning. We started quite early to continue our journey. When about half 
a mile out, on turning a bend in the road, we saw suspended from the limb of a 
tree which stretched to the middle of the road, a man with a rope round his neck. 
The horses also saw the figure and stopped suddenly. They had evidently never 
seen a man suspended high in mid-air with no foundation for his feet. They 
snorted and pawed and really wanted to go back, although we were yet a hundred 
yards away. Before going after the coroner I concluded to make a closer examina- 
tion, first turning the horses around so they wouldn't cramp the wagon. I 
walked down to the place where the figure hung and found it was a well dressed 

Afterwards I learned that the miners got up this little show for our enter- 
tainment. Things had been rather quiet with them for a week, no shooting 
scrapes or lynchings, and they wanted to liven up matters and give us a sample 


of what life in a genuine mining camp should be. We were entertained all right, 
but had the time of our lives trying to drive the horses under that suspended 


In 1881 I assisted in organizing the Wyoming Copper Company and as one of 
the officers of the company went to Fairbank where we erected a copper furnace 
and buildings connected with the smelting works. Colonel Babbitt, a prominent 
cattleman, was the leading spirit of the enterprise and he had interested several 
Chicago millionaires in it, among them George M. Pullman and X. K. Fairbank 
and we gave our smelter settlement the name of the latter gentleman. 

The smelter was located on the banks of Platte River at the mouth of the 
canyon about one mile and a half above Guernsey. It had been noted as the finest 
pike fishing resort on the river and was a favorite place for the sport of United 
States officers from Fort Laramie, which was then garrisoned and was the 
principal army post of the department. 

One day Superintendent Bartlett (no relation) and myself looking down the 
river, saw an immense school of pike swimming up, their fins agitating the 
surface with dimpling waves. They kept in the center of the stream, and we 
could not reach them with poles. Accordingly we improvised a raft, having 
plenty of lumber and tools, rigged up our lines, got some fresh meat for bait and 
secured some heavy irons for an anchor. Taking one of our big ore tubs we placed 
it in the center of the raft and anchored in mid-stream where the water was 
alive around us. We had two hooks on each line and as soon as they were 
dropped they were grabbed by the hungry fish, and we hauled them in two at a 
time until the tub was nearly full and we were exhausted by our efforts and 
the excitement of the catch 


Soon after the smelter was erected I built the first log cabin at Fairbank and 
brought my family up from Cheyenne. It was located in a most beautiful spot 
close to the river in a grove of cottonwood and boxelder trees. It was at the 
mouth of the canyon whose precipitous walls of red sandstone intermingled with 
strata of white limestone towered in prismatic beauty, and when shone upon by 
the sun were brilliant w-ith nature's architectural effects. Just above the cabin 
the rapids plunged over a rocky bed and the murmer of the falling water was 
continuous music in our ears. Fremont on his first expedition camped across the 
canyon close by the side of our home, and in his report gives a glowing description 
of its scenic beauties. 

The serpent entered this Eden, but without his ancient fascination. In the 
summer time the doors and wmdows were open. On two occasions we captured 
rattlesnakes that had entered the house and one time we got two big bull snakes 
who were making a home under the bed. lying in wake for mice. The bull snake 
is harmless but so much resembles a rattler that anv tenderfoot will be deceived. 



It is the unexpected that happens — sometimes. One day I was sitting in our 
office and laboratory building. Franklin Getterman, our chemist, sat at the desk 
writing. Suddenly a hugh bull snake dropped down "kerplunk," on the desk 
before him. He gave a yell and in about two jumps landed himself outside the 
door. For about two hundred yards he made as good time as I ever saw. The 
snake had crawled in under the eaves and was crawling over the loose boards of 
the ceiling when he fell. Getterman was a recent graduate from Freiburg, 
Germany, and if he had died of heart failure then the world would have lost a 
remarkable man, as he is now the president and general manager of the American 
Smelting Company, the largest smelting organization in existence. 


Shortly after we moved into the cabin, a family of mountain rats also moved 
in and occupied the space between the pole roof and the canvas ceiling stretched 
below. These animals are playful and humorous. They have several games, 
one especially that interested the children. They had a collection of little stones 
and ciay balls that they would bring to the ridge pole and then roll them down 
to the eaves and scamper after them. Then they would bring them up again and 
continue the sport. Then thev had another game that I judge were wrestling 
matches. They would tumble around, roll o\er and squeal with joy. We finally 
killed two of them and the others took the hint and quit the premises disgusted 
with our inhospitality. 

Speaking of skunks, a colon)- of these interesting animals made their homes 
in a limestone ledge near our cabin. Limestone formations here are marked by 
many caves and opeiiini;> t-xlemling in irregular passages through the rock. These 
afford ideal homes for skunks and rattlesnakes, while the larger caves are ap- 
propriated by mountain lions. The skunk is a handsome animal, and is also quite 
friendly and fearless. When not attacked they are harmless. Although moonlight 
nights were their favorite excursion hours, they often came around the house 
and under the house in the day time without any fear and usually inspected the 
remains of food thrown out from the kitchen, ^^'e finally killed three or four 
and smoked out a whole colony in the rocks, after which they quit us. If their 
skins had been as valuable then as now. I could have started a skunk farm and 
been rich enough probably to start a peace expedition to Europe bv this time. 
Mountain lions were quite plentiful up the canyon and many were killed within a 
mile or two of our cabin. 


The Lost Cabin mines of ^\■yoming have long been the subject of much con- 
jecture and romantic fiction. The true history of this famous find and the ac- 
companying adventures of those who participated in it was given me when I was. 


living in Washington in 1894, by Charles Clay, one of Wyoming's prominent and 
honored frontiersmen. 

Mr. Clay was one of the pioneers and like Judge Gibson Clark and John 
Hunton was at one time employed at the post trader's store at Fort Laramie as 
clerk and assistant. Afterward he engaged in freighting. When the town of 
Douglas was located he opened a general store and for several years did the 
leading business there. Later he was elected county treasurer for two or three 
terms. He came to Washington, D. C. with a view of pushing a claim of losses 
sustained by Indian depredations, and having access to the Government departments 
I had the pleasure of giving him some assistance. We spent several evenings 
together, and as I was becoming interested in mining ventures and he was familiar 
with the placer grounds worked by the old gold miners, our conversation drifted 
that way. One evening just before he left Washington he said to me: 

"I am going to tell you what I know about the Lost Cabin mines. I have 
kept the story to myself for nearly forty years expecting to go personally and 
locate the place, but something has always come up to prevent giving it my time 
and money. I think you can find it, and all I ask is give rne a show in the find." 

I have kept the story sub rosa for twenty years but now release it, trusting the 
directions given will enable some prospector to locate these rich placers, and I 
leave it entirely to him as to whether he owes me anything for the information. 
This is the story : 

The Lost Cabin gold placers were discovered in the fall of 1865, and were 
worked three days by seven men from the Black Hills country. Five of the seven 
men were killed by the Indians. Two escaped and brought away seven thousand 
dollars in coarse gold. Since that time no effort for the discovery of the place has 
been successful although many attempts have been made by small and large parties 
to reach these wonderfully rich placers where the gold could almost literally be 
picked up from the ground. Under a treaty made by the Government with the 
powerful Indian tribes then occupying this territory they were given undisturbed 
possession of this area for many years and all white men were warned not to 
invade their hunting grounds. 

Mr. Clay said that the two men who escaped came into Fort Laramie and as 
soon as they got in went to the Sutler's store and asked him to put their gold 
in the safe. In doing this they confided to him the story of the find and the 
fortunes of the expedition. This was in October, 1865. Early in that month 
the two men reached old Fort Reno at the point which is now the crossing of 
Powder River. They arrived there in a terribly weak and exhausted condition. 
They explained that they had belonged to a party of seven gold prospectors who 
went into the Big Horn Mountains on their eastern slope from the Black Hills 
of Dakota. They traveled along the base of the range in a southwestern direction, 
prospecting and testing the ground at all points where the streams came down 
from the mountains until they reached a park surrounded by heavy timber through 
which ran a bold and swift mountain stream, and which a few yards below joined 
a larger stream. Here they found rich signs of the yellow metal and on digging 
down struck bed rock at a depth of three or four feet where gold was ver>' plentiful 
and coarse, with many good sized nuggets. 

They immediately went into camp having tools and grub in addition to the wild 
game they had hunted which was then very plentiful. They had brought two pack 


animals to carry their tools and supplies. Among the tools was a big log saw 
especially valuable to gold miners, and they soon sawed the logs they needed to 
construct a flume. In two days by almost continuous hard work they also built 
a substantial log cabin. They then began to dig and wash out the gold in good 

Late one afternoon on the third day they were suddenly surprised and attacked 
by Indians. It seemed to be a large band but they were almost concealed by the 
surrounding timber. The men fought as best they could until nightfall, but 
being in the open were at such disadvantage that five of their number were killed. 
The Indians would not expose themselves. The night was cloudy and as it soon 
became very dark the two men who had not been hurt gathered up the gold and 
succeeded in escaping without being seen by the Indians. 

In addition to the gold, they carried their arms and some grub. Traveling 
on foot they put as much distance as they could between themselves and their 
foes during the first night and in the morning hid themselves among the trees 
where they remained until night came on. They then continued their journey not 
knowing where they were going. After three nights of continuous walking they 
reached Fort Reno, where there was a small garrison of United States soldiers 
stationed to protect the old trail and furnish a camp for settlers driven out by the 
Indians. They told their story to the lieutenant in command, but he did not 
credit it fully. About that time there had been a number of desertions of soldiers 
who wanted to hunt for gold and were willing to face dangers in the quest, so he 
held them under guard and sent them with a detachment and wagon train then 
about to leave for Fort Fetterman. When they reached Fort Fetterman, the com- 
manding ofificer had them under investigation and becoming convinced of the 
truth of their story allowed them to go to Fort Laramie with the next military 
wagon train departing for that point. 


The two men spent the winter at Fort Laramie. When they brought the gold 
to Mr. Clav at the post trader's store it was in three baking powder cans. He 
put it in the safe where it remained until their departure from the fort. The 
men were Swedes and spoke broken English. They were practically ignorant of 
the country they passed through so far as the names of mountains and streams were 
involved, but could describe the topography and general aspect of the region 
through which they had traveled. As spring approached they determined to go 
back and brave new dangers to find their lost cabin and gold field. In order 
to insure success in their search, they decided to go back to the Black Hills and 
start anew over the same route they first took. Mr. Clay says they organized a 
new party in the Black Hills and started out on the old trail but that nothing was 
heard from them after they had reached the mountains of Wyoming and in all 
probability they were killed by the Indians. 


As the knowledge of the famous discovery spread through Fort Laramie and 
among the settlers in the vicinity one of those big gold excitements characteristic 


of pioneer days resulted and many plans were formed by different parties to start 
prospecting expeditions to search for the lost cabin. The largest party was 
organized by Colonel Bullock, at that time post trader at the fort. Fort Laramie 
was then the most important post in the great northwest and was the headquarters 
of a large number of frontiersmen, hunters, trappers, scouts, army contractors 
and their employees, in addition to the army garrison. It was the midway resting 
place of numerous caravans of emigrants following the great Overland Trail to 
California and from these sources Colonel Bullock raised a company of one 
hundred and fifty men who were duly enlisted and officered. All preparations were 
made to start when the project came to the notice of the commanding officer of 
the department at Omaha. In view of the impending Indian wars an order was 
issued forbidding the expedition and if necessary ordering but the military forces 
to stop it. 

For the next twelve or thirteen years it was unsafe for any party to go into 
that region as the Indians were very numerous and powerful, as well as generally 
hostile, so that the mystery that hung over the Lost Cabin mines was not lifted 
and hangs over them to this day, with the exception of this rift of light that comes 
from Charley Clay's narrative. 


To have lived in Wyoming from the organization of the territory down to the 
present day is indeed a rare privilege. John Hunton of Fort Laramie, who came 
into this state with a freight train from Julesburg before Cheyenne was on the 
map, and has since been prominently identified with the various phases of frontier 
development, as post trader, contractor, ranchman and engineer, has had that 
notable experience. He is especially identified with the history of Fort Laramie. 

It would be difficult to put into cold type the interesting episodes of his life 
and of the early settlers who were in his group of comrades, like Colin Hunter. 
Hi Kelley, E. W. Whitcomb, Dan McUlvan and Gibson Clark, but his story is 
so typical of early days in Wyoming that the writer journeyed to Fort Laramie 
in May, 1918, to get from his own lips a relation, that only he could give. 

Mr. Hunton was born in Madison County, Ya.., in the Blue Ridge Mountain. 
June 18, 1839. His father and mother, .Alexander and Elizabeth (Carpenter) 
Hunton, were among the oldest, historic families of the South and it was natural 
that John should be among the first to join the Confederate army and remain in its 
ranks as a fighting man till the surrender at Appomattox. Even before the Ci\il 
war, Mr. Hunton, as one of the Mrginia State Guards, was on duty at Charlestown. 
"\"a., eight miles from Harpers Ferry with four thousand of the guard, when 
John Brown was hung. Later, he was in Pickett's famous charge at Gettysburg. 

He left home in the early spring of 1867, and went to Julesburg, Colo. From 
there he went to Fort Russell with a freight train carrying finished lumber to 
use in building Fort Russell, then a military camp established to protect the men 
engaged in building the Union Pacific Railroad. The camp had been started with 
the construction of log buildings and when the Government had decided to 
establish the fort, finished lumber and imjjroved equipment was freighted in. This 
was before Cheyenne was started. 



In June, young Hunton went to Fort Laramie and was employed at the sutler's 
store as a roustabout by Seth E. Ward, who was then post trader. Later on he en- 
gaged as clerk, freighter and contractor, continuing at the fort under the sutlership 
of William G. Bullock, who had Benjamin B. Mills as his chief clerk in charge of 
the business. At this time Gibson Clark and Charles Clay were also employed 
as clerks and assistants. In those early days Fort Laramie was one of the im- 
portant Indian trading posts of the west, being the favorite center of traffic of 
numerous tribes, and of the most noted hunters and fur traders of that whole 
region. It was the headquarters of Bordeaux, Bissonett, Rishaw (Richard) 
Brothers, Fourier, Little and Big Bat (Baptiste) Jim Bridger, and other noted 
scouts. The Sioux and Cheyennes ranged all over the country from north of the 
Platte to Cache La Poudre in Colorado. Many of the furs and hides were 
shipped to Robert Campbell who had a large establishment at St. Louis and was 
one of the most noted fur traders of that day. When in the West, Campbell made 
Fort Laramie his headquarters. 

Mr. Hunton knew personally some of the most famous Indian chiefs of that 
day, such as Red Cloud, Otter Tail, American Horse, Spotted Tail and Young- 
man-Afraid-of-his-Horse. and attended many of their conferences and treaty 
councils. In the famous Treaty of 1868, Mr. Hunton was a witness to the names 
of the Indian chiefs, their signatures being a cross mark. Mr. Hunton remained 
at the fort till October, 1870. For several months while there he roomed with Jim 
Bridger, the famous guide and scout. In 1874 he established the S. O. Ranch and 
put in a herd of cattle at a point where the Overland Trail crossed the Box Elder, 
about twelve miles west of Fort Fetterman. This ranch passed through various 
hands till it was finally sold to Judge Carey and has since become one of the 
great farm and ranch establishments of the state. 

At various times Mr. Hunton engaged in contracting with the Government 
for hay, wood and beef at Fort Laramie. Fort Fetterman and Fort McKinney, 
finally located a home ranch at Bordeaux and engaged extensively in the cattle 
business in that section. For several years "Hunton's," as the place was known 
then, being on the Fort Laramie and Black Hills Trail, accommodated travelers, 
stock men, cowboys, Black Hills gold hunters, soldiers and Government freighters 
with meals and supplies as a road station and stopping place. 

Roving bands of Indians remained in that section till 1877, stealing stock and 
occasionally "sniping" a settler. While at Bordeaux, Mr. Hunton's brother 
James, was killed by the Indians. That was in 1876. About this time the road 
agents and horse thieves became numerous on the Black Hills road and the 
treasure coaches with their passengers were frequently held up and robbed. These 
were exciting times and the Cheyenne-Fort Laramie Road was the most frequented 
and best traveled route in the Mountain West. 

In 1888 Mr. Hunton was appointed post trader at Fort Laramie succeeding 
John London. Fle held that position till the order was issued abandoning the fort, 
the last Government troops leaving the garrison April 20, 1890. The order of 
abandonment was issued in March, 1890, and shortly thereafter two public sales 
were made, one in March of the army material accumulated there, and one in 
April of the Government buildings. The reservation lands excepting forty acres 
where Mr. Hunton had his sutler's store, his residence and various other buildings 
he had erected at his own expense were thrown open to homestead settlement. 


A special act of Congress granted him the privilege of purchasing this forty 
acre tract at one dollar and a quarter per acre. 

The reservation lands covered an area of six miles east and west by nine miles 
north and south, or fifty-four square miles. The best portion of this land was 
soon taken up by homestead settlements and Mr. Hunton by homesteading and 
purchase of choice land at the center of the post secured several hundred acres 
through which a canal was built making a beautiful ranch home with fertile lands 
and the picturesque scenes of his early life in Wyoming. 

Mr. Hunton also acquired the Bullock Ranch, one of the most valuable ranches 
on Laramie River, which is now known as "Gray Rocks." In the meantime Mr. 
Hunton and his wife have made their home at Fort Laramie where all around 
them a rich agricultural region is being developed under the Interstate and 
Laramie canals recently constructed by the United States Reclamation Service, on 
each side of Platte River, from the Whalen Dam about five miles above Fort 
Laramie. Mr. Hunton has the distinction as an engineer, of individually making 
the original survey for the Whalen Dam and Canal System which became the 
basis of a Government reclamation project that cost over eleven million dollars, 
including the Nebraska canals. 

He sold his survey notes, filings and water rights to Lingle & Company who 
began the construction, but they afterward sold to the United States Government 
which has completed here one of the great irrigation enterprises of the West with 
canals extending into Nebraska and watering one hundred thousand acres of land 
in Wyoming and much more in Nebraska. 

Among other pioneers and builders of Wyoming who were contemporary 
with Mr. Hunton and often connected with him in business enterprises, were 
Colin Hunter, E. W. Whitcomb, H. B. Kelley, and Dan McUlvan. Hunter and 
Whitcomb have crossed the divide within the past two years, but Kelley and 
McUIvan are still living and in vigorous health at the time of this writing. 


E. W. Whitcomb came to Wyoming in i86S from New England. Being of a 
fearless and venturesome disposition he went out on the old California Trail 
where it crosses Horse Shoe Creek, east of the present Town of Glendo and 
started a trading station. About as soon as he got in his supplies, built his cabin, 
Slade's men robbed his store and burned up everything except a team and wagon 
he had up the creek. He then went to Box Elder Creek and settled there for 
several years along in the '"o's. At one time Whitcomb and Hi Kelley went to 
Elk Mountain where a railroad supply and lumber camp had been established and 
engaged in business there. Afterward he took up a land claim on Crow Creek a 
few miles above Cheyenne. He also built a ranch on the Chugwater and engaged 
largely in the cattle business. Later he sold out his interests on the Chugwater 
and established ranches on the Belle Fourche. 

In the meantime he had built a fine residence at Cheyenne, where he made 
his home with his family. After reaching the age of eighty-five years he was 
killed by lightning while on a visit to his Belle Fourche Ranch. While living in 
Cheyenne he was elected one of the commissioners of Laramie County. He 
was a gentleman of ability and honor and in every respect a fine example of the 
character of our best pioneers. 



Many of the most sturdy and enterprising pioneers of Wyoming were Scotch- 
men. Robert Campbell, the great fur trader, made his headquarters at Fort 
Laramie. Colin Hunter came from Scotland in the early '60s and was first employed 
by the United States Government at Fort Jackson near the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi. From there he was transferred to Wyoming in 1866, going to Fort 
Laramie where he remained as a civilian employee of the Government till the fall 
of 1867. From Fort Laramie he went to Elk Mountain, where a busy lumber and 
tie camp had been established in connection with the building of the Union Pacific 
Railroad, remaining till the spring of 1870, when he went to Fort Laramie and 
engaged in hauling wood for John Hunton who had a contract to supply the 
fort. For several years he worked teams with a partner named Cush Abbott on 
Government contracts for hay and wood. About the year 1873 they bought one 
hundred head of cattle and started a ranch just above Chimney Rock on the 
Chugwater, in the meantime keeping their freight teams at work on Government 
contracts. In 1877 Mr. Hunter sold his teams to John Hunton and went to 
Montana to engage in the cattle business exclusively. Later he sold out his 
Montana holdings and came to Cheyenne to reside, but invested largely in the 
ranch and cattle business at various points in Wyoming. He bought the Horse 
Creek Ranch of Gordon & Campbell and went into partnership with John Hunton 
at the Bullock ranch on Laramie River. Mr. Hunter was a prominent leader in the 
democratic party of the state. He held many positions of public trust, including 
that of state senator. He died at Cheyenne August 30, 1916, at the age of sixty- 
eight years. 


What Dan McUlvan knows about the early days of Wyoming and won't tell, 
would fill a good sized volume. He lives in Cheyenne in the enjoyment of an 
ample fortune and while he enjoys the memory of those early days when he lived 
an open air life on the plains and in the mountains as a roustalsout. miner, tie- 
cutter, freighter, bridge-tender, etc., he keeps the enjoyment to himself and cannot 
be induced to talk for publication. From one of his old friends we learn that 
he came to Wyoming in 1865 and for sometime ran F)ridger's Ferry at a crossing 
near what is now Orin Junction. In 1867, in company with a Mr. McFarlane, 
he was engaged in working a gold mine for Mr. Bullock on the Horseshoe in the 
Laramie Peak region, until the Indians drove them out and they were obliged to 
abandon the enterprise. The fights they had ^\■ith the Indians and their narrow 
escapes would make an interesting story. From there he went to the tie camp at 
Elk ]\Iountain and worked for the Union Pacific Railroad. Back to Fort Laramie 
in 1870, he engaged with McFarlane in putting in wood for Mr. Hunton, and after- 
ward freighted goods for the Indian department. In 1872 he went into the cattle 
business establishing a ranch north of Chimney Rock, which was later purchased 
by Erasmus Nagle. About 1885, he went to Cheyenne and in company with 
Henry Altman organized the famous Hereford Ranch on Crow Creek a few miles 
east of Cheyenne, for the raising of high grade, pedigreed cattle. In this business 
he accumulated a fortune. Selling out his interest a few years ago he retired from 


business and enjoys a well earned rest while still in possession of vigorous health 
and an iron constitution gained in the sunshine and ozone of a Wyoming climate. 


The editor of this volume, while on a prospecting trip in the Laramie mountains 
with his sons in the summer of 1899, made the acquaintance of Frank Grouard. 
We camped near the beautiful Horse Shoe Park, where Grouard was in charge of 
a copper and lead mine. The evening we pitched our tent he came over and 
introduced himself and offered us the hospitalities of the camp. On our invitation 
he spent the evening with us smoking and swapping stories, but principally talking 
about the ores and mineral prospects in that vicinity. For the few days we were 
camped there we interchanged visits and took many meals together. A few- 
months later, Grouard made us a week's visit at our headquarters camp at Hart- 
ville and our acquaintance ripened into friendship. 

Grouard was one of the most interesting men that I have ever met, and had the 
most thrilling and adventurous life of any of the great scouts known to western 
history. He had lived six years among the Indians as the adopted brother of 
Sitting Bull, where he gained the respect and admiration of the whole Sioux 
tribe and visiting tribes, for his achievements as hunter and marksman, athletic 
powers and feats of dare-devil bravery. As a scout and Indian trailer he never 
had a superior, his endurance was wonderful, when on expeditions in pursuit of 
Indians he was always accurate and unerring in his knowledge of their location, 
and in his advice as to the best method of approaching and fighting them. Generals 
Sheridan, Crook, Merritt and other noted commanders have testified to Grouard's 
remarkable genius as a scout, and various correspondents and newspaper men like 
Gen. James S. Brisbin, Capt. John G. Bourke, Capt. Jack Crawford, John 
F. Finnerty, have been on expeditions with him and importuned him for the 
story of his life without success. 

He was naturally reticent and as modest as he was brave. General Crook, in 
his correspondence with the war department in 1876, referring to Grouard and his 
valuable services, said : "I would sooner lose a third of my command than Frank 

His affection for, and confidence in, Grouard was reciprocated and the>i\- became 
firm and steadfast friends. During Grouard's stay in our camp at different times 
he overcame his reticence and told us many events of his life. His ancestors 
were French Huguenots who fled to America and settled near Portsmouth, N. H. 
His father was born there and at the age of twenty went to the South Sea Islands 
as a missionary and married there a native woman, daughter of a chief. Frank 
was the second son and was therefore half French and half Malay. .\s he seldom 
referred to his childhood, his companions generally thought him to be a full or part 
Indian. Indeed he might be mistaken for a full-blooded Sioux, except he was 
handsomer than any Indian. He was six feet in height, weighed two hundred and 
thirty pounds, had broad shoulders and a heavy growth of black hair. He was- 
straight and symmetrical, had handsome dark brown eyes. His habits were 
temperate so that he retained his strength, vigor and athletic powers at all times. 

Frank's father brought his family to California where his wife left him and 
returned to the Islands. Frank was left in the family of Addison Pratt at Beaver, 


Utah. He ran away from the Pratts and got a job as bull-whacker, hauling 
freight from San Bernardino to Helena, Mont. This was in 1865 when he was 
about fifteen years of age. A few years later he got a job breaking horses for 
the Holliday Stage Company and soon after was put in the Pony Express service 
from Diamond City to Fort Hall on the Missouri River. On his fourth trip the 
Indians captured him. He was suddenly surrounded by twenty Blackfeet who 
pulled him oR his horse and stripped him entirely naked and told him to go back. 
Then they began to lash him with quirts following him for several miles as he 
ran over a country covered with patches of cactus. He was not long in reaching 
Fort Hall, seventy miles away. 

He was next put on the mail line from Fort Hall to Fort Peck at the mouth of 
Milk River. He was then a boy nineteen years of age. The Sioux were getting 
ugly and committing depredations throughout that region. It was winter time and 
while making a trip, going through a gulch in a snow storm, without thought of 
anyone being near he was suddenly hit on the back of the head and knocked from 
his horse. A band of Sioux warriors surrounded him and began to quarrel over 
him, as to who should have his guns, his fur coat, gloves and leggings. During 
the quarrel another Indian rode up. He seemed to have great authority. He 
stopped the quarrel and knocked down the one who had taken the rifle. He then 
took Grouard to the Indian Village. During the three days travel before reaching 
the hostile camp he learned that his captor was the famous Indian Chief, "Sitting 
Bull," who, on arriving took Grouard to his own tent and motioned him to sit 
down on a pile of buffalo robes. He fell asleep from pure exhaustion, although 
he fully expected to be tortured and killed very soon. While he slept the Indians 
held a council to decide his fate. Chiefs Gall and No-Neck declared for his im- 
mediate execution and they had a majority of the tribe with them. Sitting Bull 
almost alone refused to consent to Grouard's deatli and he declared he would 
make him his "brother." His public adoption into Sitting Bull's family saved him 
from a cruel death. The chief had taken a great fancy to Grouard, named him 
"Standing Bear," and called him brother. The name, Standing Bear, was soon 
known to all the surrounding tribes. This name was given him because when 
captured he wore a heavy fur coat, fur leggings, cap and gloves, and was so 
bundled up, prepared for the storm, that he resembled a bear. 

He lived with Sitting Bull for six years, during which time he became 
thoroughly acquainted with their language and traditions, their manners and 
customs in war and peace and he so excelled the best of them in athletic exercises, 
markmanship, running and wrestling that he was looked upon with superstitious 
fear as a superior being. He studied and made notes of the legends and mythology 
of the Sioux tribes and had prepared a very complete history which was destroyed 
in a fire which burned his residence near Buffalo, Wyo. 

He described the torture test he had to undergo as a Sioux warrior. All the 
village was assembled. He was taken by four chiefs and stripped naked. His 
flesh was raised by pricking him with needles. Pieces about the size of a pea 
were cut out with sharp knives, from each arm, in all over four hundred 
pieces. They pulled out his eyebrows and eyelashes one by one. They set fire to 
pieces of the pith of the sunflower which burned like punk, and held them against 
his wrist until they bumed out. Although he endured untold agony he did not 
flinch and gave no sign of his distress. The ceremonies lasted four hours and he 


was declared a good Indian. Then he was put through the "sweat" as a sort of a 
healing process. During the latter part of his captivity he was entrusted with peace 
negotiations and on account of Sitting Bull breaking his agreement with him 
and the whites he determined to give up his Indian life. 

For a long time he had been allowed his freedom and on one trip he went to 
visit a white friend on Snake River, Neb. An expedition against the Indians 
was being organized. Orders were sent out for scouts who knew the country and 
he was persuaded to go to the camp where the troops were gathered. They told 
him to go and see General Crook, who was then at Fort Laramie, ninety miles 
away. He started at night and reached there the next morning. Crook questioned 
him very closely about the chance of getting at the Indians, engaged him as a 
scout at $125 a month, and they went back to the Red Cloud Agency. They 
went on an expedition to Tongue River and camped at the present site of Dayton. 
Here he assisted in making a treaty with Crazy Horse, for which service the 
Government paid him $500. It was three months before he could talk good 
English. During this period he wore Indian costume and long hair and to all 
appearances was a genuine Indian. He then had his hair cut and adopted a white 
man's dress and customs. 

After that he was made chief of scouts and accompanied General Crook on 
his various expeditions, and was also with General MacKenzie, General Merritt 
and General Sheridan at different periods. He was with Crook's command in the 
campaign which resulted in the Custer massacre, was on the Custer battlefield 
the next morning after the fight and saw the bodies of the newly slain men. 
Grouard says Custer must have killed himself as his body was not harmed. The 
Indians will not touch the body of a suicide. He rode around their villages and 
estimated that they had nine thousand fighting men. He was with Merritt in the 
Nez Perce campaign, took a prominent part in suppressing the ghost dance and 
Messiah outbreaks at the Pine Ridge Agency, and made all the plans for the 
arrest of Sitting Bull which practically ended the Indian troubles of that time. 

He was given a life position by the United States Government with a good 
salary whether on duty or not, but he was too proud to accept pay when he was 
rendering no service, and early in the '90s resigned and went into business for 
himself. He settled near Buffalo, Wyo., engaged in ranching and mining and while 
employed in the latter occupation we made his acquaintance. The details of his 
life and adventures have been told in an interesting volume written by Joe De 
Barth, a well known writer and newspaper man of Buffalo where Grouard spent 
his later years. 


The name of Sacajawea, enrolled as a pathfinder on the pages of the early 
history of the Northwest, has given an added lustre to the womanhood of the 
Indian race. A bill was introduced in the Wyoming Legislature in February, 
1907, appropriating $500 to mark the grave of this remarkable Indian girl, who 
with singular fidelity, keen insight and unsurpassed endurance and bravery, guided 
the Lewis and Clark expedition across the western continent to the Pacific coast. 
The same year the North Dakota Legislature appropriated $15,000 for a founda- 
tion and pedestal upon which to erect a statue in her honor to be erected at 


Bismarck, the design to be made by Leonard Crunille. Tiiere is also a project 
being undertaken in Montana to erect a monument to Sacajawea at Three Forks. 
It is a tine thing even after more than a hundred years have elapsed that the busy, 
money-making people of this generation have at last begun to recognize the 
greatness of her achievement and desire to do honor to her memory. 

Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, of the Wyoming State University, in her very 
interesting account of Sacajawea's services, says: "It was an epoch-making jour- 
ney, a journey that moved the world along; that pushed the boundary of the 
United States from the Mississippi River to the Pacific ; that gave us the breadth 
of the hemisphere from ocean to ocean; the command of its rivers and harbors; 
the wealth of the mountains, plains and valleys — a domain rich enough for the 
ambition of kings." 

Sacajawea was a Shoshone Indian girl, the wife of Toissant Charbonneau. 
She was engaged as guide by Lewis and Clark when they reached the Mandan 
Indian village where she resided. Her husband, Charbonneau was first em- 
ployed as an interpreter. He had two wives, the youngest being Sacajawea, who 
was sold to him as a slave when about fourteen years old. The following year, 
1805, she gave birth to a child and this child she took with her on the long jour- 
ney, strapped to her back. The babe grew up to become a skilled guide and 
scout and was known as "Baptiste." Before this time Sacajawea had been a 
captive for five years and had accompanied her captors over much of the 
ground over which tlie expedition went, and so by her knowledge and natural 
instinct in selecting trails she led the explorers on their way. That summer the 
party camped on the exact spot, at the junction of the Madison, Jeft'erson and 
-Gallatin rivers, where as a child captive she had camped and played years be- 
fore. She was the one who found the pass through the mountains and saved 
•fhe party from long wanderings in an unknown wilderness. 

Many dramatic incidents attended the trip. On one occasion when crossing 
■a. swollen stream one of their boats containing their valuable records was over- 
turned and the records were floating away when she plunged into the dangerous 
stream and rescued the papers before they sank. On another occasion she 
found a brother who had been separated from the family many years had be- 
come an Indian chief. Neither recognized the other until the family relations 
were explained when they had a most affectionate reunion. The brother gave 
much assistance to the party in purchasing horses and supplies. She even assisted 
her husband in interpreting as she knew some Indian dialects better than he did. 
When starvation threatened them she collected artichokes and other nutritious 
plants and seeds which kept them alive till they reached places where better food 
could be had. 

Lewis and Clark reached the coast December 7, 1805, and remained till 
March, 1806, when they began to retrace their journey to Mandan which they 
reached in August. Referring to Sacajawea, Lewis and Clark's Journal says ; 

"We found Charbonneau's wife particularly useful. Indeed she endured with 
a patience truly admirable the fatigues of so long a route incumbered with an 
infant now only nineteen months old. She was very observant, remembering 
locations not seen since her childhood. 

"In trouble she was full of resources, plucky and determined. With her 
helpless infant she rode with the men, guiding us unerringly through mountain 


passes and lonely places. Intelligent, cheerful, resourceful, tireless and faithful, 
she inspired us all." 

No better eulogium could be written of her personal character of the great 
service she rendered not only to the explorers but through them to our country. 
Her name is said to be derived from Sac, a canoe or raft, a — the, jawea, launcher — 
a launcher or paddler of canoes. 

She was short of stature and was handsome in her girlhood days. She spoke 
French as well as several Indian tongues. She lived to a great age and during 
her whole life was wonderfully active and intelligent. She died at the Shoshone 
Agency near Lander, April 9, 1884, and was buried in the burial ground of the 
agency where her grave was marked by a small slab. The grave has been 
identified by her children and grandchildren, a fact ascertained and certified to, 
by Rev. John Roberts, who was a missionary at the reservation from 1883 to 
1906. If the State of Wyoming ever becomes mindful of its patriotic and historic 
obligations it will erect a fitting memorial monument to Sacajawea, the brave 
pathfinding Indian girl, and also one to Chief Washakie, the greatest of Indian 
warriors and statesmen. 


The management of the State Industrial Convention held at Casper in Sep- 
tember, 1905, offered a prize for the best poem on Caspar Collins. The award 
was made to I. S. Bartlett of Cheyenne, who contributed the following: 

Ah, sad the need and sad the day. 
When Caspar Collins rode away 
And in the battle's fiery breath 
Rode undismayed and captured death. 

With courage rare his brave young heart 
Impelled to take a soldier's part 
And save his comrades on the trail. 
He counted no such word as fail. 

He rode to death nor cared to know 
The fearful numbers of his foe, 
How great the odds, how sure his fate; 
He rode to lead and not to wait. 

Where Casper's church spires pierce the ambient air 
And the young city rises proud and fair. 
Where children's voices mingle with the bells 
And sound of happy industry, that tells 
The storj' of a new and better life. 
We turn our memory to red-blooded strife, 
The toilsome march, the ambuscade, the yell 
Of painted savages and battle's hell. 


That made our pioneers a sturdy race 
Of iron blood and nerves of steel, to face 
The storms and dangers of the wilderness, 
A future race, a future land to bless. 

We tread historic ground; Casper's old fort 
And old Platte Bridge, were once resort 
Of men who braved the perils of the trail 
And perished there with none to tell the tale; 
Hunters and trappers. Uncle Samuel's troops. 
Gold seekers. Mormons, men in motley groups 
With prairie schooners, mounts and caravans. 
Trailed o'er the plains; 'twas in the Almighty's plans 
For they were empire builders, who should rear 
The splendid commonwealth that we find here; 
Thus Casper in the path of empire lies 
Bound to old memories with historic ties. 

In 'sixty-five one July day 

Near Casper's site the old fort lay; 

Thousands of Indians swarmed around. 

The hills near by with yells resound ; 

Few were the garrison but brave. 

Hemmed in they sought all means to save 

Their little band ; but worse than all 

A wagon train was due that day 

And even then was on its way 

From Sweetwater with twenty men ; 

How could they reach the fort? 'twas then 

A terror new burst on their view ; 

Could they be saved? Oh, who would dare 

To fight 2,000 Indians there? 

Their force was small and great their fear, 
But five and twenty volunteer 
To march at once, to do or die ; 
But who will lead them was the cry ; 
Old officers declined; too late 
They said, to challenge fate. 

Young Caspar Collins, a mere boy. 
Stepped to the front with courage grand 
And volunteered to lead the band, 
The mission to him was a joy. 

"Trot, gallop, charge," the order came, 
The troopers rode to death and fame, 
They dashed across the old Platte Bridge 


But met upon the frowning ridge 
Two thousand Indians swarming there; 
With yells resounding through the air 
They sprang from many an ambuscade 
And overwhelmed the cavalcade. 
Hot raged the battle; it was hell 
Transferred to earth and none could tell 
What man alone could save his life 
In that unequal, maddening strife. 
They fought retreating to the fort 
To reach there with a good report, 
But Collins turned to help a man 
Wounded and dying in the van, 
Alas for him, alas the fate 
That made his effort all too late. 
He rode with courage undismayed 
Into the Indian bands, arrayed 
In mad revenge; and met his death 
Fighting alone to his last breath. 

Thus Caspar Collins in the thrilling fray 

Died gloriously and left a name 

Written in letters bright as day 

Upon the annals of Wyoming fame. 

While Casper Mountain shadows fall at night, 

Or the keen lances of the morning light 

Dart o'er the foothills, or the light breeze blows 

Along the valley where the North Platte flows. 

The name of Caspar Collins will abide. 

Written with those who grandly strove and died 

To save their fellowmen and build a state 

Of happy homes, proud, prosperous and great. 


No story of the frontier days of Wyoming and the Mountain West would be 
complete without a sketch of the life and experiences of Luke Voorhees, now 
receiver of the United States land office at Cheyenne. Probably no man living 
could give such a rich store of personal experiences and adventures pertaining 
to the pioneer days of the western wilderness. 

He was bom at Belvidere, N. J., November 29, 1838, and the next year his 
parents moved to Michigan where he lived till 1857. On March lOth of that 
year, his spirit of adventure and thirst for "the wild," led him to start for 
Leavenworth, Kan., as he expresses it, "to hunt buffalo, scalp Indians and get 
a piece of land to farm." 

He first reached Wyoming in October, 1859, passing over what is now Chey- 
enne nearly eight years before the town came into existence. In a recent edition 


of the Cheyenne Leader, Mr. Voorhees gives a history of the Overland Stage 
Company, organized in 1857, which is replete with thrilling incidents. The main 
historical facts are given elsewhere in this work. Speaking of the perils they 
encountered, he relates the following incidents : 


In March, 1862, as if every Indian in the country had been especially instructed 
(the Shoshones and Bannocks in the western mountains and the Sioux on the 
plains), simultaneously pounced upon every station between Bridger's Ferry and 
Bear River (about where Evanston, Wyo., now stands). They captured the 
horses and mules on that division of the Overland route. The stages, passengers, 
and express were left standing at stations. The Indians did not, on that raid, 
kill anyone except at Split Rock on the Sweetwater. Holliday being a little 
stylish had brought out from Pennsylvania a colored man who had been raised 
in that state and who could only talk Pennsylvania Dutch. The Indians when 
they reached Split Rock called on Black Face, as they called him, to make heap 
biscuit, heap coff (meaning coffee), heap shug. Black Face said, nix come roush. 
They then spoke to Black Face in Mexican. The colored man shook his head 
and said, nixey. Whereupon they tried a little French half-breed talk. Black 
Face again said "nix fershta." In the meantime the colored man seemed about 
to collapse. Things looked serious for him. After a consultation they concluded 
to skin him alive and get heap rawhide. Then they said heap shoot. So they 
killed the poor fellow, helped themselves to the grub and left. 

In the year 1857, Mr. \'oorhees made the trip from Lawrence, Kan., up the 
Kansas River to the confluence of the Smoky Hill and Republican and thence 
west on the plains about one hundred and fifty miles, on a buffalo hunt, and 
later in 1859, made a trip up the Arkansas River via Bent's Old Fort to "Pikes 
Peak or bust," camped where Denver now stands and went over the country 
from the South Platte to Pawnee Buttes. On this trip he saw buffalo herds 
covering the plains for 200 miles and he says that the word "millions" would 
not express their number. He saw one of the greatest herds in the vicinity of 
Pine Bluffs, about forty miles east of Cheyenne, now the Golden Prairie district, 
where many dry farmers are getting rich raising wheat, oats and live stock. He 
also on this trip passed over the present site of Cheyenne. His early recollec- 
tions of the city which are very interesting appear in other parts of this history. 
(Jne incident is mentioned of a 


An important occurrence was the advent of a velocipede on January 23, 
1868, which the cowboys named a two-wheeled jackrabbit. About the same time 
a rather impromptu wedding occurred and it was announced in the Leader in 
this way: "On the east half of the northwest quarter of section twenty-two 
(22). township twenty-one (21), north of range eleven (11) east, in an open 
sleigh and under open and unclouded canopy by the Rev. J- F. Mason, James B., 
only son of John Cox of Colorado, and Ellen C. eldest daughter of Major O. 
Harrington of Nebraska." 



Speaking of the depredations of the Indians and the hold-ups by the road 
agents on the Overland route from 1861 to 1867, Mr. Voorhees refers as follows 
to one trip made by Ben HoUiday and his wife : "In June, 1863, Ben Holliday 
concluded to make a personal trip over the line with Mrs. Holliday from Sac- 
ramento, Cal., to Atchison, Kan. He telegraphed his intention to do so, with 
strict orders that no one but the division superintendents should know of his 
trip at that time but to have extra horses at the relay stations so as to make 
record time. He desired the utmost secrecy for the reason that he was taking 
$40,OCX3 in gold with him to New York (gold at that time being worth $2.40 in 
greenbacks). He had a false bottom securely built in the coach where he 
packed the gold, so that should he be held up, no road agent would suspect 
the money being in any other place than the treasure box which was always 
carried in the front boot of the stage. The United States mail was carried in 
the hind boot. 

"At that date it was a rare thing to have any of the Overland stages held up 
by any one but the Indians. However, on this special trip of Ben Holliday it 
really happened. For between Green River stage station and Salt Wells on 
Bitter Creek, Wyoming, three men suddenly sprang from a ravine, each armed 
with a double-barreled shotgun and two dragoon revolvers, calling to the drivers 
to halt, which order was quickly obeyed. The road agents ordered all passen- 
gers — 'hands up high!' On seeing a lady passenger in the coach they said she 
need not get out as they (the robbers) were gentlemen of the first water and 
never molested a lady. But they warned Mr. Holliday to keep his hands above 
his head. During the search through the treasure box and mail, Ben Holliday's 
heavy, bristly mustache began tickling his nose. It became so acute and unbear- 
able that he finally made a move to scratch it. Instantly the road agent ordered 
his hands up high. "My God !' said Ben, T must scratch my nose, I can't stand 
it.' 'You keep your hands up where I told you,' said the agent, 'I will attend 
to the nose business.' So he proceeded to rub Ben's nose with the muzzle of 
the shotgun. Thus relieved he held up his hands until the search was finished. 

However, the false bottom in the coach was a success for it sa\-ed the gold 
which Mr. Holliday carried safely through to New York where he changed it 
into greenbacks clearing the handsome sum of $56,000. 


During the winter of 1866, Mr. \'oorhees made a trip by stage from the 
gold camp (now Helena), Montana, to Salt Lake City. At that time he had 
been gold placer mining for three years in various camps in the Northwest and 
had about two hundred pounds of gold dust which he took to an assay office to 
be run into ingots and sold for currency, gold being worth then about $2.40 in 
greenbacks. It was there he met a notorious western character known as "Yeast 
Powder Bill" who claimed to be a partner of Sam Clemens ( ;\Iark Twain). He 
said he and Sam had been prospecting together for silver in Nevada, that Clem- 
ens claimed to be a pilot (sagebrush pilot) but they had got lost, which proved 
he was no good and he had quit him. 


After he had got cleaned up, "Yeast Powder" started for a drink. "They 
brew a native drink out of wheat and potatoes called 'valley tan.' I never tried 
it but those who did said it was the stuff. It would make a man fight a Sierra 
grizzly bear or his grandmother. Bill bought one drink for fifty cents and it 
created such an increase in his estimate of the mines that he and Clemens didn't 
discover, that he bought another. The world looked brighter after taking the 
second drink and he wanted a square meal. 

"He was directed to Salt Lake House. Bill laid off his belt and two navy 
revolvers so he could eat comfortably. The landlord said the dinner was $3, pay 
in advance. Yeast Powder said it seemed steep but he always tried to play 
the game to the limit so he paid the $3 and entered the dining room. The menu 
was not a printed one, but verbal. Little Mollie, the waitress, or head waiter, 
was a very good looking little English (Mormon) girl. Bill told her to call the 
roll for $3 worth of grub, as he wanted to chaw worse than a California grizzly 
wanted to chaw a Digger Indian. Mollie called over the grub as she thought of 
it. She said 'carrots, biled beef, cabbage, taters, turnips, tea, hog meat and 
beans (Brigham cautioned his people to say hog meat, not pork), dried apple 
pie, stewed calves' liver and curlew.' 'Curlew! what the hell is curlew?" asked 
Bill. Mollie said it was a bird that could fly away up and whistle. Well, Bill 

said, any d d thing that could fly and whistle and would stay in this country, 

he did not want to tackle, so he took tea, hog meat and beans, taters, calves' liver 
and dried apple pie." 

Among Mr. Voorhees' thrilling experiences with Indians and stage robbers, 
were the incidents connected with his starting and managing the Cheyenne and 
Black Hills Stage Line. He organized the company in February, 1876, and soon 
had stages running. At that time the wonderful stories of the rich gold placers 
of the Black Hills caused a stampede to the Hills, most of the rush being by 
way of Cheyenne. The magnitude of the enterprise of running a stage line to 
say nothing of its dangers, is shown by his first orders for equipment of thirty 
Concord coaches and 600 head of horses. The line was kept up till 1882, and the 
hair-raising experiences with Indians and stage robbers during that time, could 
fill a volume. He had seven stage drivers killed by stage robbers and Sioux In- 

On giving up the stage line business Mr. Voorhees engaged extensively in the 
cattle business and has made Cheyenne his home. He has occupied the position 
of state treasurer and other prominent official positions and is enjoying a green 
old age, in robust health and active life, loved and respected by all. 


The following stories are told by Rev. W. B. D. Gray, who was one of the 
early missionaries to Wyoming. His biography which appears in another part 
of this history is replete in-vthrilling incidents and scenes of pioneer days. Mr. 
Gray is something of a sportsman, using the term in its best sense. He is one 
of the best riflemen in the state, and he attained distinction before coming to 
Wyoming, as a bowman, having won several prizes at National Archery Tourna- 
ments as the best shot at different distances. He is six feet and one inch in height, 
straight as an Indian and weighs 230 pounds. Many a ranchman in Wyoming 


and South Dakota has been provided with venison as a resuh of the preacher's 
rifle practice. 

The character of the material out of which the nervy, self-rehant men and 
women of the mountain and plateaus of our great Northwest are made, is shown 
in the unusual brightness of the children born and reared in the high altitudes 
of the Rocky Mountains, of which the men and women are the finished product. 
This is well illustrated by the following incident : 

In a little frontier village, nestling close under one of the mighty Rocky 
Mountain ranges, down which, through a picturesque canyon, came rushing and 
tumbling a beautiful stream, a Christian lady gathered the children on Sunday 
afternoons to tell Bible stories and impart to their eager ears some instruction 
from the Holy Book. One Sunday she told the story of the Good Samaritan, 
in which the children were very much interested. The next Sunday she asked 
them if they could remember what the last lesson was about. Hands went up 
in all directions. In front of her sat a little boy, who, in his eagerness, rose to 
his feet, holding up both hands — 

"T know, ma'am ; I know all about it. It was "The Hold-up in Jericho Can- 
yon.' " 

"No! no! Johnnie," replied the teacher; "it was a Bible story that I told 

"Yes, ma'am! I know it; I can tell the kids." 
So Johnnie stood up and told the story. 

"Why, ma'am," he said, "a chap was goin' up the canyon and some fellers 
came out of the brush and slugged him, put him to sleep, took away his wad, 
and left him lying in the trail all covered with blood and dirt. Pretty soon, a 
doctor feller came along and when he saw him, he said, 'He ain't none of my 
medicine,' and hit the trail and went up the canyon. 

"Then a preacher feller came along, and he saw him, and said, T ain't goin' 
to monkey with him,' and he hit the trail and followed the doctor. 

"Then a cowboy came along on his bronc; just a good, honest cowboy. 
When he saw him, he lit off and felt him. He wa'n't dead ! He looked again. 
They'd got his wad and left him sure in bad shape. So he pulled off his wipe, 
rubbed the blood off the feller's face, picked him up and put him on the bronc 
and took him up the trail till he came to a road house. Then he called out, 'Hi, 
Bill ! Come out here ; here's a chap I found down the canyon. They've slugged 
him, got his wad, and left him in bad shape. You must take him in and take 
care of him. Here's my wad and if there ain't enough to pay you, when I come 
back from the round-up, I'll bring you some more.' " 

It was in a region of the Northwestern country unsurpassed for beauty and 
magm'ficence of scenery. The afternoon's sun was slowly sinking behind the 
mountains, when suddenly upon the summit of one of the foothills appeared two 
horsemen, their figures strongly outlined against the evening sky. As they stood 
there the strokes of an ax could be distinctly hea*|d coming from a bunch of 
timber in a bend of the stream below. Evidently the sound attracted the at- 
tention of the quondam trappers, for after securing their horses in a dense 
thicket they made their way noiselessly to a point where a good view of the op- 
posite bank could be had. 

Before them lay a secluded plateau almost hidden by the heavy timber sur- 


rounding it. Close to its edge a band of rough-looking men were busily engaged 
in felling trees and building a long, low cabin and stable of heavy logs. Near 
by, almost hidden by underbrush, could be seen an opening into a cave of no 
mean proportions, to which the men could retreat in case of necessity. Tied to 
trees were a number of horses saddled and bridled for instant use, and the ever 
ready "Winchesters" were close at hand. This was the James' gang. 

"Thar's my game by all that's lovely," whispered Bill. "Now that I've run 
'em down, let's get out of here." 

As the shadows of a moonless night fell upon mountain and plain the two 
men might be seen cooking their supper over a camp fire. The younger of the 
two, evidently the leader, was a man of medium size, with a mass of long, 
curly, brown hair, black eyes and a pleasant face, dressed in a suit of buckskin, 
with a soft felt hat placed jauntily upon his head. About his waist was a belt 
full of cartridges, to which was suspended a bowie knife and revolver of large 
size, while by his side lay a rifle that showed signs of wear. 

His companion, larger in size and less attractive in feature, was similarly 
armed. The former, though scarcely thirty years of age, was a gtiide already 
known and respected in the Rocky Mountain country, going by the cognomen 
of "Young Bill." His known honesty and bravery had long before attracted 
the attention of those whose business it was to hunt down criminals, and of late 
he had added to his profession that of "detective"; though it was not known 
to any except those who employed him. \Mien the hastily prepared supper 
v.-as disposed of and' all traces of the fire obliterated, the elder man said to his 
companion : 

"Wall, Bill, I don't know what )'er plans ar', but this ere is gettin' too un- 
comfortably hot to suit me, and I'm goin' to pull over the divide and hunt more 
congenial companions. If ye want ter gather in that James gang lone-handed, 
all right ; but as fer me, I prefer to trap varmints which have more 'fur' and less 

The hand of the younger man dropped naturally and suggestively to his 
belt as he softly replied : "Ye'll stay where ye be and help build me a cabin and 
start a ranch alongside my game, and then ye can get out as soon as ye please. I 
ain't afeared to play this game lone-handed if I know myself." 

Two years elapsed. The cabin the road agents built and occupied as their 
northern retreat when hard pressed by the officers of the law still stands, but 
thanks to "Bill" and other daring officers, the gang is broken up. Upon the 
same plateau stood the detective's cabin and near it a "dugout" in which he spent 
his nights while hunting down the road agents. Midway between the two cabins 
a prosperous town has sprtmg up, comprising a hotel, blacksmith shop, two 
saloons, and several dwellings known as "Black Canon City." 

It was a beautiful day; our friend, the detective, was just finishing his noonday 
meal when the sound of a horse's footfall broke the stillness, followed by the usual 
announcement of an arrival: "Hello, inside.'' "Hello, yourself," came the quick 

"Is this town Black Canon City?" 

"You bet it are, stranger." 

"Do you have any preaching hereabouts ?" 



"I'm a preacher and would like to make an appointment if it is agreeable to the 
citizens of this growing berg." 

"See here, mister, I don't know how much nerve 3-e've got, or how preachin' 
will take, but I like yer spirit and I'll back ye in this thing; and when 'Bill' backs 
a feller he don't have no trouble and the thing goes. Get down and rest yer 
saddle while yer eat." 

When the physical necessities of the preacher had been met the detective con- 
tinued: "I haint got much of a cabin, ye see, but it's about as big as any in the 
town ; so if ye can get along with the dirt floor ye can preach here and I'll rustle 
ye up a crowd.'' 

Thus began a work for the Master in one of the outposts of the Rocky 
Mountain districts. Later in the season a Sunday School was started in the 
same cabin, to be removed afterward to a little log schoolhouse which the settlers 
built. When the day arrived for the removal of the Sunday School from the 
detective's cabin, a friend of the enterprise went to one of the saloons and spoke 
thus : 

"See here, fellers, the people of this 'ere camp ar' goin' to start a Sunday School 
today over in the school house. They are goin' over now ; money's scarce with 
them and I propose we give "em a boost." 

"That's the talk," said the saloon keeper, "and this 'ere shop is goin' to close 
until that ar' thing is over : we'll all go acrost and give 'em a starter ; but mind 
ye, boys, nothin' smaller than 'cartwheels' (dollars) go into the hat today." 

The other saloon would not be outdone. As a result it was a "goodly" if not 
"Godly" crowd which filled the rear seats of the little log schoolhouse, and the 
Sunday School had more money that afternoon than ever before in its history. 

From these beginnings, and this Sunday School, sprang a Congregational 
Church which has had much to do with shaping the character of the town and 
nearby country. The detective still lives, honored and respected ; his cabin has 
been destroyed, but the entrance to both his and the James brothers' caves can 
still be seen. The old preacher has gone to his eternal reward. 


O Lord, I've never lived where churches grow : 

I've loved creation better as it stood 
That day you finished it. so long ago, 

And looked upon your work and called it good. 

Just let me live my life as I've begun ! 

And give me work that's open to the sky; 
Make me a partner of the wind and sun, 

And I won't ask a life that's soft or high. 

Make me as big and open as the plains ; 

As honest as the horse between my knees ; 
Clean as the wind that blows behind the rains ; 

Free as the hawk that circles down the breeze. 


Just keep an eye on all that's done and said; 

Just right me sometimes when I turn aside; 
And guide me on the long, dim trail ahead — 

That stretches upward towards the Great Divide. 

— Author Unknozmi. 









When the Nineteenth Century was in its infancy, the first fur traders and 
trappers came into the country that now forms the State of Wyoming. From 
that time until 1868 the region was known by various names, such as the "North 
Platte Country,' the ''Sweetwater," the "Wind River Valley," the "Big Horn Coun- 
try," etc. Inuring this period of half a century the trappers and traders were the 
only white inhabitants of the entire Rocky Mountain country. Their occupancy 
was not of a permanent character, as they migrated from place to place in pursuit 
of fur-bearing animals. Even trading posts that one year bore all the evidences 
of stablility were abandoned the next. Official reports of Lewis and Clark. 
Fremont, and other Government explorers, called attention to the character and 
possibilities of the Northwest, but even then years were permitted to elapse before 
the first actual settlements were attempted within the present limits of the state. 


"The L^tah Handbook of History" says that John Nebeker, Isaac Bullock 
and fifty-three others settled at Fort Supply, in the Green River Valley, in 
November, 1853, ^"d credits these persons with being the first actual settlers 
in Wyoming. The place where this settlement was established was at old Fort 
Bridger, in what is now Uinta County. Bridger sold his fort there to the Mor- 
mons, who in 1855 changed the name of the post to Fort Supply, the object being 
to carry a full line of supplies for emigrants on their way to the Pacific coast. 
It was abandoned about two years later, when a detachment of United States 
troops under Col. E. B. Alexander marched against the Mormon fort, and the 


buildings were destroyed by the soldiers. Colonel Alexander's command formed 
part of the Utah expedition, commanded by Col. Albert Sidney Johnston. 

In 1867 a party of prospectors, among whom were Henry Riddell, Richard 
Grace, Noyes Baldwin, Frank Marshall, Harry Hubbell and others afterward 
known as Wyoming pioneers, discovered the Carisa lode and made their first 
locations at South Pass, in the southern part of Fremont County. News of the 
discovery of gold soon reached Salt Lake City and a party of thirty men, under 
the lead of a man named Lawrence, left that place prepared to spend the winter 
in the new gold fields. On the way to Wyoming the party was attacked by 
Arapaho Indians, with the result that Lawrence and one other man were killed. 
The others were pursued by the savages for some distance, when the Indians 
withdrew, probably because they were afraid to follow the prospectors into the 
Shoshone country. 

South Pass City was laid out in October, 1867, and before cold weather came 
the town had a population of about seven hundred people. A sawmill was built 
and a number of houses, of the most primitive character, were erected. Then 
the Atlantic Ledge, six miles northeast of South Pass City, and Miners Delight, 
two miles northeast of the Atlantic Ledge, were opened and there was an influx 
of gold seekers to those fields. Other mines were the Summit, King Solomon's, 
Northern Light, Lone Star State, Jim Crow, Hoosier Boy. Mahomet, Copper- 
opolis. Elmira, Scott & Eddy, and the Dakota Gulch, on Willow Creek, each 
having a population of one hundred or more. 

As these miners were miles away from the nearest established local govern- 
ment, and feeling the need of some authority to enforce the laws, they established 
a county called "Carter," for W. A. Carter of Fort Bridger. Its western boundary 
was the present western boundary of Sweetwater County and it extended east- 
ward for a distance of about one hundred and thirty miles. The action of the 
miners was legalized by the Dakota Legislature in a bill approved on December 
27, 1867, and the county was organized on January 3. 1868, with John Murphy 
as the first sheriff, upon whom devolved the duty of maintaining order in a com- 
munity composed in the main of rather turbulent individuals, though there were 
some who were always ready to assist in enforcing the laws. 

About the middle of February, 1868, John Able, Jeff Standifer, H. A. Thomp- 
son, L F. Staples, Louis and Peter Brade, James Leffingwell, Frank McGovern, 
Moses Sturman, John Eaves, John Holbrook, George Hirst, the Alexander broth- 
ers, William Matheney, Christopher Weaver and a few others left Salt Lake 
City and struggled through the winter snows, in order to be among the early 
arrivals of that year in the new mining districts. Colonel Morrow, commandant 
at Fort Bridger, heard of their coming and published a special order warning 
such parties that they must not expect to purchase supplies at the fort, for the 
reason that the stock on hand there was barely sufficient to subsist the garrison 
until traffic opened in the spring. 

In April, 1868, a new mining town of about three hundred prospectors was 
founded on Rock Creek, some four miles from South Pass City, in the midst 
of a gold-bearing quartz district, and Hamilton, another mining center, was 
established about four miles farther north. H. G. Nickerson discovered and 
opened the Bullion mine at Lewiston a little later in the year. Louis P. Vidal 
located the Buckeye mine in the early part of the year 1869. 


In P'ebruary, 1868, Warren & Hastings began the publication of a newspaper 
called the Sweetwater Miner, at Fort Bridger, which circulated reports that had 
a tendency to encourage immigration. The first merchant in the Wyoming gold 
fields was Worden Noble. He , was born in the State of New York in 1847 and 
came to Fort Laramie in 1866 as a bookkeeper for the firm of Coffee & Caney. 
In the spring of 1868 he opened a store at South Pass City, which he conducted 
for about one year, after which he was the contractor for Camp Stambaugh 
(afterward a permanent post) for about seven years. He then turned his atten- 
tion to stock raising, and was one of the county, commissioners of Sweetwater 
County from 1871 to 1877, when he was elected a member of the Legislative 
Council of the territory. 


One of the most potent factors in bringing actual settlers into Wyoming was 
the Union Pacific Railroad. In July, 1867, the railroad company established 
a land office where the City of Cheyenne now stands and began the sale of lots. 
The first house in Cheyenne was built about that time by a man named Larimer. 
Among the first settlers there were J. R. Whitehead, Robert M. Beers. Thomas 
E. McLeland and three others, who came with their families on the same day. 
In July. 1867. the first two-story house in the city was commenced by J. R. 

Morton E. Post, another early settler at Cheyenne, purchased two lots from 
the railroad land agent and then started back to a claim he had on the Platte 
River, about seventy-five miles below Denver. On the way, and when only 
a few miles from Cheyenne, he met a man who had discovered a coal mine, but 
who was afraid to visit the place because of Indians. Post agreed to accompany 
him to the mine, which they found only sixteen miles from Cheyenne and staked 
off their claim. In August. 1867. Mr. Post opened a store on the corner of 
Seventeenth and Ferguson streets (Ferguson Street is now Carey Avenue). When 
he bought his two lots from the railroad company he paid $600 for them, and 
before the close of the year sold part of them for $5,600. In 1872 he was elected 
one of the county commissioners of Laramie County, and in 1877 he established 
the first quartz mill at Deadwood, Dakota Territory. The next year he was 
one of the firm that opened the banking house of Stebbins, Post & Company at 
Deadwood. In 1878 he was elected to the upper house of the Wyoming Legisla- 
ture and in 1880 was chosen delegate to Congress. He was reelected delegate 
in 1882. and declined a nomination for a third term in i88d. 


When the L-nion Pacific Railroad reached Cheyenne in 1867, that town 
remained the terminus until work was resumed the following spring. The new 
town filled up with outlaws and disorderly characters, with which the civil 
authorities seemed powerless to cope. In this emergency a number of citizens 
got together and organized a vigilance committee. The first act of the com- 
mittee occurred on January 11, 1868. Three men — drier, St. Clair and Brown- 
ville — were under bonds to appear before the court for robbery on January 14. 


1868. The}' were bound together and a canvas fastened to them bearing their 
names and the following legend: "$900 stolen; $500 returned; city authorities 
please not interfere until 10 o'clock A. M. Next case goes up a tree. Beware 
of the Vigilance Committee.'' 

On the night of the 20th, Charles Martin and Charles Morgan were hanged 
by the committee, the former for killing Andrew Harris in a quarrel and the 
latter for horse stealing. The summary punishment meted out to offenders by 
the committee had a salutary effect on the community, and with the extension 
of the railroad westward a majority of the undesirables left the town. (See 
chapter entitled "The Story of Cheyenne" for a full account of the vigilance 

During the year 1868 the railroad was completed to the western boundary 
of the state, bringing with it hundreds of homeseekers. By the close of the 
year some enthusiastic persons estimated the population of \\'yoming at fifty 
thousand, or even more, an estimate that proved to be entirely too high, as was 
shown by the first authorized census the following year, when the territorial 
government was established. 


In 1865 James M. Ashley, a member of Congress from Ohio, introduced in 
the national House of Representatives a bill "to provide a temporary government 
for the Territory of Wyoming." This was the first move toward the formation 
of a new territory in the Big Horn country, and, so far as is shown by the records, 
it was the first suggestion of the name "Wyoming" for such a territory. The 
word "Wyoming" is said to have been derived from the Delaware Indian name 
"Waugh-mau-wa-ma" (meaning large plains), a name applied by them to the 
broad, beautiful valley they once inhabited in Pennsylvania. The writer has 
been unable to ascertain who first proposed the name for a territory in the Rocky 
Mountain region that was never seen by a Delaware Indian, or how it came to 
be selected. In the "large plains" sense the name is certainly applicable to the 
State of Wyoming. This fact may have influenced Mr. Ashley, who came from 
a state once claimed by the Delawares, to adopt the name, but that is purely a 
matter of conjecture. The Ashley bill was referred to the committee on terri- 
tories, which failed to report it back to the house for final action, and there 
the subject slumbered for more than two years. 

On September 27, 1867, the citizens of Cheyenne and the settlers in the 
immediate vicinity held a meeting at the city hall to consider, among other things, 
the question of a territorial organization. H. M. Hook presided at this meeting 
and J. R. Whitehead was chosen secretary. A resolution was adopted to hold 
an election for a delegate to Congress on the second Tuesday in October. Accord- 
ingly, on October 8, 1867, J. S. Casement was elected delegate. He went to 
Washington immediately after his election, but was not admitted because he 
represented no organized territory. He was able, however, to refresh the memory 
of the committee on territories, with the result that the Ashley hill was resur- 
rected and brought before the house. 

About the same time, W. W. Brookings, a member of the Dakota Legislature, 
introduced in that body a memorial asking for the organization of a territory, to 


be called "Lincoln,'' from the southwestern part of Dakota. The memorial was 
adopted by the Legislature and forwarded to Congress, but the only effect it 
had was to indicate that the people of Dakota were willing that the territory 
should be divided. Early in the year 1868 a petition praying for a territorial 
organization was presented to Congress, signed "H. Latham, agent for the people 
of Wyoming." The work of Mr. Casement, the Brookings memorial, and the 
petition of Mr. Latham finally bore fruit. The Ashley bill, modified in some 
particulars, passed the house and was sent to the senate. There a spirited dis- 
cussion occurred over the name, a number of the senators favoring "Cheyenne," 
rather than "Wyoming," but in the end the latter was adopted and the bill "to 
provide a temporary government for the Territory of Wyoming" was approved 
bv President Andrew Johnson on July 25, 1868. 


"Section i. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America, in Congress assembled : That all that part of the 
United States described as follows — Commencing at the intersection of the 
twenty-seventh meridian of longitude west from Washington with the forty- 
fifth degree of north latitude, and running thence west to the thirty-fourth meri- 
dian of west longitude; thence south to the forty-first degree of north latitude; 
thence east to the twenty-seventh meridian of west longitude, and thence north 
to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, organized into a temporary 
government by the name of the Territory of Wyoming ; Provided, That nothing 
in this act shall be construed to impair the rights of persons or property now 
pertaining to the Indians in said territory, so long as such rights shall remain 
unextinguished by treatv between the United States and such Indians ; Pro- 
\ided further. That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to inhibit 
the Government of the United States from dividing said territory into two or 
more territories, in such manner and at such times as Congress shall deem con- 
venient and proper, or from attaching any portion thereof to any other territory 
or state. 

"Section 2. And be it further enacted. That the executive power and authority 
ill and over said Territory of Wyoming shall be vested in a governor, who shall 
hold office for four years, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified, 
unless sooner removed by the President of the Ignited States, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate. The governor shall reside within said territory, shall 
be commander-in-chief of the militia thereof, shall perform the duties and receive 
the emoluments of superintendent of Indian affairs, and shall approve all laws 
passed by the Legislative Assembly before they shall take effect, unless the 
same shall pass by a two-thirds vote as provided by section six of this act; he 
may grant pardons for ofifienses against the laws of said territory, and reprieves 
for offenses against the laws of the United States, until the decision of the Presi- 
dent can be made known thereon ; he shall commission all officers who shall be 
appointed to ofifice under the laws of said territory, and shall take care that the 
laws be faithfully executed. 

"Section 3. And be it further enacted. That there shall be a secretary of 
said territory, who shall reside therein and hold his ofifice for four years, unless 


sooner removed by the President of the United States, with the consent of the 
Senate; he shall record and preserve all the laws and the proceedings of the 
Legislative Assembly hereinafter constituted, and all acts and proceedings of 
the governor in his executi\e department ; he shall transmit one copy of the laws 
and one copy of the executive proceedings on or before the first day of December 
in each year to the President of the United States, and at the same time, two 
copies of the laws to the speaker of the House of Representatives and the presi- 
dent of the Senate for the use of Congress; and in case of death, removal, 
resignation or other necessary absence of the governor from the territory, the 
secretary shall have, and he is hereby authorized and required to execute and 
perform, all the powers and duties of the governor during such vacancy or 
absence, or until another governor shall be appointed to fill such vacancy. 

"Section 4. And be it further enacted, That the legislative power and 
authority of said territory shall be vested in the governor and Legislative Assem- 
bly. The Legislative Assembly shall consist of a council and House of Repre- 
sentatives. The council shall consist of nine members, which may be increased 
to thirteen, having the qualifications of voters as hereinafter prescribed, whose 
term of service shall continue two years. The House of Representatives shall 
consist of thirteen members, which may be increased to twenty-seven, possessing 
the same qualifications as prescribed for members of the council, and whose 
term of service shall continue one year. An apportionment shall be made by 
the governor as nearly equal as practicable among the several counties or dis- 
tricts for the election of the council and the House of Representatives, giving 
to each section of the territory representation in the ratio of their population 
(excepting Indians not taxed), as nearly as may be, and the members of the 
council and House of Representatives shall reside in and be inhabitants of the 
districts for which they may be elected, respectively. Previous to the first 
election the governor shall cause a census or enumeration of the inhabitants of 
the several counties or districts of the territory to be taken, and the first election 
shall be held at such times and places, and be conducted in such manner as the 
governor shall appoint and direct, and he shall at the same time declare the 
number of members of the council and House of Representatives to which each 
of the counties or districts shall be entitled under this act. The number of 
persons authorized to be elected, having the highest number of votes in each 
of the said council districts for members of the council, shall be declared by the 
governor duly elected to the council ; and the person or persons authorized to 
be elected having the greatest number of votes for the House of Representatives 
equal to the number to which each county or district shall be entitled, shall be , 
declared by the governor to be elected members of the House of Representatives ; 
Provided, That in case of a tie between two or more persons voted for, the gov- 
ernor shall order a new election to supply the vacancy made by such tie vote. 
And the persons thus elected to the Legislative Assembly shall meet at such 
place and on such day as the governor shall appoint ; but thereafter the time, 
place and manner of holding elections by the people, and the apportioning the 
representation in the several counties or districts to the council and House of 
Representatives, according to the population, shall be prescribed by law. as well 
as the dav of the commencement of the regular sessions of the Legislative Assem- 


bly: Jr'rovided, That no one session shall exceed the term of forty days, except 
the first, which may be extended to sixty days, but no longer. 

"Section 5. And be it further enacted, That every male citizen of the United 
States above the age of twenty-one years, and (including) persons who shall 
have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States, who shall 
have been residents of the said territory at the time of the passage of this act, 
shall be entitled to vote at the first and all subsequent elections in the territory, 
and shall be eligible to hold any office in said territory. And the Legislative 
Assembly shall not at any time abridge the right of suffrage, or to hold office, 
on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude of any resident of 
the territory; Provided, That the right of suffrage and of holding office shall 
be exercised only by citizens of the United States, and those who shall have 
declared on oath before a competent court of record their intention to become 
such, and shall have taken an oath to support the Constitution and Government 
of the United States. 

"Section 6. And be it further enacted. That the legislative power of the 
territory shall extend to all rightful subjects of legislation consistent with the 
Constitution of the United States and the provisions of this act; but no law shall 
be passed interfering with the prirnary disposal of the soil; no tax shall be 
imposed upon the property of the United States, nor shall the lands or other 
property of non-residents be taxed higher than the lands or other property of 
residents, nor shall any law be passed impairing the rights of private property, 
nor shall any unequal discrimination be made in taxing different kinds of prop- 
erty, but all property subject to taxation shall be taxed in proportion to its value. 
Every bill which shall have been passed by the council and House of Representa- 
tives of said territory shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the governor 
of the territorv". If he approves, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it 
with his objections, to the house in which it originated, who shall enter the 
objections at large upon their journal and proceed to reconsider it. If, after 
such reconsideration, two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it 
shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall 
likewise be reconsidered; and if it be approved by two-thirds of that house it 
shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be 
determined by yeas and nays, to be entered on the journal of each house, respec- 
tively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor within five days (Sundays 
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall become a law 
in like manner as if he had signed it. unless the Assembly, by adjournment, prevent 
its return, in which case it shall not become a law. 

"Section 7. And be it further enacted. That all township, district and county 
officers, not herein otherwise provided for, shall be appointed or elected, as the 
case may be. in such manner as shall be provided by the governor and Legislative 
Assembly of the territory. The governor shall nominate and, by and with the 
consent of the council, appoint all officers not herein otherwise provided for, 
and in the first instance the governor alone may appoint all such officers, who 
shall hold their offices until the end of the first session of the Legislative Assem- 
bly; and he shall lay off the necessary districts for members of the council and 
House of Representatives, and all other officers. 

"Section 8. And be it further enacted, That no member of the Legislative 


Assembly shall hold or be appointed to any office which shall have been created, 
or the salary or emoluments of which shall have been increased while he was 
a member, during the term for which he was elected, and for one year after the 
expiration of such temi; and no person holding a commission or appointment 
under the United States, except postmasters, shall be a member of the Legislative 
Assembly, or shall hold any office under the government of said territory. 

"Section 9. And be it further enacted, That the judicial power of said terri- 
tory shall be vested in a Supreme Court, District courts, Probate courts and justices 
of the peace. The Supreme Court shall consist of a chief justice and two asso- 
ciate justices, and two of whom shall constitute a quorum, and who shall hold 
a term at the seat of government of said territory annually, and they shall 
hold their offices for four years, unless sooner removed by the President of the 
United States. The said territory shall be divided into three judicial districts 
and a District Court shall be held in each of the said districts by one of the 
justices of the Supreme Court, at such time and place as may be prescribed by 
law; and said judges shall, after their appointments, respectively, reside in the 
districts which shall be assigned them. The jurisdiction of the several courts 
herein provided for, both appellate and original, and that of the Probate courts 
and of the justices of the peace, shall be limited by law : Provided, That justices 
of the peace shall not have jurisdiction of any matter in controversy when the 
title or boundaries of land may be in dispute, or where the debt or sum claimed 
shall exceed one hundred dollars ; and the said Supreme and District courts, 
respectively, shall possess chancery as well as common law jurisdiction and 
authority for the redress of all wrongs committed against the Constitution oi* 
laws of the United States or of the territory affecting persons or property. 
Each District Court, or the judge thereof, shall appoint its clerk, who shall also 
be register in chancery, and shall keep his office where the court may be held. 
Writs of error, bills of exception, and appeals shall be allowed in all cases from 
the final decisions of said District courts to the Supreme Court under the regu- 
lations as may be prescribed by law, but in no case removed to the Supreme 
Court shall trial by jury be allowed in said court. The Supreme Court, or the 
justices thereof, shall appoint its own clerks, and every clerk shall hold his 
office at the pleasure of the court for which he shall have been appointed. Writs 
of error and appeal from the final decision of the Supreme Court shall be allowed 
and may be taken to the Supreme Court of the United States in the same manner 
and under the same regulations as from the Circuit courts of the United States, 
where the value of property or the amount in controversy, to be ascertained by 
the oath or affirmation of either party, or other competent witness, shall exceed 
one thousand dollars : and each of the said District courts shall have and exercise 
the same jurisdiction in all cases arising under the Constitution and laws of the 
United States as is vested in the Circuit Court and District courts of the United 
States; and the said Supreme and District courts of the said territory, and the 
respective judges thereof, shall and may grant writs of habeas corpus in all cases 
in which the same are grantable by the judges of the United States in the District 
of Columbia : and the first six days of every term of said courts, or so much 
thereof as shall be necessary, shall be appropriated to the trial of causes arising 
under said Constitution and laws ; and writs of error and appeal in all such cases 
shall be made to the Supreme Court of said territory, the same as in other cases. 


The said clerk shall receive in all such cases the same fees which the clerks of 
the District courts of Dakota Territory now received for similar services. 

"Section lo. And be it further enacted, That there shall be appointed an 
attorney for said territory, who shall continue in office for four years, unless 
sooner removed by the President with the consent of the Senate, and who shall 
receive the same fees and salary as is now received by the attorney of the United 
States for the Territory of Dakota. There shall also be a marshal for the terri- 
tory appointed, who shall hold his office for four years, unless sooner removed 
by the President with the consent of the Senate, and who shall execute all 
processes issuing from the said courts when exercising their jurisdiction as Cir- 
cuit and District courts of the United States; he shall perform his duties, be 
subject to the same regulations and penalties, and be entitled to the same fees 
as the marshal of the District Court of the United States for the present Terri- 
tory of Dakota, and shall, in addition, be paid two hundred annually as compen- 
sation for extra services. 

"Section ii. And be it further enacted. That the governor, secretary, chief 
justice and associate justices, attorney and marshal shall be nominated, and, by 
and with the consent of the Senate, appointed by the President of the United 
States. The governor and secretary to be appointed as aforesaid shall, before 
they act as such, respectively, take an oath or affirmation before the district 
judge, or some justice of the peace in the limits of said territory duly authorized 
to administer oaths and affirmations by the laws now in force therein, or before 
the chief justice or some associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, to support the Constitution of the United States, and faithfully to dis- 
charge the duties of their respective offices, which said oaths when so taken shall 
be certified by the person by whom the same shall have been taken ; and such 
certificates shall be received and recorded by the secretary among the executive 
proceedings, and the chief justice and associate justices, and all other civil 
officers in said territory, before they act as such, shall take a like oath or affirma- 
tion before the governor or secretary, or some judge or justice of the peace of 
the territory, who may be duly commissioned and qualified, which said oath or 
affirmation shall be certified and transmitted by the person taking the same to 
the secretary to be recorded by him as aforesaid, and afterwards the like oath or 
affirmation shall be taken, certified and recorded, in such manner and form as 
may be prescribed by law. The governor shall receive an annual salary of $2,000 
as governor and $1,000 as superintendent of Indian afifairs; the chief justice and 
associate justices shall each receive an annual salary of $2,500, and the secretary 
shall receive an annual salary of $i,Soo. The said salaries shall be payable 
quarter-yearly at the treasury of the United States. The members of the 
Legislative Assembly shall be entitled to receive $4 each per day during their 
attendance at the sessions thereof, and $3 for every twenty miles' travel in 
going to and returning from the said sessions, estimating the distance by the 
nearest traveled route. There shall be appropriated annually the sum of $1,000, 
to be expended by the governor to defray the contingent expenses of the terri- 
tory. There shall also be appropriated annually a sufficient sum, to be expended 
by the secretary, and upon an estimate to be made by the secretary of the treasury 
of the United States, to defray the expenses of the Legislative Assembly, the 
printing of the laws, and other incidental expenses ; and the secretary of the ter- 


ritory shall annually account to the secretatry of the treasury of the United 
States for the manner in which the aforesaid sum shall have been expended. 

"Section 12. And be it further enacted, That the Legislative Assembly of 
the Territory of Wyoming shall hold its first session at such time and place in 
said territory as the governor thereof shall appoint and direct ; and at said 
first session, or as soon thereafter as they shall deem expedient, the governor 
and Legislative Assembly shall proceed to locate and establish the seat of govern- 
ment for said territory at such place as they may deem eligible ; which place, 
however, shall thereafter be subject to be changed by the said governor and 
Legislative Assembly. 

"Section 13. And be it further enacted, That a delegate to the House of 
Representatives of the United States, to serve during each Congress of the United 
States, may be elected by the voters qualified to elect members of the Legislative 
Assembly, who shall be entitled to the same rights and privileges as are exercised 
and enjoyed by the delegates from the several other territories of the United 
States in the said House of Representatives. The first election shall be held 
at such time and places, and conducted in such manner, as the governor shall 
appoint and direct ; and at all subsequent elections, the time, place and manner 
of holding elections shall be prescribed by law. The person having the greatest 
number of votes of the qualified electors as hereintofore provided, shall be 
declared by the governor to be elected, and a certificate thereof shall be accord- 
ingly given. 

"Section 14. And be it further enacted. That sections numbered sixteen and 
thirty-six in each township in said territory shall be, and the same are hereby, 
reserved for the purpose of being applied to public schools in the state or states 
hereafter to be erected out of the same. 

"Section 15. And be it further enacted. That temporarily and until other- 
wise provided by law the governor of said territory may define the judicial 
districts of said territory, and assign the judges who may be appointed for the 
said territory to the several districts, and also appoint the times and places of 
holding courts in the several counties or subdivisions in such of said judicial 
districts by proclamation to be issued by him ; but the Legislative Assembly, at 
their first session, may organize, alter or modify such judicial districts and 
assign the judges and alter the times and places of holding the courts as to them 
shall seem proper and convenient. 

"Section 16. And be it further enacted. That the Constitution and all laws 
of the United States which are not locally inapplicable, shall have the same 
force and efifect within the said Territory of \^'yoming as elsewhere within the 
LTnited States. 

"Section 17. And be it further enacted. That this act shall take efifect from 
and after the time when the executive and judicial officers herein provided for 
shall have been duly appointed and qualified : Provided, That all general terri- 
torial laws of the Territory of Dakota in force in any portion of said Territory 
of Wyoming at the time this act shall take effect shall be and continue in force 
throughout the said territory until repealed by the legislative authority of said 
territory, except such laws as relate to the possession or occupation of mines 
or mining claims." 



Several months elapsed after the passage of the above act before the Terri- 
tory of Wyoming was organized. The reasons for this delay, as well as the 
conditions then existing in the territory, are thus set forth in the message of 
Governor A. J. Faulk to the Territorial Legislature of Dakota which assembled 
in December, 1868: 

"The courts have been open for the redress of wrongs and found adequate, 
except perhaps in that portion of the territory known in our statutes as Laramie 
and Carter counties. There, in those recently organized counties, on account of 
their remoteness from the established judicial districts of the territory, a state 
of society bordering on anarchy has for a time existed ; and which, from unavoid- 
able circumstances, has been temporarily and imperfectly relieved by the action 
of the Legislature during its last session, by the passage of an act embracing 
those counties within the boundaries of the Second Judicial District and author- 
izing his honor, the chief justice, to hold a term of court at the City of 

"Owing to the rich discoveries of gold and other valuable minerals in that 
vicinity, and the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad through the southern 
portion of those counties, a large population was soon collected, which embraced, 
among others, many turbulent and lawless individuals, who were practically 
beyond the control of civil law, and whose crimes were of such a startling char- 
acter as to compel the better class of citizens to resort to measures deemed 
unavoidably necessary for the protection of society, to reduce such refractory 
spirits to submission. The authority exercised under such circumstances, by 
vigilance committees, finds many apologists — but to my judgment it is greatly 
to be deprecated — and it is most earnestly hoped that the time is past when a 
resort to such measures can be in any degree palliated or justified. 

"In my last annual message I alluded to this subject and favored on that 
occasion the organization of those counties, by an act of Congress, into separate 
territory as the only practicable or effectual remedy for existing and apprehended 
social evils. In this I was cordially sustained by the Legislature and by the 
unanimous voice of the people. In accordance with our wishes, an act creating 
a temporary government for Wyoming, which embraced those two counties, was 
passed by Congress and approved July 25, 1868, but, unfortunately, has not yet 
gone into practical operation, on account of the failure of Congress to make 
the necessary appropriation to defray the expenses, and the non-appointment 
and confirmation of territorial officers. This evil, however, is but tempor.-iry. 
But a short time can yet elapse until the machinery of a separate government 
will be in full operation in Wyoming, when, through the regular application 
of the civil laws, faithfully and speedily administered, crime will be suppressed 
and the law-abiding citizens will finally be relieved from the social disorders 
which have afflicted them. Under such auspicious circumstances, in view of the 
railroad facilities possessed by the territory, and the vast beds of coal and 
deposits of precious metals, which ha\e already been developed, we may 
reasonably anticipate for Wyoming a career of prosperity which Eastern Dakota, 
with all its advantages, might well envy." 



The session of Congress which began in December, 1868, remedied the 
omission of the preceding one and made the necessary appropriations for the 
inauguration of the territorial government of Wyoming. Early in the year 
1869, the following territorial officers were appointed by President Grant: John 
A. Campbell, governor; Edward M. Lee, secretary; Joseph M. Carey, United 
States attorney; Silas Reed, surveyor-general; Edgar P. Snow, assessor of inter- 
nal revenue; Thomas Harlan, collector of internal revenue; Charles C. Crowe, 
register of the land office; Frank Wolcott, receiver of public moneys; John W. 
Donnellan, treasurer; Benjamin Gallagher, auditor; John H. Howe, chief justice; 
William T. Jones and John W. Kingman, associate justices ; Church Howe, United 
States marshal. 

The governor and secretary took the oath of office on April 15, 1869, and 
the justices of the territorial Supreme Court on the 19th of the month following. 
The latter date really marks the beginning of 

Campbell's administr.\tion 

John A. Campbell, the first governor of the Territory of Wyoming, was 
born at Salem, Ohio, October 8, 1835. After attending the public schools in 
his native town he learned the newspaper business and at the breaking out of 
the Civil war was employed as an editorial writer on the Cleveland (Ohio) 
Leader. In April, 1861, he enlisted as a private, was promoted to second lieu- 
tenant and assigned to duty on the stafif of Gen. A. D. McCook. On November 
26. 1862. he was promoted to major and assistant adjutant-general, and from 
1863 to the close of the war he served on the stafif of Gen. John M. Schofield. 
Among the engagements in which he participated were Rich Mountain, Shiloh, 
Perryvflle, Stone's River, most of the actions incident to the Atlanta campaign 
in 1864, Franklin, Nashville and a number of minor skirmishes. In 1865 he 
was promoted to colonel and brevet brigadier-general. At the close of the war 
he was offered a commission in the regular army, but declined. He then served 
as assistant secretary of war until appointed governor of Wyoming and super- 
intendent of Indian affairs in 1869. As the first governor, he organized the 
territorial government, established the first judicial districts, etc. In 1873 he 
was reappointed for a second term and served as governor until 1875, when 
he resigned to accept the appointment of third assistant secretary of state. Later 
in the same year he accepted the consulship to Basle, Switzerland, in the hope 
that a change of climate would prove beneficial to his health. But he found the 
climate of Switzerland too severe and in a short time returned to the I'nited 
States. His death occurred on July 15, 1880. in Washington, D. C. 

On May 19, 1869, the day the territorial justices qualified. Governor Camp- 
bell issued his first proclamation, dividing the territory into three judicial dis- 
tricts, and fixing the times and places of holding courts therein. (See chapter 
on the Bench and Bar.) His next oflficial act was to order a census of the 
territory taken in accordance with section 4 of the organic act. This order 
was issued on May 28, 1869, but the marshal met with serious delay, on account 
of the failure of some of the enumerating officers to perform their duties, and 
the census was not completed until the 30th of July. 



Another proclamation by Governor Campbell, issued on August 3, i86g, called 
an election for delegates to Congress and members of the Territorial Legisla- 
ture, said election to be held on Thursday, September 2, 1869. The proclamation 
also divided the territory into council and representative districts. Laramie 
County constituted the first council district, Albany and Carbon counties the 
second, and Carter County the third. Each district was directed to elect three 
members of the upper branch of the Legislature. The representatives were 
apportioned as follows : Territory at large, one ; Laramie County, four ; Albany 
County, three; Carbon County, one; Carter County, three; that portion of the 
territory taken from Utah and Idaho, one. 

At the election the total number of votes cast was 5,266. For delegate to 
Congress, Stephen F. Nuckolls received 3,930 and W. W. Corlett received 1,965. 
Members of the council— T. D. Murrin, James R. Whitehead, T. W. Poole, W. 
H. Bright, W. S. Rockwell, George Wardmen, Frederick Laycock, James W. 
Brady and George Wilson. Representatives — J. C. Abney, Posey S. Wilson. 
Howard Sebree, Herman Haas, Louis Miller, J. N. Douglas, William Herrick, 
Benjamin Sheeks. James Menefee, J. C. Strong, John Holbrook, J. M. Freeman 
and S. M. Curran. 

Stephen F. Nuckolls, the first delegate to Congress, was born in Grayson 
County, Virginia, August 16, 1825. About the time he v,-as twenty-one years 
of age he went to Missouri and in 1854 removed to Nebraska, where he was 
one of the founders of Nebraska City, and was elected to the Territorial Legis- 
lature. While in ]\Iissouri and Nebraska he was engaged in mercantile pursuits, 
but in i860 went to Denver, where he was interested in mining operations. After 
a short residence in Denver, he went to New York and remained there until 
1867. when the call of the West brought him to Wyoming. Mr. Nuckolls was 
a man of good education and during his one term as delegate was infiuentia! 
in securing the enactment of laws to promote the material interests of Wyoming. 


On September 22. 1869, Governor Campbell issued a proclamation convening 
the Legislative ."Assembly "in the City of Cheyenne, on the 12th day of October 
next." Pursuant to this proclamation, the members elect of the two branches 
of the Legislature assembled in Cheyenne on Tuesday, October 12, 1869. The 
council organized by electing. W. H. Bright, president; Edward Orpen. secretary; 
Mark Parrish, assistant secretary; J. R. Rockwell, enrolling clerk; William B. 
Hines, engrossing clerk ; C. FT. IMoxley, sergeant at arms. 

In the House of Representatives S. M. Curran, of Carbon County, was 
chosen speaker : L. L. Bedell, chief clerk ; William C. .Stanley, assistant clerk : 
George E. Talpey, enrolling clerk ; E. ^IcEvena, engrossing clerk : \\'illiam Baker, 
sergeant at arms. 

Governor Campbell delivered his first message to a joint session of the two 
houses on the i.^th. In it he reviewed what had been done in the establishment 
of the territorial srovernment, the trouble with the Indians in the ^^'infl River 


X'alley and the mining settlements, and recommended the enactment of a militia 
law for the better protection of the frontier. On December 8, 1869, the gov- 
ernor approved a memorial asking Congress to establish a penitentiary at Laramie 
City, and to appropriate for that purpose a sum not less than sixty thousand 
dollars. The same day he approved an act providing for the acquisition of a 
site for the prison at or near Laramie City. The laws of Dakota Territory were 
repealed on December 10, 1869, so far as they applied to Wyoming; the name 
of Carter County was changed to Sweetwater ; the County of Uinta was estab- 
lished and the county seat temporarily located at Fort Bridger; and a law was 
enacted giving women the right to vote and hold oiSce. The Legislature was in 
session for sixty days. Concerning its work it has been said : "The first Legis- 
lature adopted and perfected a code which, with the example of the several new 
territories to guide them, was an admirable foundation on which to construct 
a perfect state in the future. Had no omissions been made, there need have 
been no more legislation.'' 

Probably the most important acts of the session were those establishing a 
public school system, providing for the opening of certain territorial highways, 
and the adoption of the civil and criminal codes above mentioned. 


At the opening of the session Governor Campbell submitted a design for a 
territorial seal. On December 9. 1869, he approved a bill for a seal, the design 
for which was that proposed by him, with some modifications. As described in 
the act, the seal was to consist of "a Norman shield on the upper half of which 
is emblazoned a mountain scene, with a railroad train, the sun appearing above 
the horizon, the figures '1868' below the middle point of the top of the shield. 
On the first quarter below, on a white ground, a plow, a pick, a shovel and a 
shepherd's crook ; on the next quarter, namely : the lower part of the shield, on a 
red ground, an arm upholding a drawn sword ; the shield to be surmounted by 
the inscription 'Cedant Arma Toga,' and the entire design surrounded by the 
words 'Territory of Wyoming, Great Seal.' " 


The second session of the Legislative Assembly began at Cheyenne on Tues- 
day, November 7, 1871, and continued until Saturday, December i6th. The terri- 
torial officers at this time were as follows : John A. Campbell, governor ; Herman 
Glafcke. secretary; Joseph W. Fisher, chief justice; John W. Kingman and 
Joseph M. Carey, associate justices ; Edward P. Johnson, attorney ; Church Howe, 
United States marshal ; William T. Jones, delegate in Congress. 

The principal acts of this session were those providing for the organization 
of the territorial militia : exempting certain property from sale upon execution 
or other process; lien laws for the protection of miners and mechanics; an act 
for the protection of live stock ; the establishment of a territorial library ; pro- 
viding for the opening of a number of wagon roads ; and a memorial was addressed 
to Congress asking for the establishment of postal routes through the territory. 



As the sessions of the Legislative Assembly were held biennially, the third 
Assembly convened on Thursday, November 4, 1873. The principal territorial 
officials at that time were John A. Campbell, governor; Jason B. Brown, secre- 
tary; Joseph W. Fisher, chief justice; Joseph M. Carey and E. A. Thomas, 
associate justices; Edward P. Johnson, attorney; Frank Wolcott, marshal; VV. 
R. Steele, delegate in Congress. 

This was the last session of the Assembly under Governor Campbell's admin- 
istration. It was in session for forty days and enacted a number of laws amenda- 
tory of those passed by previous Legislatures. Acts were also passed regulating 
the branding and herding of live stock; establishing a board of immigration to 
encourage settlement of various parts of the territory; defining the judicial dis- 
tricts ; and providing for a fiscal year to begin on the first of October annually. 

th.wer's administration 

John AI. Thayer, the second territorial governor of Wyoming, was born at 
Bellingham, Alass., where he attended the public schools and studied law. About 
the time he was admitted to the bar the Territory of Nebraska was organized, 
and in November, 1854, he located at Omaha, crossing the Missouri River in an 
old canoe in company with Thomas O'Connor and another Irishman named Boyle. 
In 1859 he commanded an expedition against the Pawnee Indians. The same 
year he was a delegate to the convention at Bellevue. which organized the repub- 
lican party in Nebraska. He was nominated by that convention for delegate to 
Congress, but was defeated by a Air. Daily. In i860 he was again the republican 
candidate for congressional delegate, but was again defeated. He was then 
elected a member of the Territorial Legislature, but resigned before the expiration 
of his term to accept a commission as colonel of the First Nebraska Infantry. 
In 1862 he was promoted to brigadier-general. At the close of the Civil war he 
returned to Nebraska. In 1867 he was elected one of the first United States sena- 
tors from Nebraska. He was appointed governor of Wyoming by President Grant 
and entered upon the duties of that office on February 10, 1875. His administra- 
tion lasted until April 10, 1878, when he was succeeded by John W. Hoyt. Gov- 
ernor Thayer then went back to Omaha and resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion. In 1886 he was elected governor of Nebraska and was reelected in 1888. 
He died in Omaha on March 19, 1906. 

About the time Governor Thayer came into office a number of changes 
were made in the list of territorial officials. George W. French succeeded Jason 
B. Brown as secretary; Jacob B. Blair took the place of Joseph M. Carey as 
associate justice; W. F. Sweesy was appointed LTnited States marshal; Orlando 
North, auditor; A. R. Converse, treasurer; and J. J. Jenkins, district attorney. 
W". R. Steele was reelected delegate to Congress in 1874. 

legislative sessions 

Two sessions of the Legislative Assembly were held while Thayer was gov- 
ernor. On November 2, 1875, the fourth session was convened at Cheyenne 


and Governor Thayer delivered his first message on the 4th. It was an exhaustive 
document, deaHng with practically every subject of territorial interest, and showed 
a familiarity with Wyoming conditions that was surprising, coming from one who 
had been in the territory only a few months. 

At this session an act was passed providing for a revision of the territorial 
laws. W. L. Kuykendall, C. W. Bramel, Orlando North, Michael Murphy, 
George W. Ritter and C. M. White were appointed a committee "to make all 
necessary arrangements and contracts for the compilation and publication of all 
laws, including those of the fourth Legislative Assembly." The committee selected 
James R. Whitehead to superintend the work and the first edition of the "Com- 
piled Laws of Wyoming" was printed by Herman Glafcke, former territorial 
secretary, in 1S76. 

The fifth session of the Legislative Assembly began on November 7, 1877, 
and continued for forty days. Several important laws were enacted during this 
session, to-wit : Regulating the practice of medicine ; limiting the mdebtedness 
of counties; fixing the fees and salaries of public ofificials, and providing for 
the opening and improvement of certain highways. On November 22, 1877, 
Governor Thayer approved a memorial to Congress protesting against a division 
of the territory, a subject which some people were just then agitating, and 
recommending the annexation of the Black Hills country to Wyoming. The 
memorial may have had some influence in preventing the division of the territory, 
but the annexation recommended was never made. 

hoyt's .\dministration 

John W. Hoyt, the third territorial governor of Wyoming, was born near 
\\'orthington, Ohio, October 31, 1831. When about eighteen years of age he 
graduated at the Ohio Wesleyan University and immediately afterward began 
the study of medicine. In 1853 he received the degree of M. D. from the 
Ohio Medical College. Four years later he removed to Madison, Wis., where 
for ten years he was engaged in business as an editor and publisher. He can- 
vassed the Northwest in the interests of the Morrill Agricultural College Bill 
when that measure was pending in Congress. In 1874 he was elected a member 
of the Wisconsin Railroad Commission. Governor Hoyt was a commissioner to 
several of the world's greatest industrial expositions, viz : London, 1862 ; Paris, 
1867; Vienna. 1873; the Centennial at Philadelphia, 1876; and the Columbian 
Exposition at Chicago, 1893. In 1877 he declined an appointment as minister 
to Spain, but soon afterward accepted the governorship of Wyoming Territory. 
At the expiration of his term as governor he remained for some time in Wyo- 
ming and aided materially in developing the territory's educational system. He 
was the first president of the State University: a member of the constitutional 
convention in 1889: was president of the Wyoming Development Company for 
five years ; established and published for a short time the Wyoming Journal at 
Laramie, and was otherwise connected with the advancement of the material 
interests of Wyoming. In 1891 he went to Washington. D. C, where he passed 
the closing years of his life in literary work. He was the author of several 
books relating to education, agriculture and railway afifairs. 

Governor Hoyt's administration as governor of the territors' began on April 


lo, 1878, and continued until August, 1882. During the time he held the office 
the population increased more than 100 per cent. x\t the beginning of his term 
the principal territorial offices were filled by the following incumbents: A. 
Worth Spates, secretary; J. B. Sener, chief justice; Jacob B. Blair and William 
Ware Peck, associate justices ; C. H. Layman, United States attorney ; Gustave 
Schnitger. marshal: J. S. Xason, auditor; Francis E. \\'arren. treasurer; Stephen 
W. Downey, delegate in Congress. 


The first session of the Legislative Assembly held after Governor Hoyt was 
inducted into office began at Cheyenne on Tuesday, November 4, 187Q. During 
the session acts were passed authorizing certain counties to issue bonds in aid 
of railroad companies : amending the civil and criminal codes of the territorj' ; 
regulating the manner of conducting elections ; prohibiting lotteries ; and declar- 
ing the following legal holidays: January ist (New Year's day), February 226 
(George Washington's birthday), July 4th (Independence day), any day set 
apart by the President of the United States as a day of annual thanksgiving, and 
December 25th (Christmas). 


The Legislature of 1879 was the sixth to be held after the organization of 
the territory. No more sessions were held until January 10, 1882, when the 
seventh Legislature was convened at Cheyenne. Governor Hoyt was still in 
office, but several changes had been made in the roster of territorial officials 
since the preceding session. E. S. N. Morgan had succeeded A. W. Spates as 
secretary ; Samuel C. Parks had been appointed associate justice in place of 
William W. Peck; M. C. Brown was now L'nited States attorney; Morton E. 
Post, delegate in Congress ; Jesse Knight, territorial auditor ; and Francis E. 
\^'arren still held the office of territorial treasurer. 

In accordance with the provisions of the organic act, the Legislature of 
1882 increased the number of members in the council to twelve and the number 
of representatives to twenty-four. The territory was divided into five council 
districts and apportioned to each district the number of members, to-wit : First 
district, Laramie County, four mernbers ; Second district, Albany County, three 
members ; Third district. Carbon and Johnson counties, two members ; Fourth 
district, Sweetwater County, one member; Fifth district, Uinta County, two 

For representative purposes the territory was divided into six districts, which, 
with the number of members apportioned to each, were as follows : First, Lara- 
mie County, eight members ; Second, Albany County, five members ; Third, Car- 
bon County, four members; Fourth, Johnson County, one member: Fifth, Sweet- 
water County, three members ; Sixth, LHnta County, three members. 

Other acts of this session were those providing for the better organization 
of the territorial militia ; authorizing the secretary of the territory to procure 
a suitable block of granite, have it properly inscribed and forward it to Wash- 
ington to be placed in the Washington Monument as Wyoming's memorial stone ; 


and amending the act relating to the territorial seal. The joint resolution of the 
two branches of the Legislature requested the reappointment of Governor Hoyt. 

male's administration 

William Hale, the fourth governor of the Territory of Wyoming, succeeded 
John W. Hoyt on August 3. 1882. He was born in the Town of New London, 
Henry County, Iowa, November 18, 1837. He received a liberal education, 
studied law, and was admitted to practice at Oskaloosa, Iowa, soon after he 
reached his twenty-first birthday anniversary. He began practice at Glenwood, 
Iowa; was elected to the Legislature of that state in 1863 and served as repre- 
sentative for four years ; was presidential elector on the republican ticket for 
the Fifth Congressional district in 1868; and on July 18, 1882, was appointed 
governor of Wyoming by President Arthur. Soon after he took up the reins 
of government, Montana, through representatives in Congress, sought to obtain 
jurisdiction over the Yellowstone National Park. Governor Hale, although in 
failing health and suffering from physical pain, journeyed over two thousand miles 
to reach the park and establish there the civil and criminal jurisdiction of Wyo- 
ming Territory. This and other acts demonstrated his loyalty to the territory 
of which he had been appointed governor and so endeared him to the people of 
Wyoming that, when his administration was brought to an end by his untimely 
death on January 13, 1885. The Legislative Assembly appropriated $500 toward 
defraying his funeral expenses and erecting a monument to his memory, the 
appropriation being made by an act approved on March 12, 1886. 

The territorial officers at the beginning of Hale's administration were : E. S. 
N. Alorgan, secretary; John C. Perry, chief justice; J. B. Blair and Samuel C. 
Parks, associate justices; J. A. Riner, United States attorney; Gustave Schnitger, 
marshal; P. L. Smith, auditor; Francis E. Warren, treasurer; E. C. David, 
surveyor-general; E. W. Mann and Charles H. Priest, registers of the land office; 
W. S. Hurlburt and E. S. Crocker, receivers of public moneys; M. E. Post, 
delegate in Congress. 


Only one session of the Legislative Assembly was held while Hale was gov- 
ernor, viz., the eighth, which was convened at Cheyenne on Tuesday, January 
8, 1884. Among the more important acts of this session was the appointment of 
W. W. Corlett, Isaac P. Caldwell and Clarence D. Clark commissioners to_ revise 
and codify the territorial laws. Other acts were those authorizing county com- 
missioners to appropriate funds for sinking artesian wells ; to encourage the 
organization of volunteer fire companies in towns and cities; creating Fremont 
County; and to provide for the education and training of juvenile delinquents. 

Upon the death of Governor Hale, Secretary Morgan became acting governor 
and served in that capacity until February 27, 1885, when Francis E. Warren, 
treasurer of the territory, was appointed governor. 

w.\rren's .\dministr.\tion 

Francis E. Warren, fifth territorial governor of W\'oming. was born at Hins- 
dale. Mass.. June 20. 1844. His ancestor. Dr. Joseph Warren, was one of the 


first men in the American colonies to advocate independence. At the beginning 
of the Revolutionary war he was commissioned general and was in command of 
the colonial forces at the battle of Bunker Hill, where he fell fighting for the 
liberty of his countrymen. Francis E. Warren was educated in the common 
schools and at Hinsdale Academy. In 1861 he left school to enlist as a private 
in Company C, Forty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry. His regiment was sent 
to the Department of the Gulf and while at New Orleans he was promoted to 
corporal. At the siege of Port Hudson he won a medal of honor for gallant 
conduct. In the spring of 1868 he came to Iowa as foreman of a construction gang 
on the Rock Island Railroad. From Iowa he came to Cheyenne, where he engaged 
in merchandising. In 1871 he formed a partnership with A. R. Converse, under 
the firm name of Converse & Warren. In 1878 Mr. Converse retired from the 
firm and the business was then carried on under the name of F. E. Warren & Com- 
pany for a few years, when Mr. Warren turned his attention to the live stock 
business. He was president of the Warren Live Stock Company and erected 
several buildings in Cheyenne. 

From the time he became a resident of Cheyenne Governor Warren took a 
commendable interest in public affairs. In 1872 he was one of the trustees of 
Cheyenne and the same year was elected a member of the Territorial Legislature. 
He served as president of the council in the Legislative Assembly and was 
treasurer of the territory for about six years. In 1885 he was elected mayor of 
Cheyenne and in February of that year was appointed governor of the territory 
by President Arthur. He was removed by President Cleveland in the fall of 
1886, but was again appointed governor by President Harrison in March, 1889. 
When Wyoming was admitted as a state in 1890 Governor Warren was elected the 
first governor of the new state, but served as such only two weeks, when he was 
elected one of the first L'nited States senators from Wyoming. His term expired 
in 1893 and the Legislature of that year failed to elect a senator, so that the state 
had but one senator in Congress. In 1895 Mr. W'arren was again elected and has 
served in the United States senate continuously since that time. His present 
term expires on March 4, 1919. 


In August, 1885, about six months after Governor Warren entered upon the 
duties of the ofifice, the Union Pacific Railroad Company brought several hundred 
Chinese laborers into the territory, to work in the coal mines at Evanston, Rock 
Springs, Carbon and other places along the railroad. The white laborers claimed 
that the Chinese coolies had usurped their places in the mines by working for 
lower wages than the white miners would accept. On September 2, 1885, about 
two hundred armed men assembled at Rock Springs and attacked the Chinese. 
Several shots were fired and the Chinamen took to the hill, with their assailants 
in close pursuit. About fifty of the coolies were killed, after which the rioters 
returned to the coal camp and destroyed the property of the coolies. Fifty 
houses belonging to the railroad company were also destroyed, and some of the 
miners wanted to burn the Chinamen with the buildings. Chinese in the other 
coal camjis, when they learned of the affair at Rock Springs, did not wait for 
further developments, but left the country at once. 


As soon as Governor Warren heard of the trouble at Rock Springs (having 
no organized territorial militia that could be depended on) he telegraphed Gen. 
O. O. Howard, commanding the Department of the Platte, for troops to pre- 
serve order. General Howard promised to send a force sufficient for military 
protection, but he was slow in carrying the promise into execution and the gov- 
ernor appealed to the secretary of war. Troops finally arrived in time to prevent 
another massacre. Governor \\'arren was severely criticized at the time for 
giving protection to the imported laborers, but after the excitement died out it 
was generally recognized that he did the only thing he could do and be true to 
his oath of office as governor. 


(jn January 12, 1886. the ninth legislative session began at Cheyenne. This 
was the only session of the Legislative Assembly held during Governor Warren's 
first administration. The territorial officers at this time were: E. S. X. Morgan, 
secretary; John W. Lacey, chief justice; Jacob B. Blair and Samuel T. Corn, 
associate justices ; Anthony C. Campbell, United States attorney ; Thomas J. 
Carr, marshal : Mortimer X. Grant, auditor ; \\'illiam P. Gannett, treasurer : 
Joseph M. Carey, delegate in Congress. 

An act defining the boundaries of certain counties was passed at this session ; 
county commissioners were required by another law to see that veterans of the 
Civil war were given decent burial ; bounties were offered for the destruction 
of wild animals that preyed upon crops and live stock; and provision was made 
for the incorporation of towns having a population of three hundred or more 
bv the commissioners of the counties in which thev were located. 

On Alarch 4, 1886, Governor Warren approved an act providing that "A 
capitol building, for the use of the territory, shall be erected in the City of Chey- 
enne, the capital of the territory, at a cost not exceeding the sum of one hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars." 

By the provisions of the act the governor was to appoint a building com- 
mission of five members, which should acquire a site by donation or otherwise, 
approve plans and award the contract for the construction of the building. Six 
per cent bonds to the amount of $150,000 were authorized (not more than 
S25.000 of which should be issued at any one time), payable' twenty-five years 
after date, though the territory was given the option of redeeming one-tenth of 
said bonds at the expiration of fifteen years and one-tenth annually thereafter 
until all were paid. 

Governor Warren appointed as capitol commissioners Erasmus X'agle. Charles 
X. Potter, X'athaniel R. Davis, Morton E. Post and Nicholas J. O'Brien. This 
commission erected the central portion of the capitol according to plans fur- 
nished by D. W. Gibbs & Company. A. Feick & Company being awarded the 
contract. (See Moonlight's Administration for further history of the capitol 



By the act of March 9, 1886, an insane asylum was ordered to be built at 
Evanston, at a cost not exceeding thirty thousand dollars, and bonds to that 
amount, "or so much thereof as may be necessary," were ordered, with the pro- 
vision that none of the bonds should be sold for less than their par value. 

Two days later an act was approved establishing an institution for the edu- 
cation of the blind, deaf and dumb. This institution was to be located at Chey- 
enne, and the act provided that "no institute shall be opened until there are twelve 
pupils ready who will enter said school, and when the number of pupils shall 
fall below the number of eight, then said institute shall be closed.'' An appro- 
priation of $8,000 was made for the support of the school for the first two years, 
and the governor was authorized to appoint a board of three trustees, to be 
confirmed by the legislative council. 

The Legislative Assembly of 1886 also authorized the establishment of a 
territorial university, a history of which is given in the chapter on Educational 

Baxter's administration 

When President Cleveland removed Governor Warren, he appointed George 
W. Baxter as his successor. The story of Baxter's administration is soon told, 
as its duration was but forty-five days. Mr. Baxter was a native of Tennessee, 
where he was born on January 7, 1855. He was educated at Sewanee, Tenn., 
and at the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he gradu- 
ated in 1878. The next three years he spent as a lieutenant on the frontier, 
and in 1881 he became a resident of Wyoming. In 1884 he purchased 50,000 
acres of land from the Union Pacific Railroad Company. He afterward sold 
20,000 acres and converted the remaining 30,000 into a cattle range. In order 
to fence his range he had to inclose the alternate sections belonging to the United 
States. This he did in the spring of 1885. after consulting attorneys as to his 
right to do so. and in August of that year President Cleveland issued his order 
prohibiting the fencing of Government land for range purposes. Mr. Baxter 
took the oath of office as governor on November 6, 1886, and soon afterward 
it came to the knowledge of the President that he had inclosed land belonging 
to the public domain. Mr. Baxter then resigned "by request" and retired from 
the governorship on December 20, 1886. He remained in the territory for some 
time after his resignation; was a delegate from Laramie County to the consti- 
tutional convention in 1889, and the next year was the democratic candidate 
for governor at the first state election. Not long after that he removed to 
Knoxville, Tenn. Nothing of importance occurred during the brief period that 
he served as governor. 

moonlight's administration 

Thomas ^Moonlight, the seventh territorial governor of W'yoming, was a 
native of Forfarshire. Scotland, where he was born on November 10, 1833. 
When about thirteen years of age be ran away from home and came to America 


as a forecastle hand on one of the sailing ships of that day. The vessel landed 
at Philadelphia and young Moonlight found himself in a strange land, penniless 
and without friends. His first employment in the United States was in a glass 
factory in Xew Jersey. In May. 1853. he enlisted in Company D, Fourth United 
States Artillery, and served in the Seminole war in Florida and on the frontier 
until 1859, when he retired from the army. He then purchased a farm in 
Leavenworth County, Kansas, and lived there until the breaking out of the Civil 
war. On June 7, 1861, he was mustered into the United States volunteer service 
as captain of a light battery which he had recruited, and ordered to Missouri. 
In September, 1862, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the Eleventh 
Kansas Infantry, with which he was engaged in a number of battles in Arkansas 
and Missouri. In 1867 President Andrew Johnson appointed him collector of 
internal revenue for Kansas, which position he held until elected secretary of 
state in August, 1868. Colonel Moonlight then became actively identified with 
the political affairs of Kansas. He was chairman of the democratic state con- 
vention in 1880 and was the nominee of that party for governor in 1886, but 
was defeated. On December 20, 1886, he was appointed governor of Wyoming 
Territory by President Cleveland and served until after the inauguration of 
President Harrison in March. 1889. He then returned to Kansas, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. 

Contemporary with Governor Moonlight, several changes were made in the 
territorial offices. Samuel D. Shannon was appointed secretary ; \Villiam L. 
Maginnis. chief justice; M. C. Saufley and Samuel T. Corn, associate justices: 
Anthony C. Campbell, United States attorney; Thomas J. Carr, marshal; Morti- 
mer X. Grant, auditor; Luke \'oorhees, treasurer; Joseph M. Carey, delegate in 
Congress — reelected in 1886. 


The tenth session of the Territorial Legislative Assembly convened at Chey- 
enne on January 10, 1888, with J. A. Riner president of the council and L. D. 
Pease speaker of the house. This was the only legislative session held during 
Moonlight's administration. A general banking law was passed at this session ; 
county commissioners were given greater power in the matter of sinking artesian 
wells ; and an act for the protection of grazing lands was passed. A controvers\- 
between the governor and the Legislature arose over the erection of public build- 
ings. An act providing for the completion of the capitol building, the univer?it\- 
buildings, the insane asylum, and for the establishment of a penitentiary at 
Rawlins and a poor asylum "at or near Lander" was vetoed by the governor, 
chiefly on the gorunds that the appropriations therefor were excessive. The 
act was passed over the governor's veto on ^March 2, 1888, by the required two- 
thirds majority of each house. 


The appropriation for the completion of the capitol building, amounting to 
$125,000, seems to have been the princijjal "bone of contention." the governor 
claiming that the additions proposed would cost much more than the amount 


appropriated, and that the building in its present condition was sufficient for 
the needs of the territory until more money could be raised without placing a 
heavy burden of taxation upon the people. Nevertheless, the Legislature passed 
the bill over Mr. Moonlight's veto, as already stated. It provided for the appoint- 
ment of a new capitol commission, and after its passage the governor appointed 
Lawrence J. Bresnahan, George W. Baxter, Andrew Gilchrist, Arthur Poole 
and John C. Baird as the new commissioners. The council rejected ex-Governor 
Baxter and at first refused to confirm the appointment of Mr. Bresnahan. Thomas 
A. Kent was then appointed in place of Mr. Baxter. The commission organized 
by electing Mr. Bresnahan chairman and John C. Baird secretary. D. W. Gibbs & 
Company, who furnished the plans for the central portion, also furnished the 
plans for the east and west wings, which were built under the auspices of the 
above named commission, by Moses P. Keefe, contractor. The present east and 
west wings were not completed until 191 7. 

Time demonstrated that there was some reason in the governor's objections 
to the bill. The institutions named were finally completed according to the 
original designs, but the expense proved a heavy burden for a young state to 
carry, the bonds issued having been assumed by the State of Wyoming when 
it was admitted into the Union. A history of all these institutions will be found 
elsewhere in this volume. 


Francis E. Warren was reappointed governor by President Benjamin Har- 
rison on March 27, 1889, to succeed Governor Monnlight, and his second admin- 
istration proved to be the last under the old territorial regime. The Legislature 
of 1888 had adopted and sent to Congress a memorial asking that ^^^'oming 
be admitted, and it was generally conceded that the prayer of the memorialists 
was to be granted. An act of Congress, admitting the state, was approved by 
President Harrison on July 10, 1890, but the territorial government continued 
in force until the following October. 


The eleventh and last session of the Territoriar Legislature began at Cheyenne 
on January 10, 1890. The territorial officers at that time were as follows: 
Francis E. Warren, governor; John W. Meldrum, secretary; Willis Van Devan- 
ter. chief justice; M. C. Saufley and Clarence D. Clark, associate justices; Ben- 
jamin F. Fowler, United States attorney ; Thomas J. Carr, marshal ; Mortimer 
N. Grant, auditor; Luke Voorhees, treasurer; Joseph M. Carey, delegate in 

The members of the Legislative Assembly at this session seemed to realize 
that the admission of the state was a certainty. Consequently a number of acts 
passed were in the nature of "setting the house in order" for the new government. 
An election for state officers was held in September, 1890, and on the nth of 
October the Territory of Wyoming, with its twenty-two years' eventful career, 
passed into history. 






During the first few years of Wyoming's existence as an organized territory, 
considerable dissatisfaction was manifested over the appointment of non-residents 
to conduct the territorial government. After a while this dissatisfaction disap- 
peared, at least so far as open e.xpression was concerned, though there were many 
of the resident population who cherished the dream of the time to come when 
they would be able to have a state government of their own. The census of 
1880 showed Wyoming's population to be 20,789, and the talk of asking Congress 
to pass an act admitting Wyoming to statehood began. Nothing definite was 
done, however, until February 7, 1888, when the following memorial was intro- 
duced in the Territorial Legislature : 

"Resolved by the Council and House of Representatives of the Tenth Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming, to memorialize the Congress of 
the United States as follows : 


"The Tenth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming, in session 
assembled, respectfully represents to the Congress of the LTnited States the fol- 

"The organic act of the territory was approved on the twenty-fifth day of 
July, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight ; the organization was completed on the 
nineteenth day of May, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine; as organized, the terri- 
tory has existed for nearly nineteen years. 

"Its coal fields are numerous and extensive, have been much worked, and are 
seemingly exhaustless : its iron, soda and oil fields are extensive and rich and are 
seemingly exhaustless ; its native grasses are various, abundant and highly nutri- 
tious ; contrary to former impression, its capacity for vegetable culture is remark- 
able, aided by irrigation. 

"An extensive system of skilled irrigation has been established, is rapidly 
increasing and admits of large and indefinite expansion. 

"In his report to the secretary of the interior for 1885, the then governor 
(Warren) stated the number of live stock in the territory, consisting of horned 


cattle, sheep, horses and mules, at 3,100,000 head; and their valuation at $75,- 
000,000; and in his report to the secretary for 1886, the number as increased, 
and the value as exceeding seventy-five million dollars ; the two years were 
periods of exceptional market depression in li\e stock \alues, the last much more 
than the first. 

"The long, extensive and accurate experience of that governor with the 
subject, and his sound and practical judgment entitle his statements to especial 

"l"he report to the secretary for 1887, by the present governor (iMoonlight) 
does not state the number or \aluation for that year ; but it shows improved 
methods in the raising of horned cattle are in promising progress; and that horse 
and sheep cultures have become extensive, are rapidly increasing, are conducted 
with superior intelligence, and represent large investments and fine breeds. The 
unmistakable ability and intelligence evinced by the report render it worthy of 
full confidence. 

"It is plain to ordinary observation, that nature intends- Wyoming for a 
great railway area of the west division of the continent and a great railroad 
highway for transcontinental traffic. The Union Pacific Railway traverses the 
southern belt of the territory; another trunk Pacific railway has been completed 
partially across the territory ; and the construction of a third has nearly reached 
its eastern boundary. 

"The lines finished, lateralization will follow according to the inevitable law 
of trunk line development. Other important railroads are also operating, and 
ordinary observation can easily foresee that within the next fourth of a century 
the territory will be gridironed over by a complete railway system. 

"\ free public and compulsory system of education is well advanced here. 

"The above data are moderately stated, and prepare the mind to accept the 
estimate of the present population of the territory, which is stated in the gov- 
ernor's report for 1887 at 85,000. This assembly confidently accepts the report 
as correct on the subject. 

"It is manifest that the prosperity and welfare of the people of this territory 
will advance, under state institutions, far beyond what can be realized in a terri- 
torial condition. 

"This Legislature respectfully requests of Congress such legislation as will 
enable the people of the territory to form a constitution and state government, 
and for the admission of such state into the Union of the United States of 
America on an equal footing with the original states thereof ; and that such 
legislation may embrace ample and gratuitous grants to such state government 
by the Federal Government of the lands of the latter, lying within the territory, 
for the support of common schools, for the erection at the capital of the state 
of public buildings for judicial and legislative purposes, or to promote the con- 
struction of such buildings; and also for the erection of a penitentiary or state 
prison, the donated lands and the proceeds thereof to be employed as the Legis- 
lature of such state government may direct, in respect to the support and conduct 
of the schools and the erection or construction of such judicial, legislative and 
penitentiary buildings, and that such legislation may further provide that a proper 
per centum of the proceeds of the sales of all public lands lying within said state, 
which shall be sold by the LTnited States, subsequent to the admission of said 


state into the Union, after deducting all expenses incident to the same, shall 
be donated and paid to the said state for the purpose of making and improving 
public roads, constructing ditches or canals, to effect a general system of irriga- 
tion of the agricultural land in the state, as its Legislature shall direct. 

"Resolved, That a duly authenticated copy of the foregoing resolution be 
transmitted to the governor of the territory and that he stand requested to take 
the proper steps to obtain from Congress the above desired legislation. 
"l. d. pease, 

"Speaker of the House of Representati\'es. 


"President of the Council." 
A copy of the memorial was sent to Joseph M. Carey, then the delegate in 
Congress, and through his influence a bill was introduced in the senate "to 
provide for the formation and admission into the Union of the State of Wyo- 
ming and for other purposes." A bill was also introduced in the house to enable 
Wyoming and certain other territories to form constitutions and state govern- 
ments. On February 27, 1889, the senate committee on territories reported the 
bill back to that body, and the house bill was also favorably reported by the 
committee on territories, but the session of Congress came to an end on the 4th 
of March and the bill failed to pass for lack of time to give it the necessary and 
customary consideration. 


The people of \\'yoming, firm in the belief that, had time permitted, the 
enabling act would have been passed, and equally firm in the belief that the next 
session of Congress would grant their request, determined to proceed as though 
the enabling act had passed. As a precedent for their action they followed the 
examples of Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan. 
Oregon, Vermont and Wisconsin, all of which states formed constitutions and 
secured their admission into the Union without enabling acts from Congress. 

In i88g there were ten organized counties in Wyoming. The boards of county 
commissioners in seven of those counties adopted resolutions "to put into opera- 
tion the election machinery under the lawg of the territory, for the election of 
delegates to a constitutional convention and the submission of such constitution 
as may be presented by the said convention to the people of this county for 
ratification or rejection, if the governor, chief justice and secretary of the terri- 
tory shall in their wisdom see fit to take the initiatory steps under the provisions 
of said Senate bill for calling into existence a constitutional convention." 

As the several counties adopted this resolution, the chairman of the board 
of county commissioners advised the governor, chief justice and secretary of the 
territory of such action, with the request that, "if other counties of the territory 
make similar pledges and requests, they shall divide the territory into districts, 
apportion the number of delegates to the several districts or counties, and do 
such other acts as may be necessary for the convening of such constitutional 
convention in manner and form as is provided by the terms of said Senate bill." 

On June 3, 1889, resolutions of the above character having been received 
from the commissioners of a majority of the counties, the governor, chief justice 


and secretary of the territory met at the capitol in Cheyenne and divided the 
territory into districts for delegates to a constitutional convention in accordance 
with the terms of the Senate bill, viz., "upon the basis of the votes cast for 
delegate in Congress at the last general election, in each of which districts the 
number of delegates apportioned to such district shall be elected. * * * The 
number of delegates to said convention shall be fifty-five.'' 

The total number of votes cast for delegate in Congress at the general 
election in 1888 was 18.010. Governor Warren, Chief Justice Maginnis and 
Secretary Shannon divided the territory into ten districts, each county being 
made a district, and apportioned the number of delegates to each, after which 
Governor Warren issued the following 


"Whereas. The Territory of Wyoming has the population, material resources, 
public intelligence and morality necessary to ensure a stable local government 
therein ; and 

"Whereas. It has never been deemed a violation of their duties as loyal 
citizens of the United States, for the people of a territory to form for them- 
selves a constitution and state government and to apply to Congress for admis- 
sion to statehood ; and 

"Whereas, On the 27th day of February, 1889, a bill, with amendments, 
entitled 'A bill to provide for the formation and admission into the Union of 
the State of W'yoming, and for other purposes,' was favorably reported to the 
Senate of the United States by the committee on territories; and a bill pro- 
viding, among other things, for the admission of the proposed State of Wyoming, 
having been reported favorably to the House of Representatives by a like com- 
mittee ; and many members of the house and Senate having expressed opinions 
favorable to such admission ; and it thus being made evident that Congress i-; 
disposed to admit Wyoming as a state whenever a suitable constitution is adopted 
and a state government formed preparatory to admission ; and 

"Whereas, By the general expressions of the citizens thereof, the executive 
is co'ivinced that a very large majority of the people of Wyoming are' desirous 
of forming for themselves a constitution and state government, and of being 
admitted into the Union, and of exercising the rights and privileges guaranteed 
to a free and loyal people under the Constitution of the United States ; and 

"Whereas, The boards of county commissioners of several counties in the 
territory have, by resolution, requested the governor to call a constitutional con- 
vention, and have requested the governor, chief justice and secretary of the 
territory to divide the territory into delegate districts, to apportion the number 
of delegates among the several districts, and to do such other acts as may be 
necessary for the convening of such constitutional convention in the manner and 
form provided by the terms of the said Senate bill ; and 

"Whereas, The governor, chief justice and secretary of the territory, on this 
third day of June, 1889, did convene at the capitol in the City of Cheyenne, and 
did apportion the number of delegates among the several districts so established, 
upon the basis of the vote cast for delegate in Congress at the last general elec- 
tion, as follows, to wit : 


"i. The County of Laramie shall constitute the First District and shall elect 
eleven delegates. 

"2. The County of Albany shall constitute the Second District and shall elect 
eight delegates. 

"3. The County of Carbon shall constitute the Third District and shall elect 
eight delegates. 

"4. The County of Sweetwater shall constitute the Fourth District and shall 
elect five delegates. 

"5. The County of Uinta shall constitute the Fifth District and shall elect 
six delegates. 

"6. The County of Fremont shall constitute the Sixth District and shall elect 
three delegates. 

"7. The County of Sheridan shall constitute the Seventh District and shall 
elect three delegates. 

"8. The County of Johnson shall constitute the Eighth District and shall 
elect three delegates. 

■■'9. The County of Crook shall constitute the Ninth District and shall elect 
four delegates. 

"10. The County of Converse shall constitute the Tenth District and shall 
elect four delegates. 

"Now, Therefore, recognizing the superior and material advantages of a 
state government over our territorial system, and being desirous of carrying into 
effect the will of the people, I, Francis E. Warren, governor of the Territory of 
Wyoming, do issue this, my proclamation to the people of the territory, recom- 
mending that they take such action on their part as may be necessary to secure 
the admission of Wyoming into the Union of states ; and for this purpose I direct 
that an election be held throughout the territory, on the second Monday of July, 
1S89, for the election of delegates to a constitutional convention to convene at 
Cheyenne, the capital of the territory, at 12 o'clock, noon, on the first Monday 
of September, 1889. for the purpose of forming a constitution for the State of 
Wyoming, and for the purpose of submitting such constitution to the people 
thereof, for their ratification or rejection. 

"1 suggest that, in organizing a state government preparatory to admission, 
the provisions of the aforesaid Senate bill should be followed, as nearly as may be 
possible, and in pursuance thereof the following recommendations are hereby 
made : 

"First. The number of delegates to such constitutional convention shall be 
fifty-five, apportioned among the several districts as hereinbefore set forth. 

"Second. The delegates apportioned to each district shall be elected exclu- 
sively in that district. 

"Third. Persons who are qualified by the laws of the territory to vote for 
representatives to the Legislative Assembly thereof are hereby authorized to vote 
for and choose delegates to such constitutional convention. 

"Fourth. The qualifications for delegates to such constitutional convention 
shall be such as, by the laws of the territory, persons are required to possess to 
be eligible to the Legislative Assembly thereof. 

"Fifth. Such election shall be conducted, the returns made, the result ascer- 
tained, and the certificates to persons elected to such convention issued, in the 


same manner as is prescribed by the laws of the territory regulating elections 
therein for delegate to Congress. 

"Sixth. Since the advantages to be obtained by statehood will depend some- 
what upon the judicious action of the constitutional convention, it is desirable 
that the delegates should be representative men, of character and ability, whose 
work will be satisfactory to Congress and beneficial to the people of the proposed 
State of Wyoming. The character and fitness of the delegates to be chosen is 
in fact of greater importance than the manner of their selection, and if the citizens 
of any county generally prefer to elect their delegates by some equitable method 
other than that hereinbefore prescribed, it is believed that the delegates so chosen 
will be recognized and admitted to seats in the convention. 

"Seventh. The constitution formed by such convention shall be submitted 
to the people of the territory for ratification or rejection on the first Tuesday 
in November, 1889. 

"Eighth. The convention should fix the per diem and mileage of its mem- 
bers and employees, and certificates of service and expenditure should be made 
by the officers of the convention and filed with the secretary of the territory, as 
Congress will, without doubt, follow its own precedents in providing for the 
payment thereof. 

"In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Great 
Seal of the Territory of Wyoming to be affixed at Cheyenne, at the capitol, on 
this third day of June, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-nine, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one 
hundred and thirteenth. 


"By the Governor, 


"Secretary of Territory.'' 


The election for delegates to the constitutional convention was held accord- 
ing to schedule on July 8, 1889,' when the following delegates were chosen in 
the several counties of the territory: Albany — M. C. Brown, William E. Chap- 
lin, S. W. Downey, George W. Fox, M. N. Grant. John W. Hoyt, John AIcGill 
and A. L. Sutherland. Carbon— C. W. Burdick, Robert C. Butler, J. A. Casebeer, 
J. C. Davis, George Ferris, George C. Smith, W. N. Strobridge and Charles L. 
Vagner. Converse— M. C. Barrow. J. K. Calkins, W. C. Irvine and De Forest 
Richards. Crook — Frank Meyer, Thomas H. Moore, R. H. Scott and Joseph 
L. Stotts. Fremont — Noyes Baldwin, D. A. Preston and H. G. Nick- 
erson. Johnson — Charles H. Burritt, H. S. Elliott and John M. ^IcCandlish. 
Laramie — George W. Baxter. A. C. Campbell, Henry G. Hay, John K. Jeffrey, 
James A. Johnston, E. S. N. Morgan, Caleb P. Organ, Charles N. Potter. Thomas 
R. Reid, John A. Riner and H. E. Teschemacher. Sheridan — Cornelius Boul- 
ware, Henry A. Cofifeen and William N. Robinson. Sweetwater — Asbury B. 
Conaway, Mark Hopkins, Herman F. Menough, Louis J. Palmer and Edward J. 
Morris. Uinta— C. D. Clark, C. W. Holden, F. M. Foote, Jonathan Jones, Jesse 
Knight and John L. Russell. 


The convention met at noon on Alonday, September 2, 1889, and a temporary 
organization was effected by the election of Henry S. ElHott of Johnson County, 
chairman, and John K. Jeffrey of Laramie County, secretary. Melville C. Brown 
of Albany County was chosen president of the convention and John K. Jeffrey 
was elected permanent secretary. Governor Warren's suggestion that the dele- 
gates ought to be men "of character and ability" seems to have been generally 
followed by the districts in electing delegates. In the convention were two 
ex-governors, one ex-secretary of the territory, three had held the office of 
United States attorney, one the office of territorial auditor, one was afterward 
elected governor of the state, one became United States senator, and four occu- 
pied seats upon the Supreme bench of Wyoming. 

The constitution was completed on the last day of September, 1889, and was 
signed by forty of the delegates, the other memljers of the convention having been 
obliged to return to their homes before the final adjournment. John A. Riner, 
Clarence D. Clark, John W. Hoyt, Henry S. Elliott, William C. Irvine, Henry 
A. Coffeen, H. G. Nickerson, J. A. Casebeer, E. S. N. Morgan and Louis J. 
Palmer were appointed a committee to prepare a memorial on behalf of the 
convention for presentation to Congress, urging the passage of an act admitting 
Wyoming to statehood. On November 5, i88g, at an election held for the pur- 
pose, the constitution was submitted to the people. It was a cold, snowy day 
and a light vote was polled, but five-sixths of the votes cast were in favor of 
ratifying the constitution. The committee appointed by the convention then pre- 
pared a memorial setting forth all the facts in the case, which memorial was 
presented to Congress by Joseph M. Carey at the beginning of the ensuing session 
in December. 

In the meantime the constitution had been favorably commented on by the 
press of the country, particularly the clause giving the right of suffrage to women, 
and it had received encomiums from eminent statesmen and publicists, among 
whom were George W. Curtis, editor of Harper's Weekly, and William E. Glad- 
stone, at that time Great Britain's premier. Through these favorable comments 
and encomiums the members of Congress were generally well acquainted with 
the provisions of the constitution before they were called upon to act in their 
official capacity for the admission of the new state. Joseph M. Carey, then the 
delegate in Congress, worked early and late to secure the passage of the bill 
admitting Wyoming into the Union. The bill finally passed both houses early 
in July, 1890. On the 9th of that month S. W. Downey and H. V. S. Groesbeck 
telegraphed their congratulations to Mr. Carey upon the successful termination 
of his efforts, and the following day they received this reply : 

"Washington, D. C, July 10, 1890. 

"Accept thanks for congratulations. The people of Wyoming have won a 
great victory. The President made Wyoming a state at 5 130 this afternoon. 

"j. M. CAREY." 

The act approved by President Harrison at 3:30 P. M., July 10, 1890. under 
which the State of W'yoming was admitted into the Union, consists of twenty-one 
sections, introduced by the following preamble : 


"Whereas, The people of the Territory of Wyoming did, on the 30th day 
of September, 1889, by a convention of delegates called and assembled for that 
purpose, form for themselves a constitution, which constitution was ratified 
and adopted by the people of said territory at the election held therefor on the 
first Tuesday in November, 1889, which constitution is republican in form and 
is in confiirniity with the Constitution of the United States; and 

"W licrras. Said convention and the people of said territory have asked the 
admission of said territory into the Union of states on an equal footing with the 
original states in all respects whatever ; therefore, be it enacted," etc. 

"Section i. That the State of Wyoming is hereby declared to be a state 
of the United States of America, and is hereby declared admitted into the Union 
on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever; and that 
the constitution which the people of Wyoming have formed for themselves be, 
and the same is hereby, accepted, ratified and confirmed." 

Section 2 defines the boundaries, which are the same as at the present time ; 
section 3 fixes the representation in Congress as two senators and one member 
of the House of Representatives ; section 4 sets apart the sections of land num- 
bered 16 and 36 in each township for the support of a pubHc school system; 
section 5 relates to the same subject ; section 6 grants "fifty sections of the unap- 
propriated public lands within the state for the purpose of erecting public build- 
ings at the capital," etc. : section 7 donates 5 per cent of the proceeds of all sales 
of public lands within the state to the school fund; sections 8 to 11 relate to the 
land grants under previous acts of legislation, for the penitentiary, fish hatchery 
and agricultural college, etc., to-wit: For the insane asylum in Uinta County, 
30,000 acres ; for the penal, reform and educational institution in course of 
construction in Carbon County, 30,000 acres ; for the penitentiary in Albany 
County, 30,000 acres ; for the fish hatchery in Albany County, 5,000 acres ; for 
the deaf, dumb and blind asylum in Laramie County, 30,000 acres : for the poor 
farm in Fremont County, 10,000 acres ; for the miners' hospital, 30,000 acres ; 
for public buildings at the capital, 75,000 acres ; and for the state charitable, 
penal and reformatory institutions, 260,000 acres, making a total of 500,000 
acres in addition to the specific land grants already mentioned. The act also 
contains a provision that none of the lands granted should be sold for less than 
ten dollars an acre. 

The next three sections prescribe the manner in which all lands granted to 
the state should be selected. Section 15 appropriated $3,000 to defray the expenses 
of the constitutional convention. Sections 16, 17 and 18 provide for the estab- 
lishment of a United States District Court for Wyoming, and fix the time and 
place of holding terms of the United States District and Circuit courts. Section 19 
relates to the election of United States senators, and the last two sections authorize 
the territorial officials to remain in office until a state election could be held, and 
declare that the laws of the United States shall apply to the State of Wyoming. 


Almost as soon as news of the passage of the act of admission reached Chey- 
enne, preparations were commenced for a proper observation of the victory 
that had been gained by the people of Wyoming. July 23, 1890, was selected 


as the date, and invitations were sent to all parts of the state, asking the citizens 
to join in the demonstration. The celebration began with a parade at 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon. At the head of the procession was the Seventeenth Infantry 
IJanJ and a detachment of troops from Fort D. A. Russell. The second division 
was led by the Union Pacific Band and the Wyoming National Guard. One fea- 
ture of the parade was both novel and instructive. On a large float, handsomely 
decorated, were forty-two young women, representing the forty-two states of 
the Union. Immediately behind the float came a small carriage draw^n by two 
diminutive Shetland ponies. In the pony carriage were three little girls — Grace 
Cowhick, representing the Goddess of Liberty ; Frankie Warren, representing 
the State of Wyoming; and a little Miss Elliott, representing the State of Idaho. 
These two states had both been recognized by Congress, but had not yet been 
vested with the full powers of statehood. The tableau seemed to say to the 
occupants of the float in front: "You may look down upon us now, but we 
shall be on the big wagon by and by." 

In front of the capitol a grandstand had been erected and here Governor 
Warren presided over the exercises. Mrs. Theresa A. Jenkins was the first 
speaker. She reviewed the struggle in behalf of woman suffrage, which had 
teen incorporated in the constitution, and in concluding her address said : "Bar- 
tholdi's statue of Liberty Enlightening the World is fashioned in the form of 
a woman and placed upon a pedestal carved from the everlasting granite of the 
New England hills ; but the women of Wyoming have been placed upon a firmer 
foundation and hold aloft a more brilliant torch." 

At the conclusion of Mrs. Jenkins' address, Mrs. Esther Morris, who has 
been called "the mother of woman suffrage in Wyoming," presented to the State 
of Wyoming a fine flag, bearing forty-four stars, which was accepted by Governor 
Warren, as chief executive, in a few well chosen words, after which the two 
bands and the entire audience of some six thousand persons joined in rendering 
"The Star Spangled Banner." 

Mrs. I. S. Bartlett was then introduced and read an original poem, entitled 
■"The True Republic," which is here reproduced in full. 


The first republic of the world 
Now greets the day, its flag unfurled 

To the pure mountain air; 
On plains, in canyon, shop and mine. 
The star of equal rights shall shine 
From its blue folds, with light divine — 

A symbol bright and fair. 

The flashing presence of today 
Startles our ancient dreams away. 

Wrapped in her shadows dim 
Old memory flees; with vivid glance 
Today uplifts her shining lance ; 
Her arm is might, her brow is light, 

Her voice a thrilling hvmn. 


Shine on, oh star ! Xo flag of old, 
No standard raised by warrior bold 

In all the days of yore, 
For chivalric or kingly claim, 
For honor bright or woman's name, 
Has ever shone with brighter flame 

Than peerless forty-four. 

Fair state of honor — Freedom's pride. 
There's none in all the world beside 

That wears so rich a gem. 
A commonwealth where all are free, 
Where all find true equality, 
First in the world, the world shall see 

'Tis Freedom's diadem. 

The battle's fought, the battle's won, 
With thankful hearts we say "Well done" 

To all our champions brave. 
Xo carnage marked the earnest fight. 
But souls aflame and nerved with right 
Urged on the conflict day and night. 

Our statehood cause to save. 

God bless our State ! 
Nature rejoices, too; our mountains high 

Above the clouds arc touched with brighter light ; 
A new charm fills the overarching sky 

And thrills earth's denizens with visions bright. 

God bless our State ! 
The geysers throw their splendid watery plumes 

Still higher in their ancient wonderland. 
The restless mountain torrent frets and fumes 

More loudly on its journey to the strand. 

God bless our State ! 
The very air with new, fresh life is stirred. 

The free, exultant birds more sweetly sing. 
And Nature's changing voices ever heard 

Unto our souls new happiness shall bring. 

God bless our State ! 
Where'er her mighty rivers swiftly run, 

Where'er her mountain peaks shall pierce the sky, 
Where'er her plains sweep to the rising sun. 

And peaceful valleys in the shadows lie. 


God bless our State ! 
Its new career begun, let all rejoice, 

And man and woman, hand in hand, as one 
With energies of body, heart and voice 

Make it a happy land where all may come. 

If we look within the future, our prophetic eyes can see 
Glorious views unfold before us, of joy, wealth, prosperity. 

We can see the sons of Science, Alusic, Poetry and Art 
Coming to our grand dominion, in our growth to take a part. 

\\'e can see the iron monster, rushing fiercely to and fro, 
^^'e can see the sky o'erspread with smoke from furnaces below. 

We can see Wyoming's mountains giving up their hidden stores, 
Tons on tons, by millions pouring, of the base and precious ores. 

See her towns and cities rising where the bison used to roam. 
And along her streams and valleys many a farmer's peaceful home. 

We can see great halls of learning, well endowed and nobly planned, 
Monuments of taste and culture for the children of our land. 

We can see the spires of churches, pointing upward to our gaze; 
Chiming bells, harmonious sounding, calling us to prayer and praise. 

See the plains, now dry and barren, where the sage or cactus grows. 
Desert plains, no longer barren, then shall "blossom like the rose." 

Thirsty lands, no longer thirsty, filled with moisture wisely stored. 
Bounteous to the happy farmer, noble har\ests will aft'ord. 

Happy are Wyoming's peojjle, happier will our future be. 
So we sing today with gladness, and we shout for victory. 

Let the bells ring out more loudly and the deep-toned cannon roar. 
Giving voice to our thanksgiving, such as never rose before. 

For we tread enchanted ground today, we're glorious, proud and great ; 
Our independence day has come — \\'yoming is a State ! 

Melville C. Brown, who had been president of the constitutional convention, 
then came forward and presented Mrs, Amelia B. Post, "as a representative 
woman of Wyoming," with a copy of the constitution. Mrs. Post responded 
on behalf of the women of the state, thanking Judge Brown and the convention 
for giving the women of Wyoming equal civic and political rights with men. 
Then the oration of the day was delivered by Clarence D. Clark of Evanston, 


who was delegate to the constitutional convention and a member of the com- 
mittee which presented the final memorial to Congress praying for the admis- 
sion of the state. The celebration came to an end with a display of fireworks 
and grand ball in the evening. 

After the festivities, the people of Wyoming settled down to the more serious 
business of inaugurating their state government. The first election for state 
officers was held on Thursday, September ii. 1890. and resulted in the choice 
of the following: Francis E. Warren, governor; Amos W. Barber, secretary of 
state; Otto Gramm, treasurer of state; Charles ^^'. Burdick, auditor of state; 
Stephen T. Farwell, superintendent of public instruction; Willis Van Devanter, 
chief justice of the Supreme Court; Herman \'. S. Groesbeck and Asbury B. 
Conaway, associate justices ; Clarence D. Clark, representative in Congress. On 
October 11, 1890, the state officers were installed in their respective positions 
and the State of Wyoming took her place among her sister states — the forty- 
fourth star in the American constellation. 









Wyoming enjoys the unique distinction of being the first territory and state 
to give women the full and unqualified right of suiTrage, including the right to 
hold office. In the "wild and woolly' west, the territorial republic of Wyoming 
in the first session of its legislature in December. 1869. enacted a law, which was 
approved by the governor, and which reads as follows : 

"Every woman of the age of twenty-one years residing in this territory, may. 
at every election, cast her vote ; and her right to the elective franchise and to 
hold office under the election laws of the territory shall be the same as those of 

Thus from our primeval mountains and plains was fired the first shot for equal 
suffrage "that was heard around the world." 


When the brave pioneers and empire builders of the territory startled the 
country with this enactment, Wyoming had less than cj,ooo inhabitants. It was 
a scene of "magnificent distances" between human habitations, with broad plains, 
high mountains and great forests intervening. Bands of hostile Indians roamed 
over much of the territory. The buffalo ranged at will, and thousands of antelope 
were at home on the plains and foothills, while in the mountains, immense herds 
of elk were everywhere grazing, as near neighbors of the big horn, the mountain 
lion and the bear. 

The adventurers and desperadoes that floated in with the incoming settlers 
had nothing to do with making laws. They were transients and pilgrims. The 
real, bona fide first settlers of Wyoming were men of sterling character, of 
broad vision and undoubted courage. They were largely made up from the young 
veterans of the South who fought under Lee and Jackson, or those whose mettle 


had been proved in battles under Grant and Sherman. They had learned by 
thrilling experiences the lessons of liberty and equality. They were unafraid. 


It seems to be the destiny of new states to work out the problems of a pro- 
gressive civilization. The fathers who made the American Constitution, which 
has been called "the greatest human document," were pioneers and frontiers- 
men, nurtured by forest and stream and mountain, sons of nature, and therefore 
sons of liberty. This enactment, therefore, was not the result of an idle fancy. 
nor as has sometimes been asserted, "a joke." or a bid for notoriety. Every step 
in its passage through the Legislature shows the grim determination of its sup- 
porters, no matter how much ridicule nor how many quips were thrown at it 
by its opponents. 

It was the serious and conscientious expression of a body of men who were 
animated by sentiments of lofty respect and admiration for women, and -who 
believed that as a measure of common justice they should be granted the same 
rights and privileges that were given to men. This is amply proven by other 
enactments presented and passed by the same Legislature, as, for example. "An 
act to protect women in their property rights" ; a provision inserted in the bill 
establishing a school system, that "Women school teachers should receive the 
same pay as men for the same service," and a resolution "That the sergeant at 
arms be required*to assign seats within the bar of the house to ladies who wished 
to attend the deliberations of this body." Nobody thought there was anything 
jocose or sensational about these propositions, although they represent a senti- 
ment half a century in advance of the old states at that time. 


The proceedings of the first Legislature of Wyoming Territory will always 
be interesting to the student of history and the advocates of equal suffrage. 
The session began October 12 and ended December 11. i86g. 

In looking over the house journal, one wdll find in the proceedings a moving 
picture the wants and conditions of a frontier people. For instance, a bill was 
introduced to build a road south from Sherman to the North Park gold mines, 
and a road north from the Town of Wyoming to the Last Chance gold mines. 
This shows they had a vision of the need of good roads even in those primitive 
days. There were frequent references in bills to Indian raids in the Wind River 
\'alley and South Pass. A memorial to Congress was passed asking the removal 
of the headquarters of the military department from Omaha to Fort Russell. 
These propositions are all evidence of the enterprise, public spirit and farseeing 
statesmanship of the noble band of territorial legislators who blazed the way for 
woman's suffrage on this continent. 

The organic act creating Wyoming Territory was passed by Congress and 
approved July 25. 186S. The first governor and secretary were appointed and 
qualified April 15. 1869, and on May 19. 1869. the judicial officers reported for 
duty, thus completing the territorial organization. An election was soon ordered, 
resuhins in the organization of the Legislature on October 12, 1869. 



The governor was John A. Campbell ; the secretary, Edward M. Lee ; United 
States attorney, Joseph M. Carey; United States marshal. Church Howe; and the 
delegate to Congress was Stephen F. Xuckolls. The names of the legislators were 
as follows : 

Council — Fred Laycock and J. W. Brady of Albany County; W. H. Bright 
and G. W. Wardman of Carter County; J. R. Whitehead, T. D. Murrin and T. 
W. Poole of Laramie County ; George Wilson of Carbon County ; and William 
E. Darby at large. Nine members. W. H. Bright, president. 

House — J. C. Abney, Posey S. Wilson, Howard Sebree and Herman Haas 
of Laramie County; William Herrick, J. N. Douglas and Louis Miller of Albany 
County; James W. Menefee, Ben Sheeks and John Holbrook of Carter County; 
S. M. Curran and J. M. Freeman of Carbon County; J. C. Strong at large. 
Thirteen members. S. M. Curran, speaker. 

The woman's suffrage bill was introduced November 27th. by W. H. Bright, 
president of the council, and was passed in that body and sent to the house 
November 30, 1869. The text of the bill, being Council Bill No. 70, was as 
follows : 

"Every woman of the age of eighteen years residing in this territory, mav, at 
every election cast her vote ; and her right to the elective franchise and to hold 
office under the election laws of the territory shall be the same as those ot 

Section 2 provided that "this act shall take efTect from and after its passage." 


When the bill reached the house, November 30th, it was taken up and read 
the first time, and on motion of Ben Sheeks the rules were suspended and the 
bill read a second time and referred to a committee of the whole house and 
made a special order for 7 o'clock that evening. This action was rushing the 
measure beyond ordinary precedent. At the evening session, Mr. Douglas moved 
that the house reconsider its action on Council Bill No. 70, "an act granting the 
right of suffrage to the women of Wyoming Territory," made special order for 
this hour, and that it be referred to a special committee. This was carried and 
the speaker named Messrs. Douglas, Menefee and Abney as such special com- 
mittee. On December 4th this committee made the following report: 

"Your special committee to whom was referred Council Bill No. 70, 'An act 
to give the women of Wyoming the right of sufTrage,' have had the same under 
consideration and report it back to the house recommending its passage." 

"J. W. D0UGLA.S, Chairman." 

This report having the unanimous support of the committee, it will be seen 
between the lines that all its supporters were in earnest in favoring the bill 
and they used the best parliamentary strategy in taking it safely through its 
different stages, and especially in having it referred to a favorable committee. 
When the report of the committee was taken up the same day, ^Ir. Sheeks 
moved to postpone the consideration of the bill indefinitely. This was lost, and 
on motion of Mr. Douglas the bill was made special order for 7 o'clock P. M. 
At the evening session, on motion of Mr. Strong, the house resolved itself into 
a committee of the whole for consideration of the bill. JNIr. Douglas, a warm 


supporter of the bill, was called to the chair. After a free and lively discussion 
of the measure, the committee rose and made the following report : 

"Mr. Speaker, the committee of the whole have had Council Liill No. 70, a 
bill for 'An act to Grant the Women of Wyoming the Right of Suffrage,' under 
consideration and report the same back to the house." 

J. \\'. DouGL.vs, Chairman. 

Air. Wilson moved that the report be received. Lost. 

Air. Sheeks mo\ed to adjourn. Lost. 

Air. Strong moved to reconsider the vote on the reception of the report of the 
committee of the whole on Council Bill No. 70. Lost. 

Air. Strong appealed from the decision of the chair. Appeal not sustained. 

The house then proceeded to consider other business and left the committee's 
report hanging in mid-air. It was neither accepted nor rejected — a peculiar par- 
liamentary situation. 


The bill next came before the house on December 6th, when the final struggle 
for its passage was made. The speaker called Air. Sebree to the chair. On motion 
of Mr. Strong a call of the house was had and absentees sent for. They were 
all brought in but two, Freeman and Haas. Sheeks moved to take a recess. Lost. 
From this time on, all kinds of dilatory, obstructive and ridiculous motions were 
made by the opposition and were promptly voted down. Curran moved, that 
consideration of the bill be postponed until July 4, 1870. Lost. Sheeks moved 
to postpone action on the bill until Saturday next. (That time was after the 
Legislature had adjourned.) Lost. Curran moved to insert in section 2, the 
words, "Three years or sooner discharged." Lost. Sheeks offered an amendment 
to insert the words, "all colored women and squaws" in section 2. On motion 
of Aliller, Sheeks' amendment was laid on the table. Air. Strong oft'ered an 
amendment to strike out the word "women' and insert in lieu thereof the word 
"Ladies." This was laid on the table. On motion of Mr. Sheeks the word 
"eighteen" was stricken out and the words "twenty-one" inserted instead. On 
motion of Air. Nelson the rules were suspended, the bill read a third time by title 
, and put upon its passage. A vote was then taken on the bill which passed as 
follows : 

-Ayes — Alessrs. Abney, Douglas, Herrick, Aliller, Alenefee, Sebree and Wilson 


Nays — Alessrs. Holbrook, Sheeks, Strong and Speaker Curran — 4. 

In order to clinch the passage of the bill and prevent any further filibustering. 
Air. Wilson moved a reconsideration of the action taken. This being lost, pre- 
vented any other member from making such a motion. 


Judging from the Journal very little debate occurred on the suft'rage bill in the 
Council. The measure had a majority from the first and at no time did the opposi- 
tion develop any fighting propensity or attempt parliamentary obstructions. The 
fact that William H. Bright. President of the Council, introduced the measure 


may account in part for the courtesy with which its opponents treated it, at dif- 
ferent stages of the proceedings, from its introduction to its final passage.. 

Mr. Bright gave notice on November 12, 1869, that he would "introduce a bill 
for "Woman's Rights' on Monday, or some subsequent day.'' The bill however, 
did not appear until November 27th at the opening of the morning session when 
Mr. Bright is recorded as introducing a bill, "For an Act giving to the \\'omen of 
Wyoming the Right of Suffrage." 

It was then read for the first and second time and referred to the Committee 
of the Whole. During the forenoon of that day the committee held a session 
and reported the bill back to the Council with the recommendation that it be 
passed. It was filed on the calendar as Bill No. 70. and three days later, on 
November 30th. it was read the third time and put upon its final passage, and was 
passed by the following vote : 

Yeas — Brady. Laycock, Murrin. Poole, Wilson and Mr. President — 6. 
Nays — Rockwell and Whitehead — 2. 
Absent — i. 


The bill was then sent to the House. On the morning session of December 6, 
1869, the Council was notified by a message from the chief clerk of the House, 
that the House had passed Council Bill No. 70, "An Act to Grant to the Women 
of Wyoming Territory the Right of Suffrage" with the following amendment: 
section i, second line. Strike out the word 'Eighteen' and insert the words 
'Twenty-one.' The amendment was agreed to by the Council by a vote of six 
to three. 

Thus the bill had a serene and uneventful journey through the Council. Its 
passage was the result of the serious, intelligent judgment of that body and the 
record shows there were no factions or trifling parliamentary tactics used to op- 
pose it. 


On December loth, one day before the adjournment of the Legislature the fol- 
lowing message was received by the Council, 

"Executive Department. W. T., 
"Cheyenne, December 10, 1869. 

"To the Honorable President of the Council, 

"I have the honor to inform the Council that I have approved "An act to 
grant to the Women of ^^'yoming Territory the right of Suflfrage and to hold 

"\'ery respectfully 

"Your obedient servant, 

"J. A. Campbell. 




On the day following the original passage of the act in 1809 the Cheyenne 
Leader commented editorially as follows: 

"Governor Campbell yesterday approved the Female Suffrage Bill, thus making 
it a law of the territory. We now expect at once quite an immigration of ladies 
to Wyoming. We say to them, Come on ! There is room for a great many here 
yet. When Wyoming gets tired of such additions we'll agree to let the outside 
world know the fact. Won't the irrepressible Anna D. (Dickinson) come out 
here and make her home? We'll even give her more than the right to vote — 
she can run for Congress." 


The legislative history of this act would not be complete without noting the 
fact that an attempt was made to repeal the law at the next session of the Legis- 
lature, two years later, when curiously enough the alignment of the two parties 
was reversed on the proposition. It was originally passed by a legislature unani- 
mously democratic. In the session of 1871, the bill to repeal the act was supported 
by democrats and opposed by republicans. It was passed by both houses and 
sent to the governor who vetoed it in a cogent and lengthy message, in which he 
argued that a repeal would advertise to the world that the women of Wyoming 
in their use of the franchise had not justified its passage. This, he declared was 
an entirely false imputation. He said the argument that, the ability to perform 
'military service was essential, could not be sustained, as a large part of male 
voters were exempt from such service : that the law already passed permitting 
women to acquire and possess property and be taxed, should give her a voice in 
the public management of her property ; that she should have a voice in the man- 
agement of our public schools where her children were educated ; that the act 
was in harmony with the legislation already passed, in relation to the property 
rights of women and the law agiiiiist any discrimination in pay of teachers on ac- 
count of sex. 


r)utside of Cheyenne, throughout the territory there seems to have been no 
agitation and not much discussion in regard to equal suffrage, and there was 
little, if any, expectation that such a measure would be passed by the Legislature. 
It has been said "Tt is the unexpected that happens," and it so proved in this 
far-reaching act which blazed the way for the woman suft'rage campaigns that 
were waged in every state for the next half a century. 

The passage of the act, however, created a decided sensation throughout the 
United States, and brought out all kinds of comments "from grave to gay and from 
li\-ely to severe." The old states were astonished that the newest and smallest 
territorial sovereignty should have the boldness and audacity to break down the 
walls of exclusiveness and conventionalism and march forth into the open of 
freedom and equal rights. It was hailed with delight by true reformers and 
thoughtful progressives in the dift'erent political parties. 

204 HISTORY OF ^^•Y0.^11XG 

111 other countries this legislation did not seem so revolutionary or radical, for 
women have enjoyed partial suffrage in many lands. In Canada they may vote for 
municipal officers and they have that privilege in other colonies of Great Britain. 
In France women teachers may vote for members of the boards of education. In 
Russia, women who are heads of households may vote by proxy at village and 
municipal elections. In Sweden they have municipal suffrage. In some states 
women property holders may vote on questions pertaining to assessments of 


The Wyoming idea, put into practical operation in i86g. is now, like an advanc- 
ing wave submerging the governments of the world. When states like New York 
adopt woman suffrage, the nationalization of the reform will soon be inevitable. 
England will no doubt soon reward the splendid work and noble sacrifices of her 
women in the present world war, by investing them with full suffrage rights. 
When we look back to the act of Wyoming's pioneers, we think, "How far yon 
little candle throws its beams." 

Wyoming's EXPERixrENT 

The writer was a visitor at his old, colonial home in Massachusetts in 1Q15 
when the question of woman suft'rage was at issue. Being requested to present 
^\'yoming's view and experiences, he said in part: 

"There is an old saying. 'Proof of the pudding is in the eating.' Wyoming has 
had woman suffrage for nearly half a century. Surely that is long enough time to 
test its practical results, as to the individual citizen, the family, the home and public 
affairs. Our experience therefore is more important than any hypothetical argu- 
ments or conjectures that the opponents of equal suffrage may present. 

"A recent canvass of press opinions throughout the country made by the 
Literary Digest, shows that every one of the twenty-six editors queried in Wyo- 
ming, declared in favor of full female suffrage. It must certainly be admitted that 
this is an expression of intelligent men versed in public affairs and governmental 
policies, and we may add. in the consensus of public opinion, the masses of the 
people of Wyoming are practically unanimous on this subject. 

"If it be said that Wyoming is a wild west state of cowboys, sheep herders 
and range riders, I answer that the census will show we stand in the front rank 
of states in general education, and we are among the few states of the Union that 
have an intelligence qualification in granting suffrage. Under our constitution 
every voter must be able to read the state constitution in English, consequently 
we can have no illiterate vote. 

"Wyoming is also at the front in humane legislation. Kind treatment to 
animals is required to be taught in the public schools. Our code of humane laws 
is far in advance of the old states in their scope and efficiency, as our Humane 
Bureau is a state institution, maintained by the state appropriation and its work 
is supported by the legal authorities of every town and county. 

"As a descendant of one of the oldest Colonial families of Xew England I wish 
you to note this fact, our 'wild west' is really the product of the East — \\'yoming 


is more American than Massachusetts, Cheyenne is more American than Ames- 
bury. Our state is largely made up of people from the Eastern and Southern 
states. \'ery few were born here. We have been translated from the narrow- 
confines of New England to a region of grand possibilities — to the vast plains 
and lofty mountains, the brilliant sunshine and exhilarating ozone of a new 
land. We are empire builders, both men and women, and without boasting, I 
may say we have a broader vision and more progressive ideas than those people 
of Massachusetts who still persist in traveling in the old ruts. 

"We are in the general uplift, socially, physically and governmentally. It is 
the destiny of the new states to work out the newest problems of a progressive 
cvilization, and we have already solved the problem of equal suffrage, in a most 
quiet and effective manner, and we know it to be not only a privilege, but a right 
for our women to participate in. our government, and so far its effect has been 
only beneficial in every way, morally, socially and politically. Going to the polls 
once a year does not make a woman less motherly, less gentle or less refined. In 
all the state of \\'yoming we have not heard of a single home being broken up by 
women voting, or a single divorce being caused by a difference of political opinions. 
There have been no revolutionary, startling or spectacular effects from woman's 
voting, such as have been conjured up in the wild and excited imaginations of its 


The act granting suffrage to women also included the right to hold office. In 
the month of March, 1870, somebody in Laramie, a frontier town, tift}' miles 
west of Cheyenne, on the Union Pacific Railroad, suggested the idea that women 
should serve as jurors. Laramie had a population then of about 2,000, made up 
largely of adventurers, camp followers, and with what is termed the "tough" 
element in practical control. The better class of settlers who came there to stay 
and grow up with the country, found it difficult to maintain law and order. The 
courts were not effective, juries could not or dared not convict the worst offenders. 
It was reasoned that if women were put on the juries it could not be any worse 
and might result in improving conditions. The whole arrangement seems to have 
been agreed to by court officials of the first court convening soon after the passage 
of the act, the term commencing in ^larch, 1870. 

The names of the jurors at that time were not drawn, but were selected by 
court officers and personally summoned by the sheriff'. Both the grand and petit 
juries of that court contained the names of women. 


The grand jury was first called with the names of the following women : 
IMiss Elisa Stewart, school teacher; Mrs. Amelia Hatcher, a widow; Mrs. G. F. 
Hilton, wife 01 a physician; Mrs. Mary Mackell, wife of a clerk at Fort Sanders; 
IMrs. Agnes Baker, wife of a merchant ; Mrs. Sarah ^^'. Pease, wife of the deputy 
clerk of court. Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard in her admirable story of the 
"First Woman Jury" appearing in the Journal of American History in 1913, 


"\Mien this jury had been empaneled, sworn and charged, the excitement in 
Laramie was intense, and the material facts, together with the judge's charge 
were telegraphed all over the world by the associated press reporters who watched 
every step of the novel scene with intense interest." 

At the opening of the court, the jury being in their seats, the judge addressed 
them as "ladies and gentlemen of the grand jury." He assured them there was no 
impropriety or illegality in women serving as jurors and that they would receive 
the full consideration and protection of the court. As the judge finished, Stephen 
\\'. Downey, prosecuting attorney, arose and moved to quash the jury panel on 
the ground that said panel was not composed of "male citizens" as required by 
law. The court overruled this motion. Associate Justice Kingman concurring. 
In fact the written opinion of Chief Justice Howe had been given to Mr. Downey 
previous to the assembling of the court. This grand jury was in session three 
weeks and investigated many cases including murders, cattle stealing, illegal 
branding, etc. Whenever a true bill was returned it commenced with these words, 
"We, good and lawful male and female jurors, on oath do say." 

The petit jury, empaneled after the grand jury, consisted of six women and 
six men. The women were: Mrs. Retta J. Burnham, wife of a contractor; Miss 
Nellie Hazen, a school teacher; Miss Lizzie A. Spooner, sister of a hotel keeper; 
Mrs. Mary Wilcox, wife cf a merchant; Mrs. J. H. Hayford, wife of an editor; 
Mrs. J. N. Hartsough. wife of the ^Methodist minister. A woman bailiff, IMrs. 
Mary Boies, was appointed to attend to this jury, being the first woman bailiff 
known to American history. The first case was a murder trial, and as no decision 
was reached before night, the jury was taken to the Union Pacific Hotel and two 
rooms engaged, one for the men and one for the women, a man bailifif being on duty 
as guard of the men. As an incident of their deliberations, the minister's wife 
asked the jurors to kneel down with her in prayer "that they might ask the aid of 
the Great Court above in arriving at a just decision." 

After several ballots in the murder case with varying results the jury finally 
agreed on a verdict of manslaughter. During the term many civil and criminal 
cases were tried, and when it was over, the universal opinion of lawyers and all 
good citizens, was, that the women showed ability, good sense and practical judg- 
ment in their decisions and that the ends of justice were attained. 

Mrs. Sarah W. Pease, one of the grand jurors, wrote an interesting account of 
their jury experiences in the Wyoming Historial Collections of 1897. Of the pub- 
licity they enjoyed or suft'ered, she says : 

"The news was wired far and near, and every paper in the country made 
favorable or unfavorable comment, usually the latter. In due time letters and 
telegrams of inquiry came pouring in. Newspaper correspondents came flocking 
to the town from all parts of the country, as well as special artists from leading 
illustrated periodicals. We were constantly importuned to sit for our pictures in 
a body, but we steadfastly refused, although great pressure was brought to bear 
by court officials. The jury was obliged to go to the court room once each day and 
I remember we went closely veiled fearing that special artists would make hasty 
sketches of us. Of course we were caricatured in the most hideous manner. Some 


of us were represented as holding babies ni our laps, and a threadbare couplet 
appeared in many newspapers and still has a place in the guide books, 

'Baby, baby, don't get in a fury, 

Your mamma's gone to sit on the jury.' " 

One woman, she says gave them much irritation because she persisted in knit- 
ting while in the jury box. Red Cross work was not then the vogue. During three 
successive terms women were called to serve on juries. When Judge Howe re- 
signed, however, the practice was discontinued by his successor who interpreted 
the law to apply only to "male citizens.'' 


Mrs. Esther Morris was one of the earliest and most noted of "\\'yoming's 
I)lop.eer women. She from Illinois to \\'yoming in 1869 and joined her 
husband and three sons at South Pass, then a populous gold mining settlement. 
W. H. Bright, the author of the bill giving equal suffrage to women, was a 
resident of that camp, and as Mrs. Morris was a warm advocate of woman's 
rights, it is thought she may have influenced Mr. Bright in proposing the measure. 
There is no evidence to show that she had anything to do with the passage of the 
bill, but shortly after the Legislature adjourned she was appointed justice of the 
peace by Edwin M. Lee, acting governor of the territory, and filled the position 
with great credit to herself and to the satisfaction of the people of South Pass. 
She held court in a lively mining camp antl was obliged to hear and decide many 
exciting and difficult cases, but in no case were her judgments and decisions over- 
ruled. When her term was finished The South Pass Xews of December 12, 1870, 
made the following comment : 

"Mrs. Justice Esther Morris retires from her judicial duties today. She has 
filled the positioij with great credit to herself and secured the good opinion of all 
with whom she transacted any official business." 

An article in the Chicago Tribune of June 17, 1895, referring to her selection 
as one of the delegates to the Republican National Convention held at Cleveland, 
Ohio, says: "Her career is in some respects remarkable, especially as one of the 
early pioneers of Illinois and Wyoming. * * * Few women of any period have 
been endowed with greater gifts than Esther Morris. Her originality, wit and rare 
powers of conversation would have gi\en her a conspicuous position in any 

Mrs. Morris was a woman of great force of character, natural ability and inde- 
pendent convictions. In her girlhood days in Illinois she was an ardent anti- 
slavery worker. Her closing years were spent at Cheyenne with her son, Hon. 
Robert M. Morris, author of W'yoming Historical Collections. She died in April, 
1902, at the age of 90 years, having spent a serene, old age with "honor, love, 
obedience and troops of friends." 


Although at a later date, the fact should be mentioned in this connection that 
Wyoming made the first nomination for L'nited States Senator by legislative 


caucus, that was ever made in this country. This honor fell to Mrs. I. .S. Bartlett. 
whose interesting biography appears in another part of this history. She was the 
unanimous choice of the people's party rejaresentatives of the legislative session 
of 1893, when a deadlock prevented the election of any senator, but Mrs. Bartlett 
was so much admired and respected by all parties that she was elected to the 
position of chief enrolling clerk of the same legislature. 


The question of woman suffrage had an important place in the constitutional 
convention which convened at Cheyenne, September 2, 1889, for the purpose of 
forming a constitution to be submitted to Congress. The constitution as then 
framed, under the head of suffrage, included this provision; 

■'Sec. 1. The right of the citizens of the State of Wyoming to vote and hold 
office shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Both male and female 
citizens of this state shall equally enjoy all civil, political and religious rights and 

The question of submitting this as a separate proposition to be voted upon 
gave rise to a very interesting debate in the convention and very able speeches 
were made by George W. Baxter, A. C. Campbell, M. C. Brown, Henry A. Coffeen, 
lohn W. Hoyt, Charles H. Burrit, C. W. Holden and A. B. Conaway. The propo- 
sition for a separate submission of this clause was based on the idea that Congress 
might refuse to admit the state with such a provision and it might thus cause the 
rejecting of statehood. Such a radical and tar reaching proposition had never been 
put up to Congress and the desire for statehood was so strong and insistent that a 
few were willing to surrender their convictions on suft'rage in order to achieve 
a sure admission. 

In the end, however, the convention overwhelmingly voted down the separation 
of the question and incorporated woman suft'rage as a part of the constitution, 
regardless of whether Congress liked it. or not. As one speaker said in the 
debate : "Rather than surrender that right we will remain in a territorial condition 
through the endless cycles of time." 

However, their fears were soon dispelled. Through the able and untiring efforts 
of our representative in Congress, Judge J. M. Carey, assisted by some of the 
ablest members of the house and senate the admission bill was passed and signed 
by the President on July 10, 1890. 


Col. W. H. Bright, who was president of the territorial council when he intro- 
duced the woman suft'rage bill, came to Wyoming from Washington, D. C, his 
paternal home. He was a man of intelligence, broad minded, and independent 
in his convictions. Mr. Bright was a democrat and he reasoned that if ignorant 
negroes were allowed to vote, women were certainly entitled to the privilege. 
Before the adjournment of the session, the Council unanimously passed the 
following resolution commending his service as their presiding officer : 

"Resolved, That the Council does hereby recognize in Honorable W. H. Bright, 
our president, an able, efficient and unpartial officer, and that the thanks of the 


members of this Council are hereby extended to that gentleman, for the abihty 
and impartiality with which he has presided over the deliberations of this session." 

The first woman who voted in Wyoming according to Miss Hebard's interesting 
account in the Journal of American History, was Mrs. Eliza A. Swain, a lady 
seventy years of age, living in Laramie. The election was on September 6, 1870. 

"Putting on a clean, fresh apron, she walked to the polls early in the morning 
carrying a little bucket for yeast to be bought at the baker's shop on her return 
home." She put in her vote and went about her business as if it was a natural 
part of her domestic duties. Her picture is given in Miss Hebard's article. 

Some of the highest offices in the state have been held by women, such as mem- 
bers of legislatures, state superintendents of public instruction, county superintend- 
ents of schools, county treasurers and clerks, trustees of the State University, 
judges of elections, delegates to state and national conventions, etc. 

When Governor Warren set the date for holding the Constitutional Convention 
preparatory to statehood, a convention of the women of the territory was held 
at Cheyenne to demonstrate their interest in the government of the state and insist 
on the preservation of their right of suffrage. This convention was unanimous 
and enthusiastic. Mrs. Amelia Post was elected chairman and a committee on 
resolutions was appointed consisting of Mrs. Hale, widow of the late governor, 
Mrs. Morgan, wife of the territorial secretary and Grace Raymond Hebard. The 
views expressed in the resolutions were practically adopted by the men. 

RILL NVE's humorous REPORT 

The story of the adoption of woman suffrage in Wyoming would not be com- 
plete without giving. Bill Xye's version of the legislative discussion of the question. 
In answer to a question from a well known editor of South Dakota as to what he 
knew of the legislative proceedings on the bill. Nye reproduces some imaginary 
speeches made during its discussion in the legislature. I\Ir. Bigsby, a railroad 
man, he reports as making the following speech : 

"Gentlemen, this is a pretty important move. It's a kind of wild train on a 
single track, and we've got to keep our eye peeled or we'll get into the ditch. 
It's a new conductor making his first run. He don't know the stations yet, and 
he feels as if there were a spotter in every coach besides. Female suffrage 
changes the management of the whole line, and may put the entire outfit in the 
hands of a receiver in two years. We can't tell when Wyoming Territory may be 
side-tracked with a lot of female conductors and superintendents and a posse of 
giddy girls at the brakes. 

"I tell you we want to consider this pretty thorough. Of course, we members 
get our time check at the close of the term, and we don't care much, but if the 
young territory gets into a hot box, or civilization has to wait a few years because 
we get a flat wheel, and thus block the track, or if by our foolishness we telescope 
some other territory, folks will point us out and say. 'there's where the difficulty 
is.' We sent a choice aggregation of railroad men and miners and cattle men 
down there to Cheyenne, thinking we had a carload of statesmen for to work up 
this thing, and here we are without airy law or airy gospel that we can lay our 
jaw to in the whole domain. However. Mr. Speaker. I claim that I've got my 
orders and I shall pull out in favor of the move. If you boys will couple onto our 


train, I am moderately certain that we will make no mistake. I regard it as a pro- 
motion when I go from the cattle train of male ward politics to take charge of a 
train with a parlor car and ladies belonging to the manifest." (Applause.) 

The next speech was made by Unusual Barries, owner of Bar G brand horse 
ranch and the crop mottle and key Q monkey-wrench brand cattle ranch on the 
Upper Chugwater. He said : "Mr. Chairman, or Speaker, or whatever you call 
yourself, I can cut out a steer or put my red-hot monogram on a maverick the 
darkest night that ever blew, but I'm poorly put up to paralyze the eager throng 
with matchless eloquence. I tell you, talk is inexpensive, anyhow. It is rum and 
hired help that costs money. I agree with the chair that we want to be familiar 
with the range before we stampede and go wild like a lot of Texas cattle just off 
the trail, traveling lOO miles a day and filling their pelts with pizen weed and other 
peculiar vegetables. We want to consider what we're about and act with some 
judgment. When we turn this maverick over to the governor to be branded, we 
want to know that we are corralling the right animal. You can't lariat a broncho 
mule with a morning glory vine. Most always, and after we've run this bill into 
the chute and twisted its tail a few times, we might want to pay two or three good 
men to help us let loose of it. However, I shall vote for it as it is, and take the 
chances. Passing a bill is like buying a brand of cattle on the range, anyhow. 
You may tally ahead, and you may get everlastingly left with a little withered 
bunch of Texas frames that there ain't no more hopes of fattening than there 
would be of putting flesh on a railroad bridge." 

The Legislature now took a recess, and after a little quiet talk at Col. Luke 
Murrin's place, reassembled to listen to a brief speech by Buck Bramel, a pros- 
pector, who discovered the Pauper's Dream gold mine. Buck said : "Mr. Cheers- 
man, I don't know what kind of a fist the women will make of politics, but I'm 
prepared to invest with surface indications. The law may develop a true fissure 
vein of prosperity and progress, or a heart-breaking slide of the mountain. We 
cannot tell till we go down on it. All we can do is to prospect around and drift 
and develop and comply with the L'uited States laws in such cases made and 
provided. Then two years more will show whether we've got 'mineral in place' 
or not. If it works, all right, the next shift that comes to the legislature can 
drift and stope and stump and timber the blamed measure so as to make a good 
investment of it for future history. We don't expect to declare a dividend the first 
year. It'll take time to show what there is in it. My opinion is that women can 
give this territory a boom that will make her the bonanza of all creation. 

"We've got mighty pretty blossom rock already in the intelligence and brains 
of our women ; let us be the means of her advancement and thus shame the old 
and mossy civilization of other lands. Thus in time we may be able to send 
missionaries to Xew England. I cannot think of anything more enjoyable than 
that would be. I was in California years ago. up in the hills, looking for a place, 
and I ran into a camp in a gulch there, where the soft foot-fall of women had 
never mashed the violet or squoze the fragrance from the wild columbine. At first 
the boys thought it was real nice. Everything was so quiet and life was like a 
dream. Men wore their whiskers flowing, with burdock burrs in them. They 
got down at the heel. They got so depraved that they neglected their manicure 
sets for days at a time and killed each other thoughtlessly at times. They also 
wore their clothes a long time without shame. They also bet their dust foolishly. 


and the rum pathologist of the Little Xasal Dye Works got the wages of the whole 
crew, live and bye Yankee school marms and their brothers came up here, and 
everything was lovely ; the boys braced up and had some style about 'em. It was a 
big stroke of good luck to the camp. 

'■I believe that the mother of a statesman is better calculated to vote than a 
man that can't read or write. I may be a little peculiar but I think that when a 
woman has marched a ban;l of hostile boys all the way up to manhood and give 
'em a good start and made good citizens out of 'em, with this wicked world to 
buck agin all the time, she can vote all day, so far as I'm concerned, in preference 
to the man who don t know whether Michigan is in Missouri or St. Louis. I am in 
favor of making the location and going ahead with our assessment work, and I'll 
bet my pile that there hain't been a measure passed by our august body this winter 
that will show more mineral on the dump in five years than this one." 

The closing speech was made by Elias Kilgore, a retired stage driver, he also 
favored the bill, and spoke as follows: 

"Mr. Speaker — The bill that's before us, it strikes me, is where the road forks. 
One is the old guv'ment road that has been the style for a good while, and the 
other is the cut-otT. It's a new^ road but with a little work on it, I reckon it's going 
to be the best road. You men that opposes the l)ill has got ezzication — some of 
you — some of you ain't. You that has it got it at your mother's knee. Second, 
the more Godlike we get, gentlemen, the more rights we will give women. The 
closter you get to the cannibals the more apt a woman is to do chores and get 
choked for her opinions. I don't say that a woman has got to vote because she 
has the right, no more than our local vigilance committee has got to hang the 
member from Sweetwater County because it has a right to, but it is a good, whole- 
some brake on society in case you bust a hold-back or tear oft a harness strap when 
you are on a steep grade. The member from Sweetwater County says we ort to 
restrik the vote privilege instead of enlarging it. He goes on to say that too many 
folks is already 'ntiled to vote. That inay be. Too many maudlin drunkards that 
thinks with fungus growth and reasons with a little fatty degeneration which they 
calls Ijrains till they runs against an autopsy, too many folks with no voting cjuali- 
fication but talk and trowsiz. is allowed to vote, not only at the polls, but to even 
.represent a big and beautiful county like Sweetwater in the Legislature. 

"So we are to restrik the vote, I admit, in that direction and enlarge it in the 
direction of decency and sense. Mr. Speaker, men is too much stuck on them- 
selves. Becuz they was made first, they seem to be checked too high. The fact is 
that God made the muskeeter and bedbug before he made man. He also made the 
mud-turtle, the jackass and baboon. When he had all the experience he wanted 
in creating, he made man. Then he made woman. He done a good job. She 
suits me. She fooled herself once, but why was it? It was Monday. She had 
a picked-up dinner. Adam wanted something to finish off with. Eve suggested 
a cottage pudding. 'Oh, blow your cottage pudding,' says Ad. 'How would 
you like a little currant jell?' says she. 'No currant jell, if you will excuse me,' 
says Ad. 'Well, say a saucerful of "tipsy parson," with a little coftee and a 
Rhode Island pudding?' 'Don't talk to me about Rhode Island gravies,' says Ad. 
'You make me tired. Wash-day here, is worse than the fodder we had at the Gem 
City liouse on our wedding tower. I haven't had a thing to eat yet that was fit 
to feed to a shingle mill. Give me a fillet of elephant's veal. Kill that little fat 


elepliant that eats the blackberries night-. Fix up a httle Roman salad.' he said, 
'and put a quart of Royal Berton see on ice for me. I will take a little plum 
duff and one of those apples that the Lord told us not to pick. Do that for 
next wash-day, Evie,' says Ad, 'and draw on me.' 

'"These was Adam's words as regular as if he had been reported, I reckon, 
and that's how sin come into the world. That's why man earns his bread by the 
sweat of his brow, and the tooth of the serpent bruises the woman's heel. Eve 
rustled around the ranch to get a little fresh fruit for Ad, and lo ! the Deluge and 
Crucifixion and the Revelation and the Rebellion has growed out of it. 

"Proud man, with nothing but an appetite and side-whiskers, lays out to own 
the earth because Eve overdrawed her account in order to please him. And now, 
because man claims he was created first and did not sin to amount to anything, he 
thinks that he has got the brains of the civilized world and practically owns the 

"I talk withottt prejudice, Mr. Speaker, because I have no wife. I don't expect 
to have any. I have had one. She is in heaven now. She belonged there before 
I married her, but for some reason that I can't find out she was thrown in my way 
for a few years, and that recollection puts a lump in my throat yet as I stand here. 
I imposed on her because she had been taught to obey her husband, no matter 
how much of a dam phool he might be. That was Laura's idea of Christianity. 
Slie is dead now. I drive the stage and think. God help the feller that has to 
think when he's got nothing to think of but an angel in the sky that he ain't got 
no claim on. 

"I've been held up four times, and I drove right along past the road agents. 
Drove rather slow, hoping that they'd shoot, but they seemed kind of rattled, and 
so waited for the next stage. 

"It's d — d funny to me that woman who suffers most in order that man may 
come into the world, the one. ^Ir. Speaker, that is first to find and last to forsake 
Him, first to hush the cry of a baby Savior in a Jim Crow livery stable in Bethle- 
hem and last to leave the cross, first at the sepulchre and last to doubt the Lord, 
should be interested with the souls and bodies of generations and yet not know 
enough to vote."' (Applause.) 








Soon after the passage of the bill by Congress, admitting Wyoming into the 
Union, Governor Francis E. Warren, then governor of the territory, issued a proc- 
lamation calling an election for state officers on Thursday, September ii, 1890, and 
politicians began to gird on their armor for the fray. Republican and democratic 
conventions were held in Cheyenne on the nth of August. 

The republican convention nominated Francis E. Warren for governor ; Amos 
W. Barber, secretary of state ; Charles W. Burdick, auditor of state ; Otto Gramm, 
treasurer of state ; Stephen T. Farwell, superintendent of public instruction ; 
Willis \'an Devanter, Herman V. S. Groesbeck and Asbury B. Conaway, justices 
of the Supreme Court ; Clarence D. Clark, representative in Congress. 

George W' . Baxter was nominated for governor by the democratic convention ; 
John S. Harper, secretary of state; George S. Campbell, auditor of state; Isaac 
C. Miller, treasurer of state; Anthony V. Quinn, superintendent of public in- 
struction; Samuel T. Corn, P. Gad Bryan and Henry S. Elliott, justices of the 
Supreme Court; George T. Beck, representative in Congress. 

Both conventions also nominated judges for the three judicial districts, viz. : 
Republican— Richard H. Scott, of Crook County, First District ; John \\'. Blake, 
of Albany County, Second District; Jesse Knight, of Uinta County, Third Dis- 
trict. Democratic — Frederick H. Harvey, of Converse County, First District; 
Micah C. Saufley, of Albany County, Second District; Douglas A. Preston, of 
Fremont County, Third District. 

The campaign that followed the nomination of these tickets was enlivened by 
a series of joint debates between George W. Baxter, the democratic candidate for 
governor, and Joseph M. Carey, former delegate in Congress. Baxter had 
challenged Governor Warren to discuss the issues of the campaign in joint debate, 
but the governor's health was in such a state that his friends deemed it inadvisable 
for him to accept the challenge, and Mr. Carey volunteered to become his substi- 
tute. At the election the entire republican ticket was victorious. For governor, 
Warren received 8.879 votes and Baxter received 7,153. The other candidates 


on the ticket were elected by substantially the same vote. Governor Warren and 
the three justices of the Supreme Court took the oath of office a few minutes before 
midnight on Saturday, October ii, 1890. The reason for the lateness of the 
hour was that Mr. ^^'arren was absent from the city and arrived on a belated 
train from the west at 1 1 40 P. M. He was met at the station with a carriage and 
hurried to the capitol, where he qualified as the first state governor of Wyoming. 
The vote had been canvassed earlier in the day by Judge Willis \'an Devanter, 
of the Supreme Court ; John W. Meldrum, territorial secretary ; and Melville 
C. Brown, the last named as president of the constitutional convention. 


Governor Warren, immediately after his inauguration, issued a proclamation 
convening the Legislature of the State of Wyoming at Cheyenne on Wednesday, 
November 12, 1890. The Senate in the first State Legislature was composed of 
the following members : Albany County — John McGill and Robert E. Fitch ; 
Carbon — Fenimore Chatterton and Frank H. ^^'illiams ; Converse — Albert D. 
•Chamberlin; Fremont — J. D. Woodruff; Johnson — John X. Tisdale ; Laramie — 
Leopold Kabis, William A. Robins and W. R. Schnitger ; Sheridan — John Mc- 
Cormick ; Sweetwater — Edward W. Griffiths and James B. Keenan : Uinta — 
Oliver D. Marx and John L. Russell ; Weston — Frank W. Mondell. 

The members of the House of Representatives, by counties, were : Albany — 
George Gebhardt, Ora Haley, Herman Langhelett, Charles H. Reals and A. L. 
Sutherland ; Carbon — Louis G. Davis, John F. Hittle, Louis Johnson and A. M. 
Startzell; Converse — Frank Merrill. Xat Baker and Charles E. Clay; Crook — 
Oliver P. Kellogg and Henry B. Folsom ; Fremont — Robert H. Hall and E. Amor- 
etti; Johnson — A. L. Coleman and H. W. Davis; Laramie — Hugo E. Buechner, 
Frank Bond, George East, Samuel Merrill, \\'illiam H. Richardson and Charles 
W. Sweet ; Natrona — W. E. Dunn ; Sheridan — Harrison Fulmer and William 
Brown ; Sweetwater — Archibald Blair, John S. Davis and Edward Thorp ; Uinta — 
Otto Arnold, George M. Griffin and Alma Peterson. The Senate organized by 
electing W. R. Schnitger, of Cheyenne, president, and Oliver P. Kellogg, of 
Sundance, was elected speaker of the House. 

One of the chief duties devolving upon this first Legislature was the election 
of two LTnited States senators. On November 14, 1890, Joseph M. Carey was 
elected, George W. Baxter receiving the vote of every democratic member of the 
Legislative Assembly. Governor Warren was a candidate for LTnited Stales sena- 
tor, but considerable opposition developed among the republican members of 
the Legislature and for a time it looked as though he might be defeated. The 
fact that Warren and Carey both lived in the City of Cheyenne was the cause 
of some of the opposition, and others claimed that Warren had promised when 
a candidate for the office of governor that if elected he would not be a candidate 
for senator. Six ballots were taken from day to day without an election, but on 
the seventh ballot, about 2:45 P- M-. November 19, 1890, Warren received 
twenty-nine votes, four more than the necessary majority, and was declared 

During the session the following acts were passed: Fixing the terms of the 
Supreme Court and regulating the procedure and practice therein; defining the 


judicial districts and the time of holding court in each county in the state; de- 
claring the revised statutes and the session laws of 1888 and 1890 to be the laws 
of the state until repealed.; authorizing cities and towns to borrow money and issue 
bonds for the construction and maintenance of waterworks; granting railroad 
companies the right of way over school sections and other state lands; creating 
the office of inspector of coal mines and defining his duties; establishing a hospital 
for miners as a state charitable institution ; and creating a state board of charities 
and reform. 

After the state election of September 11, 1890, some question as to its legality 
arose. The election had been called by the governor and the several boards of 
county commissioners, whose authority to do so was called into dispute. To 
settle the matter, the Legislature passed an act declaring the election legal, which 
act was approved on December 23, 1890. 

By the act of January 10, 1891, a board of commissioners for the World's 
Columbian Exposition, to be held at Chicago in 1893, was authorized. The board, 
to be known as the "World's Fair Managers of Wyoming," was to consist of five 
members, one of whom should be the state engineer, one already appointed in the 
northern part of the state, and the other three were to be appointed by the 
governor. The sum of $30,000 was appropriated to defray the expenses of 
making an exhibit of Wyoming's products and progress at the fair. 

Section 6. article I\', of the constitution of Wyoming provides that "If the 
governor be impeached, displaced, resign or die, or from mental or physical 
disease or otherwise become incapable of performing the duties of his office, or 
be absent from the state, the secretary of state shall act as governor until the 
vacancy is filled or the disability removed." 

The election of Governor Warren to the United States Senate, with his resig- 
nation and consequent vacancy in the office of governor, brought this subject 
prominently before the Legislature. Members asked themselves the question. 
"What if the secretary of state should also become unable, through some cause, 
to perform the duties of governor?" By the act of December 24, 1890, ample 
provision was made for such a contingency, should it ever arise. This act provides 
that the duties and responsibilities of the office of governor shall be exercised 
and assumed by the secretary of state, as set forth in the constitution, and after 
him, successively, by the president of the Senate, the speaker of the House (at the 
last session) , the auditor of state and the treasurer of state. 

At the conclusion of the session on January 10, 1891, Representative Baker, 
of Converse County, presented Speaker Kellogg with a handsome gavel, upon 
which was inscribed: "Presented to O. P. Kellogg, Speaker of the first Wyoming 
Legislature, 1890." Representative Frank Bond, of Laramie County, presented 
Mr. Kellogg with a group picture of all the members of the House. 

barber's .\dministration 

Governor \\'arren resigned from the office of governor on November 24, 1890, 
five days after he was elected United States senator by the Legislature, and the 
same day Amos W. Barber, secretary of state, became acting governor. 

Amos W. Barber was born at Doylestown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, April 
26. 1861. He graduated in both the literary and medical departments of the 


University of Pennsylvania in 1883 and about two years later came to \\'yoming 
as surgeon in charge of the military hospital at Fort Fetterman. Soon after his 
arrival at Fort Fetterman he was made acting assistant surgeon in the United States 
army and accompanied General Crook's expedition to Arizona. He was then as- 
signed to duty at Fort D. A. Russell. After a short service there he resigned from 
the army and engaged in the practice of medicine at Cheyenne. As a republican 
Doctor Barber took an active part in political afifairs and in 1890 he was nominated 
by his party for secretary of state. Fie was elected at the first state election on 
Sejitember 11, 1890, and when Governor Warren resigned to accept a seat in the 
United States Senate he became acting governor. He served in that capacity 
until the inauguration of Gov. John E. Osborne on January 2, 1893. While acting 
as governor of the state he married, in 1892, Miss Amelia Kent, daughter of 
Thomas A. Kent of Cheyenne. In the Spanish-American war he again served as 
assistant surgeon in the United States army, after which he practiced in Cheyenne 
until his death in 191 5. Governor Barber was a thirty-second degree ]\Iason, a 
Knight Templar and a member of the Cheyenne Lodge of Elks. 


Upon Governor Barber devolved the duty of fully inaugurating the state 
government. Numerous appointments were to be made and,- being a republican and 
a partisan, the acting governor naturally selected such men for his appointees 
as would strengthen the position of his party. In such cases there is always likely 
to be some grumbling, but in the main everything proceeded without serious fric- 
tion until the close of the campaign of 1892. 

In that campaign the democrats "opened the ball'' by holding a state convention 
at Rock Springs on ^^'ednesday, July 27th, and nominating the following candi- 
dates for the state offices, etc.. John E. Osborne, for governor; Henry A. ColTeen, 
for congressman ; Gibson Clark, for justice of the Supreme Court ; Samuel T. Corn. 
John T. Norton and P. J. Ouealy, for presidential electors. 

The republican state convention was seld at Laramie on Wednesday, Septem- 
ber 14, 1892. Edward Ivinson was nominated for governor on the tenth ballot; 
Clarence D. Clark was renominated for congressman ; Carroll H. Pannelee. for 
justice of the Supreme Court; John H. Barron, John C. Dyer and William H. 
Kilpatrick, for presidential electors. 

In 1892 the people's party, or "populists," as they were commonly called, was 
particularly active in several of the western states. Just a week after the repub- 
lican state convention, the populists met at Douglas for the purpose of nominating 
a state ticket. Some of the democratic leaders in the state proposed a fusion 
ticket, agreeing that if the people's party would make no nominations for the state 
ofifices the democratic party would withdraw its candidates for presidental electors 
and substitute those selected by the Douglas convention. The arrangement was 
consummated and the democratic electors gave way to S. E. Seeley, William 
Hinton and William R. Richardson. On the other hand the populists supported 
the democratic state ticket, which insured the election of Governor Osborne. 

The prohibitionists nominated William Brown for governor; Ella G. Becker, 
Oscar S. Jackson and A. N. Page, presidential electors, but made no nominations 
for representative in Congress and justice of the Supreme Court. The election 


was held on November 8, 1892, and resulted in the election of the fusion candi- 
dates. Osborne's majority for governor was 1,781, that of Clark and CotYeen for 
justice of the Supreme Court and representative in Congress was slightly less. 

The defeat of the republican ticket through the coalition of the democrats 
and populists engendered some ill feeling on the part of the leaders of the republi- 
can party in Wyoming, and when a delay of a month occurred, immediately 
following the election, without the vote being canvassed and the result announced, 
charges were made that fraud was about to be perpetrated upon the people 
of the state. About half past eight o'clock on the morning of December 2, 1892, 
Governor-elect Osborne, accompanied by Daniel W. Gill, a notary public, pro- 
ceeded to the capitol, where ]\Ir. Gill administered the oath prescribed by the 
constitution and declared John E. Osborne duly qualified as governor of the 
State of Wyoming. He then tendered a copy of the oath to the clerk in office of 
the secretary of state, John W. Meldrum, but Mr. IMeldrum refused to accept it 
and Mr. Gill left it lying upon the desk. 

After taking the oath, ]\Ir. Osborne took possession of the governor's office 
without opposition, and immediately issued the following proclamation : 

"In obedience to the constitution and laws of the State of Wyoming, I, John 
E. Osborne, do hereby make proclamation that, having been duly elected by the 
qualified voters of the State of Wyoming to the office of governor of the state 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Francis E. \\'arren, heretofore 
elected and qualified as governor, and there being no board of state canvassers 
authorized to canvass the returns and declare the result of said election for gover- 
nor, and the returns from the several boards of county canvassers now on file in 
the office of the secretary of state showing that I have been unquestionably elected 
to the office of governor, I have duly and legally qualified as governor of the state 
and am now said governor, and I do call upon all true and loyal citizens of the 
state to respect my authority as to such office and to aid me in enforcing the laws 
and seeing that justice in all things is done. 

"Done at the office of the governor, at Cheyenne, capital of the state, on the 
2d day of December, A. D. 1892. 

"John E. Osborne, 
"Governor of the State of Wyoming." 
To say that the proclamation caused some excitement in political circles is but 
a simple statement of fact, as no such move on the part of the governor-elect had 
been anticipated. \Mien Acting Governor Barber arrived at the capitol he found 
Mr. Osborne installed in the office set apart for the use of the governor, ap- 
parently with no intention of vacating it. That afternoon Mr. Barber issued his 
proclamation, declaring the constitution of the state made it his duty to act as gov- 
ernor until the vacancy was filled by an election ; that the election held on Novem- 
ber 8, 1892, was not completed until the vote had been legally canvassed by lawful 
authority and the result declared in the manner provided by law. He then quoted 
the law on the subject, to wit : 

"When the state canvassing board shall have canvassed the vote of the election, 
as aforesaid, and in the manner provided by law declared a person of such election 
to be elected as governor, such person shall within thirty days after such canvass, 
or as soon thereafter as possible, quahfy and assume the duties and powers of 


The proclamation then went on to say the returns of Converse and Fremont 
counties had not been received by the state board of canvassers and declared John 
E. Osborne to be a usurper. 

Mr. Osborne then sent notices in writing to Amos W. Barber, secretary of 
state; Charles W. Burdick, auditor of state; and Otto Gramm, treasurer of state, 
to meet in the governor's ofifice at lO o'clock A. M. on Monday, December 5, 1892, 
for the purpose of canvassing the vote. This order was ignored by the state 
officials, who fixed upon Thursday, December 8th for the canvass and so notified 
the chairman of the republican and democratic state central committees. 

Toward evening on December 2, 1892, following the taking of the oath of 
office by Governor Osborne, some of his friends carried his supper to him in the 
governor's office, and, as the capitol building was not then lighted by electricity 
as at present, a supply of candles was also provided that the rooms might be kept 
lighted during the night. Mayor Bresnahan, of Cheyenne, detailed two policemen 
to remain on guard at the capitol during the night, to prevent disorder or violence. 
Nothing unusual occurred during the night and Saturday morning dawned with 
i\Ir. Osborne still in possession of the governor's rooms in the capitol. 

That day ^Ir. Osborne issued a second proclamation to the people of Wyo-. 
ming, in which he set forth that Amos W. Barber, as secretary of state claimed 
that Osborne's action had been contrary to law ; that the said Barber had persist- 
ently refused to act with the other state officials in canvassing the vote; that there 
was in fact no statute providing for the canvass of the vote for governor, etc. In 
this proclamation Mr. Osborne used some rather strong language, when he said : 

"There is ample evidence to convince me that a conspiracy has been entered 
into between a certain aspirant for the United States Senate and certain of the 
county clerks in the State of Wyoming to deprive lawfully elected members of the 
Legislature of the offices to which they were elected, and it is necessary for the 
full success of such conspiracy that a person friendly to it shall hold the office 
of governor at the time the canvass is made," etc. 

He referred to Barber as a usurper and again called upon the people of the 
state to assist in enforcing the laws, pledging himself "that the power vested in 
the governor shall only be exercised by me to execute faithfully the laws, to defeat 
attempted frauds upon the people and to maintain the honor, dignity and peace 
of the state." 


The state officers — Barber, Burdick and Gramm — began the canvass of the 
vote on Thursday, December 8th, according to the notices sent to the chairmen 
of the state central committees. When Carbon County was reached it was found 
that two sets of returns had been made, one by the county clerk and the other 
by the two justices who constituted the majority of the county board of can- 
vassers. The state board of canvassers voted to accept the returns of the county 
clerk and reject the report of the justices. On December 10. 1892, .\. C. Camp- 
bell and T. :\I. Patterson, attorneys for S. B. Bennett and Harry A. Chapman, 
two candidates for representatives from Carbon County who were thus rejected 
bv the state board, went before Chief Justice Groesbeck and asked for a writ 


of alternative mandamus to compel the state officials to canvass the returns 
submitted by the majority of the county board. 

Judge Groesbeck at first took the view that the court had no power to grant 
such a writ during vacation, but it was finally issued and made returnable at 
2 o'clock P. M. on the 15th. The case was then argued by Campbell and Patter- 
son, and on the 31st Judge Conaway rendered the decision granting the writ of 
mandamus. Bennett and Chapman were thus gi\en their seats in the House 
of Representatives in the legislative session which began on January 10, 1893. 


There was still another complication growing out of the dispute over the 
governorship and the canvass of the votes cast at the state election. On December 
28, 1892, Acting Governor Barber granted a pardon to James Moore, who had 
been convicted of grand larceny in May, 1892, and sentenced to serve three years 
in the penitentiary. George L. Briggs, warden of the penitentiary, refused to 
recognize the pardon, on the grounds that Barber was not the lawful governor 
of the state and had no authority to grant pardons. Habeas corpus proceedings 
were then brought by Moore's lawyers to compel Briggs to release the prisoner, 
and the Supreme Court decided in their favor. This recognition of Barber 
as the governor of the state resulted in Governor Osborne again taking the oath 
of office on January 2, 1893, when he was permitted to take possession of the 
governor's office without opposition. Gibson Clark was sworn in as associate 
justice of the Supreme Court at the same time. 

THE cattlemen's RAID 

Acting Governor Barber's administration was made memorable by the most 
regrettable event in Wyoming history — the notorious "Cattlemen's Raid" — the 
details of which are given in another chapter of this work. This episode so 
aroused the citizens of Wyoming that its immediate efifect was to revolutionize 
the politics of the state. Although this lawless expedition was in no sense polit- 
ical, the fact that it was approved and abetted by a republican administration 
led to the electoral complications described in connection with the election of 
Governor Osborne and the unpleasant events immediately following that election. 

Osborne's .\dmini.stration 

John E. Osborne, second governor of the State of Wyoming, was born at 
\\'estport, X. Y., June 9, 1858. He received a high school education and was 
then apprenticed to a druggist in \'ermont. While employed in the drug store 
he began the study of medicine and in 1880 he received the degree of M. D. 
from the medical department of the University of Vermont. Soon after receiving 
his degree he decided to follow Horace Greeley's advice and "Go W'est." Select- 
ing Rawlins, Wyo., as his location, he there entered upon the general practice 
of medicine and was appointed assistant surgeon of the Union Pacific Railroad. 
In 1882 he established a wholesale and retail drug house. Two years later he 
embarked in the live stock business and in a few years had the reputation of being 
the largest individual sheep owner in the state. 


It was not long after he located at Rawlins until ]\Ir. Osborne came to be 
recognized as one of the leaders of the democratic party in the state. He was 
elected as the second mayor of Rawlins after the city was incorporated; served 
a term in the Territorial Legislature; was one of the penitentiary commissioners 
in 1888; was chosen an alternate delegate to the democratic national convention 
in 1892, and the same year was nominated by his party for governor of Wyoming. 
At the close of his term as governor he declined a renomination and in 1896 
was elected representative in Congress, defeating Frank W. Mondell. In 1898 
he was made vice chairman of the democratic national Congressional committee 
and had charge of the national campaign in that year. Since 1900 he has been 
Wyoming's member of the democratic national committee, making him one of 
the oldest members in point of service on that committee. He was chairman 
of the democratic state committee in 1910, which conducted the campaign that 
resulted in the election of Joseph M. Carey as governor and Frank L. Houx as 
secretary of state. In March, 1913, President Wilson appointed ]Mr. Osborne 
first assistant secretary of state, which position he held during Mr. Wilson's 
first term, when he resigned to give his attention to his large business interests, 
particularly the Osborne Live Stock Company, of which he is president. One 
of the leading republican newspapers of W'yoming recently said of Governor 
Osborne : 

"There are few things in this world finer than consistency — and few so rare 
in politics. That is why any reference to Hon. John E. Osborne of Rawlins 
must be a refreshing one, for in spite of Mr. Osborne's long and highly useful 
career in many public ofifices and the faithful service he had done his nation and 
his state in the discharge of the duties of these offices — in spite of all these, any 
reference to Mr. Osborne at once calls to mind his unswerving steadfastness to 
the democratic party ; the sterling loyalty he has shown in the times and the 
years when democracy was not in the ascendency." 


The second State Legislature was convened at Cheyenne on Tuesday, January 
10, 1893. Frank W. Mondell of Newcastle was elected president of the Senate 
and L. C. Tidball of Sheridan was chosen speaker of the House. In his mes- 
sage Governor Osborne recommended a thorough revision of the election laws ; 
some "systematic and organized effort, under the official sanction of the state, to 
encourage immigration" ; more stringent laws for the protection of game animals 
and birds; the completion of the penitentiary at Rawlins, upon which nearly 
thirty-two thousand dollars had already been expended; and a change in the 
description of the state seal by substituting the words "live stock'' for "cattle." 
In discussing the necessity for better game laws and their more rigid enforce- 
ment, he said : "I am informed that 50,000 ^jounds of deer, elk and antelope 
were shipped from Rawlins alone during the past year." 


A "Great Seal of State" for Wyoming was first authorized by an act passed 
at the first session of the State Legislature, approved on January 10, 1891. It 


provided for a circle 2}^ inches in diameter, in the lower half of which was 
represented a valley in the center, with cattle drinking at a stream; a range of 
mountains on the left and an oil derrick on the right ; the whole surrounded 
by a ribbon scroll, on the top of which was a platform; on the platform was 
the figure of a woman, with her right arm extended pointing to a star within 
which were the figures "44," indicating that Wyoming was the forty-fourth 
state to be admitted into the Union. Upon the left of the woman were the figures 
1869, and on the right the date of admission, 1890. 

Several designs were submitted and the one presented by Hugo E. Buechner, 
representative from Laramie County, was selected. The first seal was com- 
pleted and turned over to the state about the ist of March, 1891. It was evi- 
dently unsatisfactory, judging from the following sarcastic editorial which 
appeared in the Cheyenne Leader of March 5. 1891 : 

"Well, there's considerable of an uproar. The female figure which was 
selected to adorn the new state seal has lost her clothes. She stands upon what 
is intended to represent a platform, it is believed, but in reality resembles a large 
shallow pan or beer vat, in which the lady might, without much stretch of the 
imagination, be credited with soaking her corns. From each wrist depends \vhat 
at first glance appears to be several links of sausage, which critics say are the 
broken links of a chain." 

The figure represented upon the design submitted by Representative Buechner 
was draped in classic robes. That he was greatly dissatisfied with the seal as 
it appeared when finished goes without saying. When Governor Osborne recom- 
mended the slight change in his message to the second Legislature, that body 
took advantage of the opportunity to create practically a new seal. This time 
the description was made so plain in the act that there was slight possibility of 
repeating the mistake. The act, which was approved on February 8, 1893, reads 
as follows : 

"Section i. There shall be a great seal of the State of Wyoming, which shall 
be of the following design, viz.: A circle 2]/^ inches in diameter, on the outer 
rim or edge of which shall be engraven the words, 'Great Seal of the State of 
Wyoming,' and the design shall conform substantially to the following description: 

"A pedestal showing on the front thereof an eagle resting upon a shield, 
said shield to have engraven thereon a star and the figures '44,' being the num- 
ber of Wyoming in the order of admission to statehood. Standing upon the 
pedestal shall be the draped figure of a woman, modeled after the statue of the 
'Victory' in the Louvre, from whose wrists shall hang links of a broken chain, 
and holding in her right hand a staff, from the top of which shall float a banner 
with the words 'Equal Rights' thereon, all suggesting the political position of 
w^oman in this state. On either side of the pedestal, and standing at the base 
thereof, shall be male figures typifying the live stock and mining industries of 
Wyoming. Behind the pedestal, and in the background, shall be two pillars, 
each supporting a lighted lamp, signifying the light of knowledge. Around 
each pillar shall be a scroll with the following words thereon : On the right of 
the central figure the words 'Live Stock' and 'Grain.' and on the left the words 
'Alines' and 'Oil.' At the base of the pedestal, and in front shall appear the 
figures '1869-1890," the former date signifying the organization of the Territory 


of \\'yoniing, and the latter the date of its admission to statehood. A fac simile 
of the abo\e described seal is here represented and is made a part of this act. 

"Section 2. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its 

The seal authorized by this act is still in use by the state. Among the other 
acts passed at the second session was one redistricting the state for judicial 
purposes : another authorized the completion of the penitentiary at Rawlins ; 
and a memorial to Congress asked that body to pass an act remonetizing silver. 


When Joseph AI. Carey and Francis E. Warren were elected United States 
senators in 1890, the latter drew the short term and the election of his successor 
formed part of the duty of the Legislature of 1893. Twenty-five votes were 
required to elect, and the political complexion of the Legislature was such that 
no party could count on a clear majority of the votes. Senator Warren was a 
candidate for reelection, but there was some opposition to him within the lines 
of his own party. The several populists in the Legislature tried to control the 
balance of power and force the election of a member of that party to the Senate. 
The first ballot was taken on January 24, 1893, when sixteen candidates were 
voted for. ^^'arren (republican) receiving eight votes; Kuykendall (democrat), 
se^•en votes; and Tidball (populist), six votes, the other candidates receiving 
each a smaller number. 

On the 26th Warren received thirteen votes, the highest number he received 
at any time during the session, the balloting continuing from day to day without 
results. New candidates were introduced from time to time, in the hope that 
a "dark horse" might win the race. The populist members of the Legislature 
held a caucus and unanimously nominated Mrs. I. S. Bartlett as their candidate, 
this being the first time in the history of the L^nited States that a woman was 
nominated by a legislative caucus for United States senator. Throughout the 
deadlock the populists gave Mrs. Bartlett their united vote. On February 8th 
Stephen W. Downey received twenty-one votes, and on the 15th Gen. J. C. 
Thompson received twenty-four, only one short of the necessary majority. This 
vote was followed immediately by an adjournment of the joint session, and before 
the next ballot was taken soine sort of a combination was formed to prevent 
Thompson's election. The Legislature adjourned without electing a senator, and 
on February 23, 1893, Governor Osborne appointed Asahel C. Beckwith of 
Uinta County for the term beginning on March 4, 1893, or until the Legislature 
sliould elect. The United States Senate refused to recognize the appointment, 
however, and Wyoming had but one senator in Congress until the next session 
cf the Legislature. 


As already stated, the Legislature of 1891 authorized the appointment of a 
board of World's Fair managers and appropriated $30,000 for an exhibit of 
Wyoming's products and resources at Chicago in 1893. El wood Mead, state 
engineer, was made a member of the board, ex-officio, and the other members 


appointed by the governor were : John ]\IcCormick, of Sheridan ; Frank O. 
Williams, of Saratoga; Louis D. Ricketts, of Cheyenne; and John S. Harper, 
of Sundance. The national commissioners from Wyoming were A. C. Beckwith 
and Henry G. Hay, with John McCormick and Asa S. Mercer as alternates. 

Mrs. I. S. Bartlett, of Cheyenne, was appointed a member of the board of 
lady managers by the United States, and the members of the board appointed 
by the state commissioners were : Mrs. F. H. Harrison, Mrs. Frances E. Hale, 
Mrs. Elizabeth A. Stone and Mrs. G. M. Huntington. 

At the exposition the state made its greatest effort in the department of 
mining, showing samples of gold and silver ore. lead, oil, asphalt, iron, coal and 
mica. In the exhibit was a solid block of asphalt as large as an ordinary freight 
car. An interesting feature of the Wyoming exhibit was an illustration of the 
method of placer mining, using gold-bearing gravel taken from the placers of 
the state. A fine collection of the fossil remains of the state — fossils of birds, 
reptiles, etc. — was also shown, as well as petrifactions from the submerged forest 
near Rawlins. 

Thirty-two prizes were awarded the state on its mineral display, and in the 
agricultural exhibit highest mention was given to wheat and potatoes, besides 
the twenty-two medals awarded on wheat, barley, buckwheat, flax, native grasses, 
etc. In his message to the Legislature of 1897, Governor Richards said: 

"The display of mineral and agricultural products made by \\'yoming at the 
World's Columbian Exposition was in every way creditable to the state. The 
handsome photographs of scenery have been distributed in the various offices 
of the state capitol, while a large portion of the mineral exhibit has been stored 
away in the basement of the statehouse. The principal part of the agricultural 
exhibit was turned over to the authorities of the State L'niversity, with the 
agreement that it should be carefully preserved until such time as the Legislature 
should make arrangements for its final disposition.'' 

Considering that Wyoming was a state only three years old. with its natural 
resources practically untouched, the exhibit was one that attracted wide attention 
and it served a good purpose in rendering the rest of the world acquainted with 
the vast mineral and agricultural possibilities of a region that only a few years 
before had been marked on the maps of the l"nited States as the "Great American 


The political campaign of 1894 was opened by the republican party, which 
held its state convention at Casper on the first day of August. \\'illiam A. 
Richards, of Red Bank, was nominated for governor; Charles W. Burdick. of 
Saratoga, secretary of state; William O. Owen, of Laramie, auditor of state; 
Henry G. Hay, of Cheyenne, treasurer of state ; Charles X. Potter, of Cheyenne, 
justice of the Supreme Court; Estelle Reel, of Cheyenne, superintendent of public 
instruction ; Frank W. Mondell, of Newcastle, representative in Congress. 

The platform indorsed the McKinley taritT bill ; declared allegiance to the cardi- 
nal principles of the party ; favored liberal pensions to veterans of the 
Civil war, and the establishment of compulsory courts of arbitration ; urged the 
free coinage of both gold and silver at the ratio of sixteen to one ; and declared 


that "the history of the last nineteen months has again demonstrated the unfitness 
of the democratic party to administer the affairs of the nation," etc. 

On August 8, 1894, the democratic state convention met at Cheyenne and 
nominated the following ticket: W. H. Holiday, of Laramie, governor; Daniel 
^^^ Cill, of Cheyenne, secretary of state ; James M. Fenwick, of^ Albany County, 
auditor of state; John Stone, of Evanston, treasurer of state; Samuel T. Corn, 
justice of the Supreme Court : A. J. Matthews, of Rock Springs, superintendent 
of public instruction; and H. A. Coffeen was nominated for representati\-e in 

The democratic platform adopted by the convention indorsed the national 
platform of 1892; expressed confidence in President Cleveland and indorsed 
his administration; declared in favor of a further reduction in duties upon im- 
ports; recommended legislation authorizing the election of United States senators 
bs' popular vote ; commended the administration of Governor Osborne ; favored 
a "thorough overhauling of the assessment and revenue system and the equaliza- 
tion of taxes ;" and declared in favor of the remonetization of silver on the old 
ratio of sixteen to one. 

This Acar the populists and democrats failed to unite on a fusion ticket. A 
populist cnn\ention assembled at Casper on August 9, 1894, and nominated L. 
C. Tidball, of Sheridan, for governor; D. \V. Elliott, of Laramie County, secre- 
tary of state; J. F. Pierce, of Sweetwater County, auditor of state; W. F. Wil- 
liams, of Johnson County, treasurer of state ; W. T. O'Connor, of Laramie 
County, justice of the Supreme Court; Mrs. J. R. Rollman, of Carbon County, 
.superintendent of public instruction ; S. E. Seeley, of .\lbany County, representa- 
tive in Congress. 

The principal planks in the populist platform were those declaring in favor 
of the free coinage of both gold and silver at the ratio of sixteen to one, and the 
denunciation of the use of Federal troops in the strike of the American Railway 
Union in the summer of 1894. 

The election was held on November 6, 1894, and resulted in the election of the 
entire republican ticket. Miss Reel's plurality for superintendent of public in- 
struction was 4,458, the largest received by any candidate. Governor Richards' 
plurality was 3,184, and the Legislature contained forty-eight republicans, six 
democrats and one populist. Governor Richards was inaugurated on January 
7, 189s, and the administration of Governor Osborne came to an end. 









William A. Richards, who was elected governor of Wyoming in 1894. was 
born at Hazel Green, Wis.. March 9, 1849. He was educated in the schools 
of his native state and at Galena, 111. In 1889 he was appointed surveyor- 
general of Wyoming and held the position until 1893. The next year he was 
nominated for governor by the republican party and was elected on November 
6, 1894. His administration began on January 7, 1895, and lasted until January 
2, 1899. \\'hile he was governor the Spanish-American war occurred and in the 
summer of 1898 Governor Richards spent some time at San Francisco, Cal., 
looking after the interest and welfare of the Wyoming troops before 
their departure for the Philippine Islands. An account of Wyoming's participa- 
tion in this war is given in another chapter. On March 4, 1899, about two 
months after the conclusion of his term as governor, Mr. Richards was appointed 
assistant commissioner of the L'nited States general land office and removed to 
Washington. D. C. 


The third State Legislature convened at Cheyenne on January 8, 1895. the 
day following the inauguration of Governor William A. Richards. In his message, 
the governor reviewed the condition of the state and among other things gave 
the value of public buildings as follows : 

State Capitol, Cheyenne $295,649.59 

State University, Laramie 80,753.95 

Insane Asylum, Evanston 66,667.66 

Poor Farm, Lander 5.053-39 



Deaf, Dumb and Blind Asylum, Cheyenne 7,919.30 

Penitentiary, Rawlins 56,875.35 

Penitentiary, Laramie 2,170.49 

Fish Hatchery, Laramie 7,279.90 

[Miners' Hospital, Rock Springs 24,267.58 

Total $546,637.21 

Among the recommendations of the governor was one for the establishment 
of a soldiers' home, and in response an act was passed providing for the appoint- 
ment of a board of commissioners, authorized to establish and maintain the 
Wyoming Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, for the support of which 30,000 acres of 
land were appropriated. 

On February 14, 1895, Governor Richards approved the act accepting the 
conditions imposed by the act of Congress, approved on August 18, 1894, grant- 
ing large tracts of arid lands to the states, with the stipulation that they be 
irrigated by the states. The act of Congress is known as the "Carey Act," its 
author having been Senator Joseph M. Carey, of Wyoming. (See chapter on 
Irrigation, etc.) 

Another act of the third Legislature was the one dividing the counties of the 
state into four classes. All having an assessment of $5,000,000 or over were 
designated counties of the first class, those having a valuation of from $2,000,000 
to $5,000,000 constituted the second class ; the third class were composed of the 
counties having an assessed valuation of from $1,100,000 to $2,000,000, and all 
in which the valuation of property was less than $1,100,000 were designated 
as fourth class counties. In all except the first class the offices of county clerk 
and clerk of the courts were consolidated, and the county treasurer was also 
made the county assessor. 

An act fixing the fees and salaries of county officers was passed at this 
session, and also one providing that all state officers should be paid monthly. 
Other acts of the session provided for the recording of live stock brands: for 
the organization of the Wyoming National Guard ; to prevent the killing of buffalo 
within the state limits ; authorizing the payment of one dollar bounty on each 
coyote killed in the state and three dollars for each gray or black wolf, and 
appropriating $25,000, "or so much thereof as might be necessary" for the pay- 
ment of said bounties ; enlarging the powers of incorporated towns by authorizing 
them to grant franchises and make contracts for telephone service, lighting the 
streets with gas or electricity, and to grant franchises for street railways operated 
by horse, cable or electric power. 


By an act passed at the third session of the State Legislature the governor 
was authorized and required to "appoint three persons learned in the law as a 
committee to revise, simplify, arrange, consolidate and prepare for publication 
all the statutes of the state." Governor Richards appointed J. A. Van Orsdel, 
Clarence C. Hamlin and Hugo Donzelmann, who presented their report to the next 
session, but the Legislature refused to accept it and the justices of the Supreme 
Court then went over the work and the laws were published by authority of the 


Legislature of 1899 as the "Revised Statutes of Wyoming," the first revised 
laws ever published by authority of the state. 


The Legislature of 1S95 created the Wyoming State Historical Society and 
made an annual appropriation of $250 for its support. The governor, secretary 
of state and the state librarian were constituted an executive board to have 
charge of the expenditure of the appropriation in the purchase of books, maps, 
charts, documents, etc., illustrative of the history of the Northwest, and particu- 
larly of the State of Wyoming. The executive board was also authorized to 
procure and bind files of Wyoming newspapers and was required to report 
biennially to the Legislature. Robert C. Morris was chosen as the first secretary 
of the society and under his direction a volume of historical collections was 
published in 1897. 


In 1895 a majority of the people of the states west of the ^lissouri River, 
irrespective of party affiliations, were in favor of the free coinage of both 
gold and silver at the ratio of sixteen to one. On February 11, 1895, Governor 
Richards approved a memorial to Congress protesting against the proposed issue 
of bonds by the Federal Government "as a movement in the East, on the part of 
New York bankers to force the country to a gold basis." Copies of the memorial 
were sent to Senator Joseph M. Carey and to Representative Henry A. Coffeen, 
with instructions to use their influence in opposition to the bond issue. 

Another memorial asked Congress to set apart a region included in a certain 
number of townships within ranges 113 to 119, as a national park. The district 
embraced within those boundaries includes the upper waters of the Snake River, the 
Teton Mountains and Jackson Lake, in what is now the northern part of Lincoln 
County. Congress failed- to grant the request, however, chiefly for the reason 
that the proposed park would be too close to the Yellowstone National Park al- 
ready established. 

Memorials asking for the acquisition of a tract twenty miles square from the 
Wind River reservation, to include the Big Llorn Hot Springs ; for the passage 
of an act by Congress submitting to the states a constitutional amendment pro- 
viding for the election of L'nited States senators by popular vote ; for the restric- 
tion of foreign immigration, and to permit the State of Wyoming to sell the lands 
granted by the act of admission for less than ten dollars per acre, were also 
adopted by the Legislature, approved by the governor and forwarded to Congress. 

The deadlock in the election of United States senator in 1893 left Wyoming 
with but one senator, and as Joseph M. Carey's term expired on March 4, 1895, 
the Legislature of that year was called upon to elect two senators. The choice 
fell upon Francis E. Warren and Clarence D. Clark, who took office upon March 
4, 1895- 


The year 1896 was a "Presidential year," the only state officers to be elected 
in Wyoming being a justice of the Supreme Court and a representative in Con- 


gress. Interest in the national campaign centered upon the money question. The 
repubhcan national convention was held in St. Louis and nominated William 
McKinley. of Ohio, for President, and Garret A. Hobart, of New Jersey for 
\'ice President. The platform indorsed the act of 1873 demonetizing silver and 
declared in fa\ or of the gold dollar as the standard unit of value. The democratic 
national coinention met in Chicago. William J. Bryan, of Nebraska, and Arthur 
Sewall. of Maine, were nominated for President and \'ice President, respectively, 
upon a platform declaring in favor of the free and unlimited coinage of both 
siKer and gold as primary money at the ratio of sixteen to one. 

In \\'yoming the two state conventions indorsed the action of the national 
conventions. The republicans nominated H. \'. S. Groesbeck, former chief 
justice, for justice of the Supreme Court and Frank W. Mondell was renominated 
for Congress. The democratic state convention named Samuel T. Corn for 
justice of the Supreme Court and ex-Governor John E. Osborne for representa- 
tive in Congress. The people's party made no nomination for Supreme Court 
justice but William Brown was the candidate of that party for Congress. 

At the election on November 3, 1896, the democratic presidential electors — 
John A. Martin. Patrick J. Ouealy and Daniel L. \'an Meter — carried the state 
by a plurality of 303 ; Samuel T. Corn received 10,461 votes for justice of the 
Supreme Court to 9,985 for Judge Groesbeck; and John E. Osborne defeated 
Frank W. Mondell for Congress by a vote of 10,310 to 10,044. William Brown, 
the populist candidate for Congress, received 628 votes in the state. Although 
the democrats elected the state officers, the Legislature elected in 1896 was com- 
posed of thirty-seven republicans and twenty democrats on joint ballot. 


On January 12, 1897, the fourth State Legislature, and the second un,-ler 
Gov. William .\. Richards' administration, assembled at Cheyenne. The senate 
organized by electing George E. Abbott, of Cheyenne, president, and A. D. Kelley, 
of Cheyenne, was chosen speaker of the house. In his biennial message Governor 
Richards announced that the assessment of the property in the state was $30,- 
028,694.65. He also called the attention of the Legislature to the deficit of 
$56,454.70 in the state funds, due to the suspension of T. A. Kent's bank on 
July 20. 1893. The governor closed that part of his message relating to the 
financial condition of the state as follows : "The credit of Wyoming is very 
good, judging from the value of our bonds. In December, 1896, state bonds 
bearing 6 per cent interest were quoted on the New York market at a figure net- 
ting the investor 3.75 per cent. But one state west of the Missouri River is 
rated higher than Wyoming." 

On the subject of irrigation of state lands he said: "The most important 
measure enacted by the third State Legislature was the law providing for the 
reclamation and settlement of the land granted the state under the Carey Act. 
As Wyoming was the first state to accept the trust, and is the only state where 
lands have been segregated and contracts made for their reclamation, it is the 
only state where the success or failure of state control can be studied.' 

He announced that during the year i8q6 a total of 482 irrigating ditches had 
been siir\-eyed, and that the average length of these ditches was about one mile. 


or a total of 480 miles, and predicted an era of prosperity for Wyoming when 
her irrigating systems should be completed. 

The Wyoming General Hospital, located at Rock Springs, was seriously 
damaged by fire on January 4, 1897, and on February 8th Governor Richards 
approved an act of the Legislature appropriating all the money received as in- 
demnity from insurance companies (not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars) for 
rebuilding the institution. An appropriation was also made for completing the 
penitentiary at Rawlins. 

To encourage the production of sugar beets and the manufacture of beet 
sugar in the state, an act was passed at this session exempting from taxation for 
a period of ten years all property employed in the production of sugar. 

By the act of February 24, 1897, the state accepted the grant of one mile 
square of land in the northeastern part of the Shoshone Indian reservation, upon 
which are located the Big Horn Hot Springs, with all the conditions imposed 
by the act of Congress granting the said land to the State of Wyoming. 


In the latter part of November, 1895, the second Trans-Mississippi Congress 
met in Omaha, the first having been held in St. Louis in the fall of the preceding 
year. At the Omaha meeting a committee of five was appointed to prepare 
resolutions. William J. Bryan, as chairman of that committee reported a resolu- 
tion, among others, "That the United States Congress be requested to take such 
steps as may be necessary to hold a Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha 
during the months of August, September and October, in the year 1898. and that 
the representatives of such states and territories in Congress be requested to 
favor an appropriation as is usual in such cases to assist in carrying out this 

That resolution was the first move toward the exposition that wa^; i-,i.-k! in 
Omaha from June to November, 1898. During the month of P'ebruary, 1897, 
the department of promotion sent excursions to the capital cities of several of 
the Trans-Mississippi states to present the matter of the exposition project to 
the state officials and such state legislatures as might then be in session. One of 
these excursions visited various cities in Wyoming and the adjacent states. The 
Wyoming Legislature of that year adjourned without making any appropriation 
for an exhibit of the state's products at the fair. An attempt was made to raise 
a fund of $7,000 by asking each county in the state to appropriate its part in 
proportion to the assessed valuation of the property of the county. This plan 
failed and a committee, composed of Elwood Mead, state engineer, Frank P. 
Graves of the State University, and Governor Richards, was chosen to solicit 
and receive private donations to a fund for an exhibit at Omaha. 

This committee went to Omaha and selected space for an exhibit and the 
railroad companies operating in Wyoming agreed to transport all the articles of the 
display free of charge. Several thousand dollars were contributed by the citizens 
of the state, several of whom also had private exhibits of their products at the 
exposition. Dr. David T. Day, director of the Government mining exhibit, 
Prof. W. C. Knight and J. T. Crawford, state land appraiser, arranged the \\'yo- 
ming exhibit, which was in charge of Mr. Crawford, who received nothing for his 


services except his actual expenses. Although the display was not as complete 
as the one made at the Columbian Exposition five years before, Wyoming took 
two gold medals, five silver medals and one bronze medal upon the mineral 
and agricultural products exhibited. The actual expense (not including the 
cost of the floor space and the expenses of Mr. Crawford) was less than one 
thousand dollars. 

C.\MP.\IGN OF 1898 

In i8q8 a full complement of state officers was to be elected and three tickets 
were placed in the field. 'The republicans nominated De Forest Richards for 
governor; Fenimore Chatterton, secretary of state; LeRoy Grant, auditor of 
state ; George E. Abbott, treasurer of state ; Thomas T. Tynan, superintendent of 
public instruction; Jesse Knight, justice of the Supreme Court; Frank W. Mon- 
dell, representative in Congress. 

The democratic candidates were: Horace C. Alger, governor; David Miller, 
secretary of state ; Charles H. Priest, auditor of state ; Luke \'oorhees. treasurer 
of state ; Jerome F. Brown, superintendent of public instruction ; Charles E. 
Blydenburgh, justice of the Supreme Court; Constantine P. Arnold, representa- 
tive in Congress. 

E. B. Viall was nominated for governor by the people's party: Shakespeare 
E. Seeley, for secretary of state: J. F. Pierce, for auditor of state; John M. 
Rouser, for treasurer of state; Mrs. M. A. Stocks, for superintendent of public 
instruction ; William Brown, for representative in Congress. No nomination was 
made by this party for justice of the Supreme Court. 

The election was held on Tuesday. November 8. 1898, and it resulted in a 
victory for the entire republican ticket. Governor Richards' plurality was 1,394. 
and the other republican candidates were elected by substantially the same vote. 


De Forest Richards, fourth governor of the State of Wyoming, was born 
at Charlestown, New Hampshire, August 6, 1846. He was educated at the 
Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, New Hampshire, and at Phillips' Andover 
Academy. Shortly after the close of the Civil war he went to Alabama, where in 
1868 he was elected to the Legislature. From 186S to 1871 he was sheriff of 
Wilcox County, Alabama, and he was then elected county treasurer for two 
terms. He continued in business at Camden, .\labama until 1885, when he re- 
moved to Chadron, Nebraska, and engaged in the banking business. In 1886 the 
First National Bank of Douglas, Wyoming, was organized and IMr. Richards was 
elected president. He then became a resident of Douglas; remained at the head 
of the bank until his death; was actively engaged in mercantile and live stock 
operations, and also took a commendable interest in public affairs. He was 
elected a delegate to the constitutional convention in 18S9; was mayor of Douglas 
from i8gi to 1894; was elected to the state senate by the republicans of his 
district in 1892; was nominated and elected governor of the state in 1898; and 
was re-elected in 1902. He did not live to complete his second terni, his death 
occurring on .Xjjril 28, 1903. Governor Richards was prominent in the Alasonic 


fraternity, having attained to the thirty-second degree, and he was also a member 
of the Shrine. At one time he was grand master of the Wyoming Grand Lodge. 
He took the oath of office on January 2, 1899, and the other state officers elected 
in the preceding Xovember were installed in their respective offices on the same 


The fifth session of the State Legislature commenced at Cheyenne on Janu- 
ary JO, 189Q. John IMcGill. of Albany County, was elected president of the 
Senate, and Levi R. Davis, of Weston County, was chosen speaker of the House. 
The message of Governor Richards was very brief. After referring to the 
constitutional provision making it the duty of the governor to communicate to 
the Legislature at the beginning of each session information concerning the 
state, he said: "It naturally follows that the information to be conveyed to you 
should be of a practical nature, based on experience rather than theory, and 
therefore, after a conference between ex-Gov. W. A. Richards and myself, he. 
impelled by the deep interest he feels in the welfare of the state that he has 
served so faithfully and well, has volunteered to prepare a message, which I here- 
with transmit, making it a part and parcel of this document," etc. 

The message prepared by the retiring governor was replete with information 
regarding the finances and institutions of Wyoming. It gave detailed accounts 
of the rebuilding of the General Hospital at Rock Springs, the Fort McKinney 
reservation, which was given to the state by act of Congress in 1895, the part 
taken by Wyoming in the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha in 1898 and 
the awards taken' by the state, complete information as to the part taken by the 
state in the Spanish-American war up to that time, and announced that the state 
treasury showed a balance on hand of $103,785.69 at the conclusion of the year 

By the act of February 17, 1899, the Big Horn Hot Springs, which had 
previously been granted to \Vyoming by act of Congress, were "placed under the 
control of the state board of charities and reform and forever set aside for the 
treatment and care of diseases for sanitary and charitable purposes." The board 
was authorized by the act to lease the lands and water privileges, with the 
stipulation that all buildings erected upon the reservation should be according 
to plans furnished or approved by the board. It was further provided that 
gambling and the sale of liquor should be strictly prohibited, and the board was 
required to appoint a superintendent to see that the provisions of the act were 
carried out and the regulations of the board properly observed. 

Among the appropriations made by this Legislature was one of $789.15 to 
reimburse ex-Gov. William A. Richards for money advanced on account of the 
Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha in 1898, and one of $1,000 for the purpose 
of establishing a branch of the state fish hatchery at Sundance, Crook County. 

One important act of the fifth Legislature was that declaring county com- 
missioners to be a county board of health, the mayor and council in incorporated 
cities, and the president and trustees in incorporated towns to be boards of health 
in their respective munici]i;ilities. Each of these local boards of health was 
authorized to appoint a health officer, who should be a regularly licensed and 
practicing physician, to act as an adviser to the board. The county and numici- 


pal board of health were empowereu to adopt and promulgate rules and regula- 
tions to be observed in times of epidemic of contagious diseases; to provide for 
quarantine and the isolation of persons affected by such epidemic ; to adopt such 
means as they might deem necessary for the abatement of nuisances, the cleaning 
up of unsanitary premises, etc., in the interest of the general health and comfort 
of the community. 


In the spring of 1899 a train robbery was committed near the little station 
of Wilcox, in the western part of Albany County, and the robbers escaped to the 
mountainous districts farther north. In June Sheriff Hazen, of Converse County, 
was killed while in pursuit of the train robbers, who then found a refuge in the 
wild parts of Johnson County. Governor Richards was asked to send assistance 
to capture the outlaws. He ordered a detachment of Company C, of Buffalo, 
of the Wyoming National Guard, to report to the sheriff of Johnson County, 
and in his message to the Legislature of 1901 he reported the expenses of this 
action to be $963.30. 

About the same time the governor of Utah called upon Governor Richards 
to aid in the capture of some bandits who had killed some of the officials of that 
state who were trying to arrest them. The governor directed Sheriff Swanson, of 
Sweetwater County, to organize a posse and render what assistance he could 
in arresting the bandits. Although no funds were available for such purposes. 
Sheriff' Swanson raised a posse and at the commencement of the next session 
Governor Richards recommended an appropriation to reimburse that official. "It 
gives me pleasure," said the governor in his message, "to report that organized 
outlawry' has ceased to exist in this state and that the notorious 'Hole-in-the- 
Wall gang' and kindred organizations have been practically broken up. The 
state is undoubtedly more free from the depredations of such criminals than 
ever before in its history." 


In the presidential campaign of 1900, the republicans renominated William 
McKinley, of Ohio, for President, and Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, for 
Vice President. William J. Bryan, of Nebraska, was again nominated by the 
democrats for President, and Adlai E. Stevenson, of Illinois, was named for \"\ct 
President. This was a republican year in Wyoming. The republican presidential 
electors — Bryant B. Brooks, A. E. Bradbury and Ervin F. Cheney — received 14.- 
482 votes, while the highest number received by any of the democratic electors 
was 10,164. ^>'o state officers were elected in Wyoming this year. Frank ^\'. 
Mondell, the republican candidate for representative in Congress, defeated 
J. C. Thompson by a vote of 14.539 to 10.017. 


Wyoming's sixth State Legislature began its session at Cheyenne on Tues- 
day, January 8, 1901. In organizing the two branches for the transaction of 
business, Edward W. Stone, of Laramie County, was elected president of the 
senate, and Jerome S. Atherly, of Albany County, speaker of the house. On 


January 23, igoi. the two houses met in joint session for the purpose of electing 
a United States senator. Francis E. Warren received fifty-two votes and John 
E. Osborne received three votes. Mr. Warren was therefore declared elected 
United States senator for a term of six years, beginning on March 4, 1901. 

By an act passed at this session, the governor was authorized to appoint 
three persons, one of whom should be a physician, as a state board of health, the 
physician to be the secretary of the board. The state board of health thus created 
was given power to investigate the pollution of streams, to obtain analyses of the 
water used for domestic purposes by incorporated towns and cities and to recom- 
mend improvement of waterworks systems, to cooperate with the local boards of 
health, to have the management or oversight of hospitals, to examine public 
buildings and report upon their sanitary condition, and to make quarantine regu- 
lations for the suppression of epidemics of infectious diseases. 

The question of the permanent location of the seat of government, the state 
university, the insane asylum and the state penitentiary was ordered "to be 
submitted to and determined by the qualified electors of the state at the general 
election to be held on Tuesday next after the first ^londay in November, in the 
year 1904." The act also provided that every city, town and village should be 
eligible, that said towns, cities and villages should be nominated in the same 
manner as that provided by law for the nomination of candidates by petition 
and the names of cities, towns and villages should be printed on the ballots. 
Each voter could vote for one place for the location of each' of the institutions 
named in the act. 

By an act approved by Go\ernor Richards on February 14, 1901, the name of 
the Stinking Water River, in Bighorn County, was changed to the Shoshone 
River, and it was directed that the latter name be used by all state officials and 
employees when referring to the stream. 

goverxor's residence 

On February 16, 1901, Governor Richards affixed his signature to an act 
authorizing and requiring the county commissioners of the several counties in the 
state to levy a tax of one-eighth of a mill on each dollar's worth of taxable 
property, for the purpose of building a residence for the governor of Wyoming. 
The capitol commission was directed to obtain a site and supervise the erection of 
the building, which, when completed, should be the property of the state. 

Shortly after the adjournment of the Legislature, the capitol commission 
purchased a site on the corner of Twenty-first and House streets for $3,000 and 
as soon as the fund resulting from the tax levied was sufficient, work was com- 
menced on the building. The first governor to occupy the residence was Bryant 
B. Brooks, who in his message to the Legislature on January 11, 1905, announced 
the completion of the building and gave the cost to the state as follows : 

Site $ 3,000,00 

Building 23,717.29 

Furniture 4,500.00 

Improving the grounds 2,036.00 

Total $33,253.29 


Further improvements, garage, outbuildings, etc., that have since been made 
have brought the total up to $42,600. Prior to the erection of this residence, the 
governors of Wyoming were compelled to rent or lease a house to live in during 
their respective terms of ofifice, something not always easy to accomplish. With the 
completion of the state mansion, the governor has been situated so that he could 
entertain his visitors in a manner befitting the dignity of his office. 


During the summer of 1901 the Pan-American Exposition was held at 
Buffalo, New York. Wyoming prepared no exhibit, but before the opening of 
the fair the management requested Governor Richards to appoint representative 
citizens of the state to serve on the boards connected with the exposition. In 
response to this request, the governor appointed Joseph M. Carey and J. L. Torrey 
as honorary vice presidents, and ^Irs. Francis E. Warren and Mrs. Clarence D. 
Clark as honorary members of the board of lady managers. 


In 1902 the republicans renominated all the state officers, except the state 
treasurer, for which office Henry G. Hay was nominated. Charles N. Potter for 
justice of the Supreme Court, and Frank W. Mondell for representative in 
Congress. At the election, which was held on November 4th. the entire republican 
ticket was elected. Richards' plurality over George T. Beck, the democratic 
candidate for governor, was 4,466. Frank W. Mondell defeated Charles P. Clem- 
mons for representative in Congress by a vote of 15,808 to 8,892. This year, for 
the first time in Wyoming, the socialist party had a ticket in the field, their candi- 
date for governor receiving 552 votes. 


Gov. De Forest Richards' second term began with the opening of the se\-enth 
State Legislature on January 13, 1903. His message to the Legislature at the 
commencement of the session was an exhaustive account of the condition of the 
state institutions and finances, with suggestions and recommendations for their 

This session of the Legislature appropriated $100,000 to the state board of 
charities and reform, for the support and maintenance of the penitentiary, the 
insane asylum, the Wyoming General Hospital, the deaf, dumb and blind asylum, 
etc. The board, by another act, was required to establish a home for soldiers and 
sailors on the old Fort McKinney reser\-ation in Johnson County and an appro- 
priation of $2,500 was made for putting the buildings in repair and removing the 
soldiers in the temporary home at Cheyenne to their new quarters. 

On February 21, 1903, the governor approved the act to tax gifts, legacies 
and inheritances. By the provision of this act all inheritances descending to 
parents, husband, wife, children, brothers and sisters, amounting to ten thousand 
dollars or more, are taxed two per cent. To all other beneficiaries, five per cent. 

Tax levies were ordered for building an addition to the penitentiary at 


Rawlins, and for the establishment of a branch of the Wyoming General Hos- 
pital at Sheridan. For the latter institution the proceeds derived from the tax 
levy to an amount not exceeding twenty-two thousand five hundred dollars were 
placed at the disposal of the state board of charities and reform, which was 
authorized to obtain a suitable site, by donation of otherwise, and to superintend 
the erection of the buildings. 

Other acts passed at this session were those appropriating the sum of $3,000 
for a branch fish hatchery at Saratoga ; requiring the school trustees in the 
various school districts of the state to cause the American flag to be displayed 
upon each school house, flagstaff or tower during the hours school is in session ; 
throwing open mineral lands to exploration, occupation or purchase under the 
same rules governing the location of mining claims ; providing for the sale of 
pure and unadulterated foods and appointing a state chemist: and authorizing 
county commissioners to offer bounties for the destruction of predator\- wild 


On February 2^. up^. Governor Richards approved an act of the Legislature 
authorizing him to appoint seven commissioners to take charge of the work of 
collecting and arranging an exhibit of \\'yoming's products at St. Louis. Missouri, 
in 1904, at the exposition celebrating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase, 
and appropriating the sum of $25,000 to defray the expenses of such exhibit. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the act. Governor Richards appointed as the com- 
missioners Clarence B. Richardson, Robert B. Homer, Bryant B. Brooks, Willis 
G. Emerson, George E. Pexton, Charles A. Badgette and William C. Deming. 

The commissioners met at the state capitol on March 20, 1903. and organized 
by the election of Robert B. Homer, president ; Bryant B. Brooks, vice president ; 
William C. Deming, secretary. Mr. Homer resigned soon after his election and 
Mr. Brooks was elected in his place. J. L. Baird was appointed to the vacancy 
on the board caused by the resignation of Mr. Homer, and W. H. Holliday was 
appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles A. Badgette. 

The agricultural exhibit was prepared under the direction of Prof. B. C, 
Buffum, of the State L'niversity : John H. Gordon, of Cheyenne, was employed 
to prepare for exhibition a collection of Wyoming woods and such minerals as 
might be available in the state museum ; State Geologist H. C. Beeler gave valu- 
able assistance in the arrangement of the mineral display; and the educational 
exhibit was prepared under the supervision of Thomas T. Tynan, superintendent 
of public instruction. As far as it was practicable, the commission tried to show 
not only the raw material, but also some finished article manufactured from it. 
The railroad companies operating in the state agreed to transport materials for 
the various exhibits free of charge. Through this generous cooperation and the 
energy of the commission, Wyoming was one of the comparatively few states 
that had its entire display in place on the opening day of the fair. 

Monday, July 11. 1904, was "Wyoming Day" at the exposition. On that day 
Acting-Governor Chatterton and his staff were present and a large number of 
Wyoming people were in attendance to celebrate in a proper manner the four- 
teenth anniversary of the state's admission into the L'nion. The exercises were 


held in the Hall of Congresses. Music was furnished by a band belonging to a 
regiment of the Illinois National Guard and the Indian band from the Indian 
school in Wyoming. David R. Francis, president of the e.xposition commission, 
delivered an address of welcome and the response was made by Bryant B. Brooks, 
president of the Wyoming commission. Addresses were made by Samuel T. 
Corn of the Wyoming Supreme Court, Joseph M. Carey and Henry A. Coffeen. 
Wyoming took 124 prizes upon the state's displays and private exhibits. 
These awards consisted of four grand prizes, thirty-three gold medals, forty- 
seven silver medals and forty bronze medals. Over hfty thousand pamphlets 
giving information concerning the resources of Wyoming. Two thousand Wyo- 
ming people visited the exposition while it was in progress, and at the close the 
state commission turned back into the treasury $5,658.23 as an unexpended 
balance of the original appropriation of $25.cxx). 


The death of Governor De Forest Richards occurred on April 28, 1903, and on 
the same day Fenimore Chatterton, who had been elected secretary of state at the 
preceding general election, became acting-governor to serve until the election in 
November, 1904. 

F^enimore Chatterton was born in Oswego, New York, July 21, i860. While 
he was still in his childhood his parents removed to Washington, D. C, where he 
attended Columbiana College and studied law. In 1878 he came to Wyoming 
as a clerk in the post store at Fort Steele, of which he later became the proprietor. 
I'his store he sold in 1888, when he was elected treasurer of Carbon County and 
probate judge. Two years later he was elected to the first state senate of Wyo- 
ming and was twice reelected, serving three consecutive terms. In 1892 he 
entered the law department of the University of Michigan, where he graduated 
the next year and began practice at Rawlins. In 1894 and again in 1896 he was 
elected county attorney of Carbon County and in 1898 was elected secretary of 
state. At the close of his first term in this office he was again elected and upon 
the death of Governor Richards became acting-governor. From 1894 to 1896 
he was grand master of the \^'yoming Grand Lodge of Free and -Accepted 
Masons, in which order he has received the thirty-second degree, and in iC)oo he 
was one of the organizers of the Kurtz & Chatterton Mining Company. When 
Bryant B. Brooks was elected governor in 1904, for the unexpired term of 
Governor Richards, Mr. Chatterton continued as secretary of state until succeeded 
in January, 1907, by W. R. Schnitger. 


In 1904 the republican candidates for President and \'ice President were 
Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, and Charles W. Fairbanks, of Indiana. The 
democrats nominated Alton B. Parker, of New York, for President, and Henry 
G. Davis, of West Virginia, for \'ice President. The candidates of the peoples 
party were Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, and Thomas H. Tibbies, of Ne- 
braska, for President and \'ice President, respectively. Silas C. Swallow, of 
Pennsylvania, was nominated by the prohibitionists for President, and George 


W. Carroll, of Texas, for \'ice President, and the socialist candidates were 
Eugene \'. Debs, of Indiana, for President, and Benjamin Hanford, of New 
York, for Vice President. 

The republican candidates for presidential electors in Wyoming were : Ora 
Haley, James M. Wilson and Atwood C. Thomas. The democrats nominated 
George T. Beck, A. L. Murray and A. ^^ Ouinn, and the people's party, Peter 
Esperson, John Gaiselman and William W. Paterson. These were the three 
leading political organizations in the state at that time. 

\'acancies were to be filled in the offices of governor and treasurer of state, 
due to the death of Gov. De Forest Richards and the resignation of Henry G. 
Hay. The republicans nominated the following ticket: For governor, Bryant 
B. Brooks; treasurer of state, William C. Irvine; justice of the Supreme Court. 
Cyrus Beard ; representative in Congress, Frank W. Mondell. 

The democratic candidates were: John E. Osborne, for governor: H. C. 
Alger, for treasurer of state; Samuel T. Corn, for justice of the Supreme 
Court; T..S. Taliaferro, Jr., for representative in Congress. 

James W. Gates was the candidate of the people's party for governor ; Frank 
Ketchum, for treasurer of state ; Herman \'. S. Groesbeck, for justice of the 
Supreme Court; and William Brown, for representative in Congress. The 
socialists made no nomination for justice of the Supreme Court, but named 
George W. Blain for governor; David Gordon for treasurer of state, and 
Lemuel L. Laughlin for representative in Congress. 

The election was held on Xovember 8, 1904. The republican presidential 
electors carried the state by a plurality of 11,559, having a clear majority over 
all the electors nominated by the other parties. For governor. Brooks received 
17.765 votes to 12,137 cast for Osborne, and for representative in Congress, 
Mondell defeated Taliaferro by a vote of 19,862 to 9,803. 

It will be remembered that the Legislature of 1901 provided for submitting 
to the voters at the general election of 1904 the question of permanently locating 
the seat of government, the State University, the insane asylum and the peni- 
tentiary. For the seat of government Cheyenne received 11,781 votes; Lander, 
8,667; and Casper, 3,610, with a scattering vote given in small numbers to several 
other cities and towns. The State University was located at Laramie, which city 
received 12,697 votes. Evanston received 12,593 votes as the site of the insane 
asylum, and the penitentiary was located at Rawlins by a vote of 12,042. 

brooks' administration 

Bryant B. Brooks, who was elected governor of \\'yoming in 1904. was liorn 
at Bernardston, Massachusetts, February 5, 1861, a son of Silas X. and ^Melissa 
M. (Burrows) Brooks. When he was about ten years of age his parents removed 
to Chicago, where he was educated, graduating in the Chicago High School in 
1878. The next year he attended a business college in Chicago, after which he 
went to Nebraska, where he became interested in the cattle business. From 1880 
to 1883 he "rode the range" in Wyoming, and in the latter year he organized the 
cattle firm of B. B. Brooks & Company, with headquarters on the Big Muddy 
Creek eighteen miles southeast of Casper, making a business of raising high 
grade cattle on a ranch of some seven thousand acres, a large part of which 


was under irrrigation. The company also raised sheep and horses. Mr. Brooks 
became actively identified with the republican party soon after coming into the 
state. In 1892 he was elected to the Lower House of the State Legislature ; was a 
delegate to the republican national conventions of 1896, 1904 and 1908; and 
was elected governor of Wyoming in 1904 for the unexpired term of Governor De 
Forest Richards. In 1906 he was elected for a full term of four years. Mr. 
Brooks is prominent in fraternal circles, being a thirty-third degree Mason, an 
Odd Fellow and an Elk. Since retiring from the office of governor he has devoted 
his time and attention to his large business interests at Casper. 


The eighth session of the State Legislature began at Cheyenne on Tuesday, 
January 10, 1905. E. E. Levers, of Uinta County, was chosen president of the 
Senate, and Lyman B. Cooper, of Converse County, speaker of the House. In 
his message to the Legislature, Governor Brooks congratulated the people of 
Wyoming upon the increase of farms, the mineral output of the mines, and the 
valuation of live stock, all good evidences of the prosperity of the inhabitants. 

One of the principal laws enacted at this session is that known as the "Negoti- 
able Instrument Act," the main purpose of which was to establish a law in uni- 
formity with the laws of other states on that subject. The act contains 198 
sections, being one of the longest ever passed by a Wyoming Legislature, and 
covers every form of negotiable instrument. 

The State Board of Horticulture was created bv the eighth Legislature. The 
act creating it provides that the governor of the state, the professor of botany 
and the professor of zoology in the State University shall be ex-officio members, 
and the other four members to be appointed by the governor, one from each of 
the four water districts of the state. The duties of the board were defined to 
be as follows. To collect and disseminate infomiation on the subject of horti- 
culture, especially the diseases of fruit trees and the manner of getting rid of 
insect pests, and to report biennially on the work done and the results ac- 

On February 16, 1903, two days before the final adjournment, a joint session 
of the two houses was convened "for the consideration of resolutions com- 
memorative of the distinguished public services, life and character of the late 
De Forest Richards, former governor of Wyoming." Short addresses were made 
by Governor Brooks, Secretary of State Chatterton, Speaker Cooper, and others 
and the resolutions adopted were ordered to be recorded in the journals of the 
Senate and House. 


By an act of the Legislature, approved on February 15, 1905, a commission 
of six persons was created for the purpose of preparing a collection of Wyo- 
ming's resources and products for exhibition at the Lewis and Clark Exposition 
to be held at Portland, Oregon, in the summer of 1905. The governor was made 
a member of the commission, ex-officio, and was authorized by the act to appoint 


the other five members. Governor Brooks appointed Clarence B. Richardson, 
George E. Pexton, John L. Baird, B. C. Buffum and WilHam C. Deming. 

The act creating the commission appropriated $10,000 in addition to the 
unexpended balance of $5,658.23 of the appropriation made for the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition of the preceding year, making a total appropriation of 
$15,658.23 for the Lewis and Clark Exposition. The board organized on IMarch 
7, 1905, by the election of Governor Brooks as president; George E. Pexton, 
vice president; William C. Deming, secretary. The Chicago & Northwestern 
Railroad Company made a donation of $2,500 and the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company furnished free transportation of the exhibits to and from the expo- 

A large part of the exhibit from the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was 
taken to Portland. In their final report the commissioners say: "In the Mines 
Building \\\oming occupied 3,000 square feet of floor space and 1,700 feet of 
wall space. While verj' compact, Wyoming's exhibit in the Mines Building 
was varied and attractive. * * * The agricultural exhibit was equally com- 
plete. In this building Wyoming was in competition with some of the greatest 
agricultural states in the Union, and the large number of awards received proves 
very conclusively that our state did not suffer by comparison. In this handsome 
building \Vyoming occupied 3,200 square feet of floor space and 2,250 square 
feet of wall space. This exhibit was installed under the personal direction of 
Professor Bufifum and consisted of about twelve hundred classified exhibits." 

Among the minerals shown were oil, soda, copper, iron, coal, gold, building 
stone, onyx, clays, asbestos, fossil fish, moss agates, petrified woods, stalactites 
and a large number of semi-precious stones, making one of the most varied 
and extensive exhibits of this class at the exposition. 

July 10, 1905, was Wyoming Day. Governor Brooks and his staff, the mem- 
bers of the commission and a large number of Wyoming people were present 
at the exercises, which were held in the great Auditorium. The program included 
music by the exposition band; an address of welcome by H. W. Goode, president 
of the exposition; response by Clarence B. Richardson, Wyoming's commissioner- 
in-chief ; the song "Wyoming" by a quartet (the words of this song were by C. E. 
Winter and the music by E. A. Clemmons) ; and addresses by Harry Lane, mayor 
of Portland, Governor Brooks and Judge J. A. \'an Orsdel. 

The exhibits of the state and individual exhibitors were awarded 146 medals — 
83 gold, 31 silver and ^2 bronze — and twenty-si.x other individual exhibits received 
honorable mention. At the conclusion of the exposition the commissioners 
reported a balance of $6,306.80, with a few unpaid bills still outstanding, which 
would reduce the balance to $5,500. 


In the campaign of 1906 the republicans nominated Bryant B. Brooks for 
governor; A\'illiam R. Schnitger, for secretary of state: LeRoy Grant, for auditor 
of state : Edward Gillette, for treasurer of state ; Archibald D. Cook, for super- 
intendent of public instruction: Richard H. Scott, for justice of the Supreme 
Court; and Frank W. Mondell, for representative in Congress. 

The democratic state convention nominated for governor, Stephen A. D. Keis- 


ter; for secretary of state, Daniel W. Gill ; for auditor of state, Thomas J. Dayton; 
for treasurer of state. James M. Labban ; for superintendent of public instruction, 
May Hamilton; for justice of the Supreme Court, H. \'. S. Groesbeck: for rep- 
resentative in Congress, John C. Hamm. 

William L. O'Neill was the candidate of the people's party for governor ; 
William W. Paterson, secretary of state; Albert J. Vagner, auditor of state; 
M. O. Kangas, treasurer of state ; C. E. Cronk, superintendent of public instruc- 
tion ; William Brown, representative in Congress. No nomination was made 
by this party for justice of the Supreme Court. 

The vote for governor on November 6, 1906, was 16,396 for Brooks, 9,483 
for Keister, 1,310 for O'Neill, and 140 for George W. Blain, the candidate of 
the socialist party. All the candidates upon the republican ticket were elected 
by approximately the same plurality as the governor. 







Governor Brooks took the oath of office for the beginning of his second term 
on January 7, 1907, and the next day witnessed the assembling of the 


At the opening of this session, O. H. Brown, of Uinta County, was elected 
president of the Senate, and Scott K. Snively, of Sheridan County, was chosen 
speaker of the House. In his message at the beginning of the session. Governor 
Brooks advocated the passage of a primary election law, and on the subject of 
taxation he said : '"Two years ago, in my message to the Legislature, I called 
attention to the fact that tlje mileage valuations placed upon railroad property 
in this state for taxation purposes have remained practically unchanged for a 
number of years. It is generally believed among our people that railroads do 
not pay their just proportion of taxes. In order to bring this subject fairly before 
the Legislature, I some time ago requested the attorney-general to investigate the 
matter thoroughly, particularly in regard to the taxes levied in surrounding states, 
and submit a report to my office upon the subject." 

The report of the attorney-general, which was submitted as part of the gov- 
ernor's message, showed that in Nebraska and Utah the Union Pacific was taxed 
on a valuation of $11,000 per mile, and in Wyoming, $8,000; the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy was taxed on a valuation of $7,600 per mile in Nebraska and 
only $4,100 in Wyoming, and in the case of the Oregon Short Line, the State of 
Idaho placed a valuation upon it of $10,300, while Wyoming's valuation was but 
$8,000. Commenting on these figures, the governor announced that the average 
railroad tax of $163 per mile in Wyoming was from $45 to $125 lower than any 
of the adjacent states except South Dakota. Notwithstanding the emphasis the 


governor placed upon this subject, the Legislature failed to pass a law providing 
for a higher rate of assessment of railroad property. 

By an act approved February 9, 1907, the premises and property of the state 
deaf and dumb and blind asylum at Cheyenne were assigned for use as military 
headquarters, the office of the adjutant-general, and for the storage and care of 
military supplies. And on the same day the governor approved the act trans- 
ferring the penitentiary at Laramie and the land upon which it is located to the 
State L^niversity for the use of the Agricultural College and experiment station. 
This act carried with it an appropriation of $5,000 for the repair of the building. 

The sum of $50,000 was appropriated for the erection of a new building for 
the accommodation of female patients at the Wyoming State Hospital for the 
Insane at Evanston, and a tax levy sufficient to raise $25,000 a year for two 
years was authorized to provide the necessary funds for that purpose. An appro- 
priation of $25,000 was also made for building a girls' dormitory at the State 

The old law relating to compulsory education was repealed and a new one 
enacted. Another act of this session provided for regulating deposits in banks 
and the safekeeping of the public funds. By this act the governor, secretary and 
treasurer of state were created a "board of deposit," and banks in which the 
state funds were to be deposited were required to deposit approved securities or 
give bond in some responsible surety company. 


Xo state officers were to be elected in Wyoming in 1908 and the entire interest 
centered upon the presidential campaign. The republican national convention 
was held in Chicago on June i6th. William H. Taft, of Ohio, was nominated 
for President, and James S. Sherman, of Xew York, for Vice President. On 
July /th the democratic national convention assembled in Denver, Colorado. Wil- 
liam J. Bryan, of Nebraska, and John W. Kern, of Indiana, were named for 
President and Vice President, respectively. The populist candidates were Thomas 
E. Watson, of Georgia, and Samuel Williams, of Indiana, and the socialists renom- 
inated their candidate of 1904 {Eugene V. Debs, of Indiana) for President, and 
Emil Seidel, of Wisconsin, for Vice President. 

In Wyoming the republicans nominated for presidential electors John W. Hay, 
Fred Waegle and Thomas A. Cosgriff ; the democratic candidates were Andrew 
McMicken, John Howard and Barnett G. Rogers; the popuhst candidates were 
Thomas Crosbie, William W. Paterson and John T. Hawkins. At the election 
of November 3. 1908, the republican electors received 20,846 votes; the demo- 
cratic electors, 14,918; and the populist electors, 1,715. A few votes were cast 
for the socialist and prohibition candidates. For representative in Congress, 
Frank W. Mondell, the republican candidate, received 21,431 votes to 13,643 cast 
for Hayden M. White, democrat, and 2,486 for James Morgan, the candidate of 
the people's party. 


The tenth session of the Wyoming State Legislature commenced at Cheyenne 
on January 12, 1909. The Senate organized by electing Edward T. Clark, of 


Laramie County, president, and the House selected as speaker C. E. Hayden. of 
Bighorn County. 

During the closing years of President Roosevelt's administration the subject 
of conserving the natural resources of the nation w-as one of considerable interest. 
In May. 1908, a meeting of the governors of the several states was held in Wash- 
ington, upon the President's invitation, to exchange ideas and views upon this 
question. Governor Brooks, in his message to the Legislature in 1909, referred 
to this congress of governors and gave his opinions upon the subject of conser- 
vation. He began this part of his message by referring to the constitutional 
provision that: "The water of all natural streams, springs, lakes or other col- 
lections of still water, within the boundaries of the state, are hereby declared 
to be the property of the state." 

"Our water power resources." said the governor, "have an enormous value 
and should be developed for the benefit of the whole state, rather than made a 
means of taxing the state for the enrichment of outside corporations. There 
should be no possible loophole whereby wealthy syndicates can acquire, free of 
cost, water rights that in future years can only be extinguished by condemnation. 
There is no reason in economics or good government why any state should give 
away property of such inestimable vakie, and this is not done in any enlightened 
country on earth except our own. Every power privilege granted in Wyoming 
should be in the nature of a license, subject to an annual license fee and future 
regulation of charges whenever the Legislature sees fit. 

"Unfortunately, the present policy relative to the conservation of this, like 
other natural resources, seems to be to accomplish all reforms through Federal 
agencies. The limelight is all on the national stage. Reforms and good policies 
are not to be struggled for at home, but are to be placed in the hands of Federal 
departments, whose chiefs are overanxious to strengthen their departments, and 
as they are not acquainted with local conditions, their meddlesome activity fre- 
quently acts as a hindrance to our development, and hence irritates our people. 

"Reforms, in a great measure, ought to be left to the virtue and patriotism of 
the state and county, and local control in these matters will bring far better and 
more satisfactory results. To say the state cannot and will not do the right thing 
is disproved by what Wyoming is doing in irrigation. It is in effect to say tha*- 
self-government is a failure and must be replaced by bureaucratic rule." 

This message of Governor Brooks has been quoted at length, because the 
subject of conservation of natural resources is one in which the people of Wyo- 
ming are deeply interested. In 1908, the year before this message was delivered 
to the Legislature, it cost the Federal Government more than one hundred 
thousand dollars to manage the forest reserves in the State of Wyoming. There 
is no doubt that the reserves could have been managed by the state authorities 
for a much less sum and in a more satisfactory manner. 

Governor Brooks again called the attention of the Legislature to the inequali- 
ties existing in Wyoming's system of assessing property and levying taxes. On 
this subject he said : "Nearly a year ago I determined to appoint a commission 
of five well known citizens to examine the taxation laws of \\'yoming, suggest 
changes, correct irregularities, etc. The commission appointed consisted of Wil- 
liam R. Schnitger, William E. Mullen. A. D. Cook, John E. Hay and L. G. Duhig. 
Des]5ite the fact that this commission would receive no compensation, and that 


the duties outlined would require close attention, much time and considerable 
personal expense, all members of the commission accepted the appointment 
promptly and from a pure sense of public duty assumed the responsibilities with- 
out hesitation. They have performed their work faithfully and well, and I take 
this opportunity to express my deep appreciation to every individual member of 
that commission for faithful services. They have gone into the matter carefully 
and after thorough investigation have submitted a full report and outlined a bill 
for the improvement of our system of taxation. ' 

In response to the governor's recommendations on this subject, and in line 
with the report of the commission, the Legislature passed an act creating the 
ofifice of "commissioner of taxation," said commissioner to be appointed by 
the governor, with the advice and consent of the Senate. The bill provided for 
a salary of $2,500 per year and fixed the term of office at four years. The commis- 
sioner was to have and exercise authority over the administration of all assess- 
ments, to advise assessors and boards of county commissioners, make appraisements 
of all railroad property, telegraph and telephone lines, express companies and 
sleeping car companies doing business in Wyoming, etc. John McGill, of Albany 
County, was appointed the first commissioner of taxation under the new law. 

A state board of immigration of three members, to be appointed by the gov- 
ernor, was created by the tenth Legislature, and the sum of $11,000 was appro- 
priated for the use of the board in collecting, publishing and disseminating infor- 
mation regarding the state and its resources, and state, county and other officials 
were required by the act to furnish the board information concerning their 
respective localities. 

Another act of this session created a board of three citizens to conduct experi- 
ments in dry farming. The members of the board were to be appointed by the 
governor and when organized, the board was authorized to employ a director 
of the experiments at a salary not exceeding two thousand dollars. An appro- 
priation of $5,000 was made for the purpose of conducting the experiments. 

Other acts of the session provided for the seizure and destruction of gambling 
devices ; for the proper ventilation of coal mines : for a system of recording 
brands on live stock, and repealing all laws in conflict therewith ; for a branch 
of the Wyoming General Hospital at Casper : creating Park Count\- ; and to 
encourage the destruction of predatory wild animals. 


In the political campaign of ic;io a new feature was introduced. During the 
session of Congress that began in December, 1909, a number of republican mem- 
bers, dissatisfied with the rulings of Speaker Cannon, united with the democrats 
to amend the rules of the House in such a manner as to deprive the speaker of 
some of his power. These republican members, most of whom were from the 
western states, received the name of "insurgents." Their action was indorsed, 
however, by a large number of republicans throughout the country and the term 
"insurgents," first used in derision, became popular. Joseph M. Carey, former 
United States senator from Wyoming, dissatisfied with numerous acts of the Taft 
administration during the first years of its existence, and with the republican party 


management of state affairs, announced himself as an independent candidate for 
the office of governor. 

The repubhcan state convention at RawHns on Thursday, September 15, 19 10, 
marked the active opening of the campaign. William E. ^lullen, of Sheridan, 
was nominated for governor; William R. Schnitger, of Cheyenne, secretary of 
state; Robert B. Forsyth, of Rock Springs, auditor of state; John L. Baird, 
of Newcastle, treasurer of state; Archibald D. Cook, of Douglas, superintendent 
of public instruction ; Charles N. Potter, of Cheyenne, justice of the Supreme 
Court; Frank W. Mondell, of Newcastle, representative in Congress. 

The platform adopted by the convention indorsed the administration of Presi- 
dent Taft, and also that of Governor Brooks ; urged the reelection of Clarence 
D. Clark to the United States senate; expressed satisfaction with the Payne- 
Aldrich tariff bill enacted by the previous session of Congress ; and declared in 
favor of the contract system for the employment of prisoners in the Wyoming 

On Tuesday, September 20, 1910, the democratic state convention assembled 
at Sheridan. A committee, consisting of one member from each county in the 
state, was appointed to confer with Joseph M. Carey in relation to his accepting 
a nomination for governor from the convention, upon a platform embodying his 
views on certain public questions. Mr. Carey gave his assent and made some 
suggestions as to what the platform should embrace. The name of W. L. Kuyken- 
dall was presented as a candidate for governor, but it was immediately withdrawn, 
and upon the only ballot taken Joseph M. Carey received 105 votes ; J. B. Hen- 
derson, of Lander, thirty-six votes, one delegate not voting. Frank L. Houx, of 
Cody, was then nominated for secretary of state ; George C. Forsythe, of Lusk, 
auditor of state; Earl Whedon, of Sheridan, treasurer of state; Rose A. Bird, of 
Newcastle, superintendent of public instruction ; Thomas H. Gibson, of Laramie, 
justice of the Supreme Court; William B. Ross, of Cheyenne, representative in 

The platform declared in favor of a constitutional amendment for the initiative 
and referendum ; the enactment of a law pro\iding for the nomination of all state 
and county candidates at a primary election; the passage of a corrupt practices 
act; the conservation of natural resources; an eight-hour day for workmen em- 
ployed upon all public works ; and an act to prohibit the use of large campaign 
funds by political parties. 

Li this campaign the socialist party placed a full ticket in the field, to-wit : 
AMlliam A\'. Paterson, for governor : Lyman Payne, secretary of state ; Joseph 
A. Johnson, auditor of state; Gabriel Silfvast. treasurer of state; Lucy Bode, 
superintendent of public instruction ; H. \'. S. Groesbeck. justice of the Supreme 
Court ; James Morgan, representative in Congress. 

The election of 1910 was held on the 8th of November and resulted in the 
choice of a "mixed ticket," the democrats electing the governor, secretary of 
state and superintendent of public instruction, and the republicans electing the 
auditor and treasurer of state, the justice of the Supreme Court and the repre- 
sentative in Congress. For governor, Carey received 21,086 votes ; Mullen, 15.235 ; 
and Paterson, 1,605. Carey's plurality was the largest received by any of the 
candidates. Houx was elected secretary of state by a plurality of only thirty- 
seven votes, and Miss Bird defeated Mr. Cook for superintendent of public 


instruction by a plurality of 1,343. The pluralities of the victorious republican 
candidates were as follows: Auditor of state, 766; treasurer of state, 207; jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, 1,059. Mondell defeated Ross for Congress by a vote 
of 20,312 to 14,609. Morgan, the socialist candidate for representative in Con- 
gress, polled 2,155 votes, the highest number of any of the socialist candidates. 


Joseph jVI. Carey, sixth governor of the State of Wyoming, was born at 
Milton, Sussex County, Delaware, January 19, 1845. His early education was 
acquired in the schools of his native town, after which he spent two years in 
Union College at Schenectady, N. Y., and then began the study of law with 
Benjamin F. Temple, of Philadelphia, In 1867 he graduated in the law depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania and began practice in Philadelphia. 
When the Territory of Wyoming was organized in the spring of 1869, President 
Grant appointed Mr. Carey United States district attorney for the new territory. 
This office he held until 1871, when he was appointed associate justice of the 
Territorial Supreme Court. In 1876 he retired from the bench to devote his 
attention to his large live stock interests, in which he engaged in 1871 with his 
brother, R. D. Carey, operating in both Wyoming and the Dakotas. 

In 1880 Mr. Carey was elected mayor of Cheyenne and was twice reelected, 
holding the office for three consecutive terms. In 1884 he was elected delegate 
to Congress, which office he likewise held for three successive terms. While a 
delegate in Congress he introduced the bill under which Wyoming was admitted 
to statehood, and in 1890 he was elected one of the first United States senators 
from the new state. From 1876 to 1896 he was a member of the republican 
national committee ; was one of the organizers of the Wyoming Development 
Company in 1885 ;■ was for a time president of the W heatland Roller Mill Com- 
pany; and he and his associates erected some of the best business blocks in the 
City of Cheyenne. In 1894 Union College made him an honorary chancellor and 
conferrred on him the degree of LL. D. In 1910 he was elected governor of 
Wyoming. Upon retiring from that office in January, 191 5, he again became 
actively interested in stock raising and real estate operations. Mr. Carey's name 
is inseparably linked with the "Carey Arid Land Law," which was the first act 
passed by Congress on the subject of irrigation. 


Governor Carey took the oath of office on January 2, 191 1, and the eleventh 
session of the State Legislature was convened at Cheyenne on the loth. Jacob 
M. Schwoob, of Bighorn County, was elected president of the Senate, and 
L. R. Davis, of Crook County, was chosen speaker of the House. In his message. 
Governor Carey devoted considerable attention to the subjects of the initiative 
and referendum and the recall of public officials. 

"The initiative and referendum," said he. "are being considered and adopted 
in many of the states, and I believe they will be -generally tried. I earnestly ask 
you to consider the matter. Representative government is not destroyed, but 
the Legislature is able to secure the expressed will of the people." 


On the subject of the recall he said: "The recall of an elected officer who 
disobeys the will of the people and who proves untnie to his trust, though adopted 
in several of the states, has only been resorted to in one or two instances. The 
power to exercise this power seems to have deterred even the unprincipled from 
violating their pledges. It simply means that the people reserve to themselves 
the right that the employer has to dismiss an unfaithful and dishonest servant." 

Section 2 of the second part of Article 3 of the state constitution provides 
that : "The Legislature shall provide by law for an enumeration of the inhabi- 
tants of the state in the year 1895, and every tenth year thereafter, and at the 
session next following such enumeration, and also at the session next following 
an enumeration made by the authority of the United States, shall revise and 
adjust the apportionment for senators and representatives, on a basis of such 
enumeration according to ratios fixed by law." 

In accordance with this section, it became the duty of the Legislature of 191 1 
to readjust the apportionment. In referring to the matter the governor said: 
"The census reports for Wyoming have been, so far as population is concerned, 
fully determined in the case of each county. It is to be regretted that these appor- 
tionments are not always followed by the best of feeling in all the counties, as 
the claim is usually made that the ratios are fixed so as to give some counties 
an undue power in the Legislature, through the manipulation of the fractions 
that occur by the use of arbitrary divisions." 

On February 18, 191 1, Governor Carey approved an apportionment act which 
provided that: "Each organized county in the State of Wyoming shall constitute 
a separate senatorial and representative district, and until otherwise provided 
by law, each organized county as aforesaid shall have representation in the Wyo- 
ming State Legislature as follows :'' 

Counties Senators Representatives 

Albany 2 ■ 4 

Bighorn 2 3 

Carbon . . 
Crook . . . 
Fremont . 
Johnson . 
Laramie . 
Xatrona . 
Park ... 


Sheridan 3 7 

Sweetwater 2 4 

Uinta 3 7 

Weston I 2 


Among the acts passed during the session was one submitting to the people 
an amendment to Section i, .Article 3 of the constitution, so that it should 


read as follows: "Section i. The legislative power of the state shall be vested 
in a Senate and House of Representatives, which shall be designated 'The Legis- 
lature of the State of Wyoming,' but the people reserve to themselves the power 
to propose laws and amendments to the constitution and to enact or reject the 
same at the polls, and also reserve the power at their option to approve or reject 
at the polls any act of the Legislature." 

The proposed amendment also provided that the first power (the initiative) 
could be called into use when 25 per cent of the legal voters of the state, by 
petition, asked that any certain measure be enacted into law, such petition to 
be filed with the secretary of state at least four months before a general election. 
The second power (the referendum) could be ordered against any act of the 
Legislature (except those relating to appropriations) after it had become a law, 
when 25 per cent of the legal voters petitioned for its submission and filed the 
petition with the secretary of state ninety days before the election. 

Seven new counties were created at this session, to-wit : Campbell, Goshen, 
Hot Springs, Lincoln, Niobrara. Platte and Washakie, and an act supplementary 
to those creating the above counties proxided for defraying the expenses of 
their organization. 

On February 11, 191 1, the governor affixed his signature to an act of fifty- 
three sections known as the "Direct Primary Law." Section i of the act provides 
that: "From and after the passage of this act, the candidates of political parties 
for all offices which under the law are filled by the direct vote of the people of 
this state at the general election in November : candidates for the office of senator 
in the Congress of the United States, shall be elected at the primary elections at 
the times and in the manner hereinafter provided." 

A political party is defined by the act as an organization "which at the last 
preceding general election cast for its candidate for representative in Congress 
at least 10 per cent of the total vote cast at said election," and the time fixed for 
holding the primary election is the first Tuesday after the third Monday in 
.August. The act further provides that state conventions for the nomination of 
candidates for presidential electors shall be held on the second Monday in May 
in the years when a President and \'ice President of the United States are to be 

A "Corrupt Practices Act" was approved by the governor on February 17, 
191 1. Under the provisions of this act the campaign expenses of candidates 
for office are limited to 20 per cent of one year's salary or compensation for the 
primary election, and a like amount for the general election. Every candidate 
is required to render to the county clerk, within twenty days after each primary 
or general election, an itemized statement of the expenses incurred by him during 
the campaign, with a list of things of value promised by himself or others to 
secure his nomination or election. 

County chairmen of central committees are also required to file an itemized 
statement of contributions and expenses with the county clerk; district and state 
chairmen with the secretary of state. The act prohibits any campaign committee 
from receiving contributions from corporations, and candidates are not permitted 
to hire the ser\'ices of any voter. Anyone violating any of the provisions of the 
act, or failing to perform the duties required thereby, is subject to a fine of not 
more than one thousand dollars, or imprisonment in the county jail for a period 


not exceeding one year, or both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of 
the court. 

Two state institutions were estabhshed by the Legislature of 191 1, viz.: The 
Wyoming Industrial Institute and the \\'yoming School for Defectives. By the 
act creating the former it was provided that the institute should be located by 
vote at the general election in November, 1912. At the election the Town of 
Worland received the largest vote and the institute was located there. The school 
for defectives was located by the Legislature at Lander, "for the treatment and 
education of epileptics and feeble-minded persons." The 10,000 acres of land 
granted to the state by the act of July 10, 1890, for the poor farm in Fremont 
County, with all its rental and income, was transferred to the school for defectives, 
and the following appropriations for the institution were made: $10,500 for 
equipping and furnishing; $20,000 for support and maintenance, and for 
providing water and sewer connections. 


An appropriation of $7,500, "or so much thereof as may be necessary," was 
made by the Legislature of 191 1 to purchase a silver set, or other suitable token, 
for the Battleship Wyoming. This vessel was launched in May, 191 1, and was 
christened by Miss Dorothy Knight, daughter of the late Jesse Knight, one of 
the justices of the Wyoming Supreme Court. 

The silver service of over sixty pieces was designed by the Buechner Jewelry 
Company of Cheyenne and was manufactured by the Gorham Company of New 
York. Upon one side of the great punch bowl was the figure of Sacajawea, the 
Snake Indian woman who acted as guide to Lewis and Clark in 1804, and who 
is said to be buried on the AMnd River reservation in Wyoming, and on the other 
side a white woman dressed in civilized costume. In the main platter was a 
representation of the state capitol building at Cheyenne. Each piece in the set 
U'as bordered by the flower of the blue gentian, the whole making an artistic 
gift of the state to one of the greatest battleships in the United States navy. 

WESTERN governors' SPECIAL ' 

Early in the fall of 191 1. ex-Governor James H. Brady, of Idaho, conceived 
the idea of running a special train from the states of the Northwest to the eastern 
part of the country, to exhibit the products and advertise the resources of those 
states for the purpose of encouraging immigration. He enlisted the cooperation 
of Louis Hill, president, and James Hill, chairman of the executive committee, 
of the Great Northern Railroad Company, which bore the greater part of the 
expense of the undertaking. These gentlemen foresaw that if the advertising 
of the Northwest resulted in bringing immigrants to those states, the shipment 
of products would naturally increase correspondingly and the cost of the "West- 
ern Governors' Special,'' as the train was called, would be bread cast upon the 
waters to be returned after many days. 

The following states were represented, chiefly by the governors : California, 
Oregon, Washington, Idaho. ^Montana, Colorado, North Dakota. South Dakota, 
Wyoming and ^Minnesota. Each state was furnished space for a display of its 


products and resources. Wyoming occupied about half of one of the cars and 
her display, collected mainly through the efforts of the board of immigration, pre- 
sented an interesting and creditable exhibit of the possibilities of the state. The 
material furnished by the several states was sent to St. Paul, Minn., the starting 
point of the "special.'' At lo P. M., November 27, 191 1, the train of eleven 
cars, consisting of new steel parlor cars, exhibition cars and baggage cars, left 
St. Paul and arrived in Chicago the next morning. From that point the trip 
included the states of Michigan, New York. Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. In his message to the Legis- 
lature in 1913, Governor Carey said : 

"The exhibition cars were thrown open to the crowds at every place where 
there was a stop. The representatives of the states included in the train were 
most hospitably received everywhere. The people all along the route showed 
their anxiety to know of the Northwest. At each of the many towns and cities 
visited, speeches and addresses were made telling of the resources of the North- 

At Kalamazoo, ]\Iich., the public schools were closed while the train was in 
the city and hundreds of school children, accompanied by their teachers, passed 
through the cars. At Harrisburg, Pa., where the arrival of the train had been 
well advertised, 10,000 people, many of them farmers, saw the display. As they 
passed through the cars frequent remarks were overheard, such as : "Why, I 
thought the West was nothing but a desert," "I certainly am going to see that 
country,"' etc., showing the interest of the visitors to be more than mere curiosity. 

The train arrived at St. Paul on December 16, igii, having been "on the 
road" for nineteen days, during which time nine states, and a large number of 
cities and educational institutions were visited. Just before the arrival at St. 
Paul those on board effected a permanent organization including the states of 
California, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, New Mexico, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming. 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Montana and Utah. James H. Brady 
•was elected president and Reilly Atkinson, secretary. 


L'nder the direct primary act of February 11, 191 1, the tirst political conven- 
tions in the state to nominate presidential electors, etc., were held on ]\Iay 13, 
191 2, in Cheyenne. Bryant B. Brooks was chosen chairman of the republican 
convention, which nominated for electors William B. Sleeper, of Bighorn 
County : John Higgins, of Converse : and Andrew Olson, of Carbon. Frank W. 
Mondell was renominated for representative in Congress, and Cyrus Beard for 
justice of the Supreme Court. As the national convention had not yet been held, 
the following delegates and alternates were elected : Francis E. ^^'arren, Clarence 
D. Clark, Frank W. iMondell, Patrick Sullivan, W. H. Huntley and \\\ L, Walls, 
delegates ; C. M. Ebey. John Morton, C. E. Carpenter, J. D. Woodruff, J. A. Gill 
and John Barry alternates. 

C. L. Rigdon was elected chairman of the democratic convention. John C. 
Thompson, of Laramie County; Peter Kinney, of Weston; and Albert L. Brook, 
of Johnson, were chosen as the presidential electors, though Mr. Brook was 
succeeded on the ticket by Thomas M. Hyde. Thomas P. Fahey was nominated 


for representative in Congress, and Gibson Clark for justice of the Supreme 
Court. Delegates to the national convention — A. N. Hasenkamp. James E. Mayes, 
Roy Montgomery, John D. Clark, B. F. Perkins and P. J. Ouealy. Alternates — 
George T. Beck, \Villiam Reid, R. B. Hackney, J. L. Jordan, T. S. Taliaferro and 
C. L. Decker. 

The socialists nominated Otto Humberger, Paul J. Paulsen and John Snaja, 
Jr., for presidential electors ; Antony Carlson for representative in Congress ; 
and H. \'. S. Groesbeck, for justice of the Supreme Court. 

On June 1 8, 1912, the republican national convention assembled in Chicago. 
The leading candidates for the Presidency were William H. Taft, who was then 
President and a candidate for a second term, and former President Theodore 
Roosevelt. The latter's friends charged the Taft managers with unfair methods 
in seating delegates, etc., and 344 of the 1,078 delegates refused to participate 
in the nomination. Only one ballot was taken. President Taft receiving the 
nomination by a vote of 540 to 107 for Roosevelt, with sixty votes scattering and 
si.x delegates absent. \'ice President James S. Sherman was also renominated, 
but his death occurred before the election, and the vacancy on the ticket was 
filled by the selection of Nicholas M. Butler, of New York. 

The democratic national convention met in Baltimore, Md., June 25. 1912, 
and remained in session until the 2d of July. Woodrow Wilson, of Xew Jersey, 
was nominated for President on the forty-sixth ballot, and Thomas R. Marshall, 
of Indiana, was nominated for Mce President. 

The ill feeling engendered by the re]3ublican national convention resulted in 
the formation of the progressive party, which held a convention in Chicago on 
August 5-7, 1912. Theodore Roosevelt was nominated for President and Hiram 
W. Johnson, of California, for \'ice President. In Wyoming the presidential 
electors on the progressive ticket were : Thomas Blyth. Helen B. Grant and 
Robert R. Selway. Charles E. Winter was nominated for representative in 
Congress, and E. R. Shipp for justice of the Supreme Court. 

On November 5, 1912, occurred the election. The democratic presidential 
electors carried the state, the vote being as follows: Democratic, 15.310; repub- 
lican, 14,560; progressive, 9,132; socialist, 2,760. The republican candidates 
for Congress and justice of the Supreme Court were elected. 


In organizing the twelfth Legislature, which was convened at Cheyenne on 
Tuesday. January 14, 1913, Birney H. Sage, of Laramie County, was elected 
president of the Senate, and Martin L. Pratt, of Park County, speaker of the 
House. In his message Governor Carey expressed his regret that the consti- 
tutional amendment providing for the initiative and referendum failed to receive 
a majority of the votes cast at the recent preceding election, and on the subject 
of taxation he recommended the creation of a state tax commission "consisting 
of at least three persons who should devote their entire time and attention to the 
questions of taxation and revenue in the state, in the counties, in the cities and 
in the school districts. The powers of this tax commission should be advisory, 
directory, and if necessary, compulsory." 

He announced that the tax lew for the establishment of the \\'voming Indus- 


trial Institute at Worland had resulted in a fund of about one hundred and thirty- 
five thousand dollars during the years lyii and 1912; suggested a change in the 
laws relating to practice in the courts, to avoid delay ; commended the Kansas "Blue 
Sky Law," and referred to the operations of the Penn-Wyoming Oil Company, 
through which millions of dollars had been obtained from credulous people with- 
out giving anything in return. 


For several years prior to 1913 the state fair had been held annually at 
Douglas. In his message to the Legislature in 1913, Governor Carey said: "The 
ground upon which the fair buildings stands belongs to the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad Company and is probably worth fifteen thousand dollars. The 
company leased the land to the state at a nominal rental at the time the state fair 
was inaugurated and the state has improvements thereon to the value of about 
twenty thousand dollars. The time has arrived when the matter of the state 
owning the land should be seriously considered. 

"The Fair Association and the governor have had the matter up with the proper 
authorities of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad and they have offered to give 
the lands to the state if the state will agree to make $50,000 worth of improve- 
ments thereon, the land to revert to the railroad company whenever the state 
ceases to use it for fair purposes." 

Appropriations for the benefit of the state fair were made during the session 
as follows: $22,000 for premiums and expenses of the fair for the years 1913 
and 1914; $20,000 for the erection of permanent buildings and general improve- 
ments : $7,245, or so much thereof as might be necessary for paying off the indebt- 
edness of the State Fair Commission of 191 2. 


Two constitutional amendments were submitted to the people by the t\\elfth 
Legislature — one authorizing the Legislature to provide by law a fund for the 
compensation of injured employees in extra hazardous occupations, or for the 
benefit of their families in the event of death by accident, and the other to 
provide for a special tax on live stock, the proceeds to be used for the destruction 
of predatory animals. 

An appropriation of $10,000, or so much thereof as might be necessary, was 
made to pay Wyoming's share of the cost of an interstate bridge over the south 
fork of the Snake River on the Idaho- Wyoming line. 

Another act provided for the establishment of an experimental farm in the 
County of Sweetwater, to consist of not less than 160 nor more than 320 acres, 
at an altitude not exceeding 6.300 feet, to "demonstrate the adaptability of the 
soil and climatic conditions for producing different classes of grain, grasses, vege- 
tables, fruit and shade trees, etc.. at such an altitude." 

\\'hat might be termed a "pure food law" was passed at this session. It pro- 
vided for the inspection and sanitation of all places where food products are 
manufactured, stored, collected or sold, such as canning factories, cheese factories, 
slaughter houses, hotels, restaurants, etc. The state dairy and food commissioner 
and his deputies were authorized to make inspections as often as they deemed 


necessary. Employees in such places were required to wear clean clothing, and 
penalties were provided for adulterating milk, selling or offering for sale diseased 
meats, feeding offal to animals intended for food, etc. An appropriation of 
$3,500 was made to carry out the provisions of the act. For the first violation 
of any of the provisions of the law the penalty was a fine of from ten to fifty 
dollars, and for each subsequent oft'ense a fine of from fifty to one hundred dollars, 
to which might be added imprisonment in the county jail for thirty days, at the 
discretion of the court. 

Other acts of this session were those requiring coal mining companies to 
install and keep in working order a system of party line telephones in each mine; 
creating the fifth and sixth judicial districts; making it the duty of the county 
commissioners in each county to provide an office for the county superintendent 
of schools ; extending the right of eminent domain to pipe line companies : 
ordering cities and towns incorporated under special charters to surrender the 
same and reincorporate under the general law ; creating the Oregon Trail Com- 
mission and appropriating $2,500 for marking the trail : and to license and 
register automobiles. 


In 1914 a full state ticket was to be elected and the first nominations were 
made under the direct primary law of February ii, 191 1. The republicans 
nominated Hilliard S. Ridgely for governor; Birney H. Sage, secretary of state: 
Robert B. Forsyth, auditor of state ; Herman B. Gates, treasurer of state ; Edith 
K. O. Clark, superintendent of public instruction; Richard H. Scott, justice of 
the Supreme Court ; and Frank W. Mondell, representative in Congress. 

The democratic candidates nominated by the primary were as follows : John 
B. Kendrick, for governor; Frank L. Houx, secretary of state; Campbell H. 
McW'hinnie, auditor of state ; Fred L. Thompson, treasurer of state ; Iva T. 
Irish, superintendent of public instruction; Charles E. Blydenburgh, justice of the 
Supreme Court ; Douglas A. Preston, representative in Congress. 

In the primary the progressives voted for John B. Kendrick for governor, 
and the remainder of the progressive ticket was as follows: E. C. Raymond, 
secretary of state : Mortimer N. Grant, auditor of state ; F. S. Knittle, treasurer 
of state ; Minnie \\'illiams. superintendent of public instruction ; Fred H. Blume, 
representative in Congress. No nomination was made by this party for justice 
of the Supreme Court. Mortimer X. Grant withdrew and the vacancy on the 
ticket was filled by Thomas Blyth, who had been one of the progressive candidates 
for presidential elector in 1912. 

The socialists nominated their candidates by a state convention, to wit : Paul 
J. Paulsen, for governor; \\'illiam Hill, for secretary of state; John A. Green, 
for auditor of state ; William \\\ Paterson, for treasurer of state ; Robert Hanna, 
for superintendent of public instruction ; E. D. MacDougall, for justice of the 
Supreme Court ; and Antony Carlson, for representative in Congress. 

John B. Kendrick received 23,387 votes at the general election on November 
3, 1914, to 19,174 cast for Ridgely, the republican candidate, and 1,816 for 
Paulsen, socialist. Frank L. Houx was reelected secretary of state by a plurality 
of 170, and the republican candidates for all the other offices were elected. 


kendrick's administration 

John B. Kendrick, who was elected governor of Wyoming in 1914, was 
born in Cherokee County. Texas, September 6, 1857. He grew to manhood on a 
ranch, receiving his education in the common schools. In March, 1879, he became 
a cowboy on the "Texas Trail," and that season trailed cattle from the Gulf 
coast to the Running Water in Wyoming, a distance of fifteen hundred miles. In 
August, 1879, he located in ^^■yoming as foreman on the ranch of his father-in- 
law, Charles W. Wulfjen, where he remained until 1883, when he established 
the Ula ranch. He became foreman and part owner of the Lance Creek Cattle 
Company in 1885. Two years later he accepted the position of range manager 
for the Converse Cattle Company and in 1897 succeeded to the business. About 
that time he became interested in the development of the Sheridan County coal 
mines. From 1900 to 1902 he was president of the First National Bank of 
Sheridan and was also extensively interested in real estate operations. In 1910 
he was elected to the state senate ; was the democratic candidate for United 
States Senator in 1912; was elected governor in 1914, and in 1916 was elected 
United States Senator, defeating Clarence D. Clark, for the term beginning on 
IMarch 4, 191 7. 


Governor Kendrick took the oath of office on January 4, 1915, and the thirteenth 
State Legislature was convened on the 12th. Edward W. Stone, of Laramie 
County, was elected president of the Senate and James M. Graham, of Fremont 
County, was chosen speaker of the House. Governor Kendrick's message at the 
opening of the session dealt with the usual topics relating to the financial con- 
dition and general progress of the state. Governor Carey, in his message of 
1913, had urged the construction of new wings to the capitol building. This 
matter was taken up at some length by Governor Kendrick, who indorsed the 
utterances of Governor Carey of two years before? He also recommended the 
establishment of more experimental farms and announced the completion of the 
Institute buildings at Worland. 

workmen's compensation ACT 

"At the last general election," said Governor Kendrick in his message of 
1915, "an amendment to our constitution was carried by a majority of the electors 
of the state, providing for a workmen's compensation act. The vote on this 
amendment was duly canvassed and the proper proclamation of its adoption 
was made by my predecessor. Governor Carey. An amendment to the constitution 
is a direct mandate from the people, and is therefore an obligation to be assumed 
by the Legislature at its earliest opportunity. 

"I would recommend in framing such a law. that due care be exercised to 
fulfill every function contemplated, that every provision be included to render 
a just compensation to the injured, or, in case of death, to those dependent upon 
him. But, at the same time, such a law should be calculated to avoid, so far 
as possible, the working of a hardship on the industry that pays the tax." 


On February 27. 191 5, the governor approved a compensation act providing 
for the establishment of a "State Industrial Accident Fund."' Extra-hazardous 
occupations were defined and an appropriation of $30,000 was made at the state's 
first contribution to the fund. Section 15 also provided that "There is also ap- 
propriated annually, until otherwise provided by law. out of any moneys in the 
state treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum equal to one-fourth of the total 
sum which shall be received by the state treasurer from employers under the 
provisions of section 16 hereof, not, however, to exceed the sum of $40,000.'' 

Section 16, above referred to, provided that every employer engaged in any 
of the occupations defined as extra-hazardous should pay into the Industrial 
Accident Fund a sum equal to two per cent of the wages earned by all his em- 
ployees. By a supplementary act. approved on February 19, 191 7, the state ap- 
propriations were discontinued and the tax on employers was reduced to one and 
one-half per cent. The amendatory act also fixed a schedule of compensation 
for all classes of injuries, ranging from $75 for the loss of a toe (except the 
great toe) to $1,000 for the loss of an arm above the elbow ot a leg above the 
knee. In cases of permanent total disability the injured person receives $1,400 
if single and $1,600 if married, with $60 per year for each child under the age of 
sixteen years until such child is sixteen. Where the total disability is only 
temporary, the injured workman receives $18 per month if single, $24 if married, 
with an addition of $5 per month for each child under the age of sixteen years, 
until able to resume work. 

In the event of death by accident, the surviving widow or invalid husband is 
entitled to receive $1,200 and $60 per year for each child under sixteen years 
of age until said child reaches the age of sixteen. Fifty dollars for funeral 
expenses are also allowed in addition to the above. 

County assessors are required to furnish the state treasurer with a list of 
employers in their respective counties and the state treasurer collects the i3-< 
per cent assessment. Refusal on the part of any employer to pay the assessment 
subjects him to a fine of not exceeding five hundred dollars. The attorney- 
general is authorized to institute proceedings in the name of the state and if 
judgment is given by the court the assessment is doubled, together with the costs. 

A report of the Workmen's Compensation Department of the state treasurer's 
office for the fifteen months ending on December 31, 1917, shows the receipts to 
have been during that period ( including a balance of $246,502.57 on hand on 
October i, 1916) $520,763.24. During the same period the amount paid in com- 
pensation and expenses of administration was $107,999.80, leaving a balance in the 
Industrial Accident Fund of $412,763.44. 


Two constitutional amendments were submitted to the people by the thirteenth 
Legislature, to wit: One authorizing the investment of the state public funds in 
farm mortgages, and the other providing for the construction and improvement of 
highways by the state. 

Following the recommendations of Governor Kendrick, the Legislature appro- 
priated $5,000 for an experimental farm in Uinta County; $5,000 for another 
in Sweetwater County, and $13,000 for a third one in Goshen County. The 


farms thus established are so located that the soil and climatic conditions in dif- 
ferent parts of the state can be studied and the results made known to farmers 
of all classes. 

By an act approved on February 19, 191 5, a tax of three-eighths of a mill on 
each dollar of the assessed valuation of property throughout the state was levied for 
the purpose of building additions to the capitol at Cheyenne. The capitdl com- 
missioners were authorized to obtain plans and provided for the erection of the 
new wings at the east and, west ends of the building. The commissioners at that 
time were Robert B. Forsyth, Herman B. Gates and James B. True. They 
employed William R. Dubois as architect and the contract for the erection of the 
wings was awarded to John W. Howard. They were completed in 1917. 

The sum of $12,000 was appropriated for the purchase of the military armory 
at Lander, and $10,000 "to be used under the governor's direction" in making 
examinations and surveys of arid lands with a view to their reclamation. 

Another act of this session provided that no woman employed in any manu- 
facturing, mercantile, baking, canning or printing establishment, or in any hotel, 
restaurant or telephone exchange, etc., should be required to work more than 
fifty-six hours in any one week. Any employer violating any of the provisions 
of the act was rendered liable to a fine of from twenty-five to fifty dollars, to 
-which might be added imprisonment in the county jail for a term of not less than 
thirty or more than ninety days. 

County commissioners were given power to acquire real estate for fair grounds, 
parks, and for other purposes, and to maintain and develop the same. They were 
also authorized to render financial assistance to fair associations. 


Under the primary election law of igti, four political state conventions were 
held in Wyoming on May 8, 1 91 6. The republican convention met at Cheyenne 
and was presided over by John Dillon. Dwight E. Hollister, John Hay, Patrick 
Sullivan, Curtis L. Hinkle and Thomas Sneddon were chosen delegates to the 
national convention, and Dr. H. R. Lathrop, C. P. Plummer, Mrs. L. E. Hams- 
berger, C. A. Zaring, H. J. Chassell and T. A. Dunn, alternates. The presidential 
electors nominated were John L. Baird, W. E. Chaplin and Jacob A. Del f elder. 

The democratic convention was held at Casper. The delegates to the national 
convention were : Governor John B. Kendrick, \'ictor T. Johnson, J. J. Cash, 
Peter Kinney, P. J. O'Connor and J. Ross Carpenter. Alternates — Davis Lewis, 
Mrs. T. S. Taliaferro, J. J. Spriggs, N. Farlow, Alexander Nesbit and Mrs. 
Mary G. Bellamy. Benjamin Sheldon, John L. Jordan and T. S. Taliaferro 
were named as presidential electors, but Mr. Sheldon and Mr. Taliaferro were 
afterward succeeded on the ticket by James P. Smith and A. M. Brock. 

The prohibition convention nominated as presidental electors C. J. Sawyer, 
Luther J. Wood and Mrs. Ella Watson, and the socialists nominated Matilda 
Hautamaki, W. S. Oeland and Joseph Dunning. 

The only nominations made by the primary election in August this year were 
the candidates for Laiited States Senator and representative in Congress. For 
United States Senator the republicans nominated Clarence D. Clark for reelection ; 
the democrats selected as their candidate Governor John B. Kendrick: the 


socialists, Paul J. Paulsen; and the prohibitionists, Arthur B. Campbell. Frank 
W. Mondell was again nominated by the republicans for representative in Con- 
gress; John D. Clark was the democratic candidate; the socialists nominated 
George E. Bateman ; and the prohibitionists, Orman C. King. 

In national politics the republicans opened the campaign by holding their 
national convention at Chicago, beginning on the 9th of June. The progressive 
national convention was held at the same time and place and a conference com- 
mittee from the two conventions tried to arrange a plan by which the two parties 
could "get together.' The progressives insisted upon the nomination of Theo- 
dore Roosevelt for President, and after several meetings of the conference 
committee the attempt to establish harmony was abandoned. On the loth the 
republican convention nominated Charles E. Hughes, of Xew York, for President 
on the third ballot, and Charles W. Fairbanks, of Indiana, was named for \'ice 
President. The progressives nominated Theodore Roosexelt for President and 
John M. Parker, of Louisiana, for Vice President. Roosevelt declined to accept 
the nomination and the national committee of the party then indorsed the candidacy 
of Hughes and Fairbanks 

President Wilson and \'ice President Marshall were both renominated by 
acclamation by the democratic national convention, which met at St. Louis on 
June 14, 1916. 

The prohibition candidates for President and \'ice I'resident were J. Frank 
Hanley, of Indiana, and Ira Landrith, of ^lassachusetts. Allan J. Benson, of 
New York, was nominated by the socialists for President and George R. Kirk- 
patrick, of New Jersey, for Vice President, 

At the general election on November 7, 191 6, the democratic presidential electors 
carried the state, receiving 28,316 votes to 21,698 for the republican electors, 
1,453 for the socialists, and ^7^ for the prohibitionists. Governor Kendrick 
defeated Clarence D, Clark for United States Senator by a vote of 26,324 to 23,258. 
Frank W. Mondell was again elected to Congress by a plurality of 537. Two 
constitutional amendments were adopted by substantial majorities — one authoriz- 
ing the investment of the public school funds in farm mortgages and the other 
relating to the construction and improvement of highways by the state. 


On Tuesday. January 9, 1917, the fourteenth State Legislature was convened 
at the capitol in Cheyenne, Joseph W. Todd, of Johnson County, was elected 
president of the Senate, and W, K, Jones, of Laramie County was chosen speaker 
of the House, The session lasted until February 17th. In his message, Governor 
Kendrick reviewed thoroughly the condition of the state finances and the public 
institutions, and devoted considerable attention to the 


"Within the last decade," said the governor, "there has been a tremendous 
reversal of opinion throughout our country upon the economic aspects of the 
liquor traffic. There has never been anv question as to the moral issues involved, 
nor as to the desirability of prohibition from that standpoint. But the new angle 


from which the traffic has been attacked has developed a veritable wave of 
negative sentiment, until today. W yoming stands in a vast dry area, as the one 
state which permits the sale of intoxicants with little or no restriction. 

"In view of the many petitions presented to the Legislature two years ago 
and the great interest manifested by the people in the question during the last 
election, I am confident that there is a growing conviction in the minds of the 
people of Wyoming, that the time has come for the state to move into line with her 
neighbors. Therefore, I earnestly favor early action on the part of the Legis- 
lature at this session which will afford the citizens of the state an opportunity to 
vote upon this question. In fact, the right to vote upon this, as upon every other 
vital public issue, involves one of the fundamental principles of our government. 
All of which makes clear the part of duty and indicates an obligation resting with 
the Legislature which is but little less than mandatory." 

In response to the governor's recommendations upon this subject, the Legis- 
lature passed an act, approved on January 20. 1917, submitting the following 
constitutional amendment to the people at the general election in igi8: 

"Section i. On and after the first day of January, 1920, the manufacture, sale 
and keeping for sale of malt, \inous or spirituous liquors, wine, ale, porter, beer 
or any intoxicating drink, mixture or preparation of like nature, except as herein- 
after provided, are hereby prohibited in this state. Provided, however, that the 
manufacture and sale and keeping for sale of such liquors for medicinal, pharma- 
ceutical, mechanical, sacramental and scientific purposes, and the manufacture 
and sale of denatured alcohol for industrial purposes may be permitted under 
such regulations as the Legislature may prescribe. The Legislature shall, without 
delay, enact such laws, with regulations, conditions, securities and penalties as 
may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this section." 


On this subject the governor said in his message : "In a new and sparsely 
settled state of widely separated communities, no problem is more important than 
that involving the construction and maintenance of highways. Congress, a few 
months ago, passed a measure providing Federal aid in the building of high- 
ways in the difi'erent states. At the last election, the voters of Wyoming adopted 
an amendment to the constitution making it possible for our state to participate 
in this Federal aid, and the responsibility now devolves upon the Legislature of 
providing the necessary machinery for working out the best plan for participation. 
* * * A highway commission should be provided, with an active secretary 
who would be the principal executive, who would give his entire time to the 
work, and who would, among other qualifications, be a competent civil engineer.'' 

An act creating a state highw-ay comnn'ssion was approved by Governor Kend- 
rick on February 19. 1917, two days after the adjournment of the Legislature. 
r,y the provisions of that act, the state was divided into five highway districts, 
to wit: I. The counties of Laramie, Albany, Platte and Goshen; 2. The counties 
of Carbon, Sweetwater, Uinta and Lincoln ; 3. The counties of Niobrara, Con- 
verse, Natrona and Fremont ; 4. The counties of Hot Springs. Washakie, Bighorn 
and Park ; 5. The counties of Sheridan. Johnson. Campbell. Crook and \^'eston. 

The governor was authorized to appoint a commission of five members, one 


from each of the above districts, and not more than three of which should be of 
one political party. Governor Kendrick appointed M. R. Johnston, of Wheatland; 
Joseph Kinney, of Cokeville; Robert D. Carey, of Careyhurst; Gus Holms, of 
Cody; Francis C. Williams, of Sheridan, as the members of the commission from 
the respective districts, and Z. E. Sevison, of Cheyenne, was employed as secre- 
tary and state highway engineer. Although the governor recommended the ap- 
pointment of a commission composed of citizens interested in good roads, who 
would serve without compensation except actual expenses, the act provides that 
each member shall receive an annual salary of $600. 

The act of Congress, approved on July 16, 1916, "to provide that the United 
States shall aid the states in the construction of rural post roads," etc., was ac- 
cepted by the Wyoming Legislature and the state highway commission was 
authorized to enter into contracts with the United States Government relating to 
the construction and maintenance of public highways, the roads thus designated 
and improved in cooperation with the United States department of agriculture to 
be known as "state roads." 

By an act of the fourteenth Legislature, approved on the last day of January, 
191 7. a state flag was adopted. The flag is thus described : 

"Be it enacted, etc., That a state flag be, and is hereby, adopted to be used on 
all occasions when the state is officially and publicly represented, with the 
privilege of use by all citizens upon such occasions as they may deem fitting and 
appropriate. The width of said flag shall be seven-tenths of its length ; the outside 
border to be in red, the width of which shall be one-twentieth of th^ length of 
the flag; next to said border shall be a stripe of white on the four sides of the 
field, which shall be in width one-fortieth the length of said flag. The remainder 
of said flag to be a blue field in the center of which shall be a white silouetted 
buffalo, the length of which shall be one-half the length of said blue field ; the 
other measurements of said buffalo to be in proportion to its length. On the 
ribs of said buffalo shall be the great seal of Wyoming in blue. Said seal shall 
be in diameter one-fifth the length of said flag. Attached to the flag shall be a 
cord of gold with gold tassels. The colors to be used in said flag as red, white and 
blue shall be the same colors used in the flag of the United States of America." 

Section 2 of the act provides that "All penalties provided by the laws of this 
state for the misuse of the national flag shall be applicable to this flag," and 
section 3 sets forth that the act shall be in force from and after its passage. 

On the same day that this act was approved, the governor approved another 
act designating the castillia linariaefolia or "Indian Paint Brush" as the state 
flower of Wyoming. 


Among the laws of a general nature passed at this session was one providing 
that no new county should be organized, nor any organized county already es- 
tablished so reduced as to contain fewer than three thousand bona fide inhabitants 
and have an assessed valuation of less than five million dollars. 


An appropriation of $750 was made for the purpose of removing Jim Baker's 
cabin from Carbon County to Cheyenne, to preserve it as a rehc of Wyoming's 
early days ; a branch fish hatchery was ordered to be established at Daniel, Lincoln 
County ; cities and towns were authorized to establish zoological gardens, in or 
within five miles of said town or city, and the state game commission was directed 
to furnish any city or town establishing such a garden with animals and birds, 
the cost of collecting the same to be borne by the town or city making the request. 

A resolution was adopted commending President Wilson for his action in 
severing diplomatic relations with the German Government, and recommending 
■ that all able-bodied male citizens between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one 
years be compelled to take at least one year of intensive military training. That 
resolution was adopted several weeks before the Congress of the United States 
declared war against Germany, but it shows the trend of public opinion in 
Wyoming at that time. After the declaration of war, Wyoming was one of the 
first states in the Union to pledge, by her action, the loyalty of her citizens to 
the national administration. 


Governor John B. Kendrick resigned his office on February 26, 1917, to enter 
the United States Senate, and on the same day Frank L. Hou.x, secretary of 
state, by virtue of his office, became acting governor. 

Frank L. Houx was bom near Lexington, Mo., December 12, i860. His 
early education was acquired in the common schools, after which he attended 
business college in Kansas City and then read law for two years. From 1876 to 
1885 he was employed in commercial pursuits. He then went to Montana, where 
for ten years he was engaged in the cattle business. In 1895 he removed to 
Cody, Wyo., then a young town, and engaged in real estate and fire insurance, at 
the same time taking a keen interest in irrigation projects. He was elected the 
first mayor of Cody when the town was incorporated in 1901 ; was police judge 
during the years 1902-03; was elected mayor again in 1905 and held the office 
continuously for four years; was elected secretary of state in 1910 and reelected 
in 1914. When Governor Kendrick resigned, Mr. Houx assumed the duties of 


The principal activities of Governor Houx's administration were in connection 
with the "World War.'' Congress passed the declaration of war on April 6, 1917, 
and soon afterward the President called upon the governors of the different 
states to recommend persons to serve on the boards having charge of the regis- 
tration of men for the selective draft. Governor Houx recommended members 
of these boards in each of the twenty-one counties of the state. His recommenda- 
tion virtually amounted to an appointment. 

To carry on the work of the war, each state appointed a "Council for National 
Defense" to act in harmony with the Federal authorities and carry out their 
orders and suggestions. Governor Houx appointed the Wyoming Council for 
National Defense on April 13, 1917, just a week after the declaration of war. 


As no funds were available for the use of this council, the governor made 
arrangements with a number of the banks in the state to borrow such sums as 
might be necessary from time to time, trusting that the Legislature of 1919 would 
indorse and legalize his acts in this respect and make an emergency appropriation 
to reimburse the banks. Some changes were made during the year 191 7 in the 
membership of the council, which on May i, 1918, was composed as follows: 
Maurice Groshon, Cheyenne ; Robert D. Carey, Careyhurst ; P. C. Spencer, Lan- 
der ; T. C. Diers, Sheridan ; Mrs. R. A. Morton, Cheyenne, H. M. Rollins, Lyman ; 
J. M. Wilson, McKinley ; J. H. Berry, Basin ; J. W. Bozorth, Burns : E. A. 
Swezea, Cheyenne. 

A declaration of war means the raising and equipping of soldiers. L'nder 
Governor Houx's administration, and largely through his personal efforts, the 
Third Regiment of the Wyoming National Guard was recruited to war strength 
of 1,900. It was one of the first volunteer regiments to be offered to the United 
States for service abroad. The regiment was merged with the One Hundred 
and Forty-eighth Field Artillery and the One Hundred and Sixteenth Ammunition 
Train and was ordered to France among the first of the military organizations 
to leave the United States. 

Upon assuming the duties of the chief executive. Acting Governor Houx 
endeavored to enforce the laws of the state fairly and impartially, especially the 
laws aft'ecting public morality. To this end he became a consistent advocate of 
prohibition as one of the means of winning the war. and he encouraged local of- 
ficials in closing up notorious resorts and shortening the hours that saloons could 
keep open during each twenty-four hours. 

A few months after Mr. Houx became acting governor, the State Board of 
School Land Commissioners, composed of the secretary and treasurer of state and 
the superintendent of public instruction, adopted the policy of placing all the 
income derived from the state lands into a permanent fund, the proceeds of 
which are to be used for the benefit of the public schools and other state educa- 
tional institutions. This ruling was made to apply with special force to the 
oil lands. The time may come when the yield of oil will decrease to such an 
extent that the fields can no longer be profitably worked, but under this decision 
of the land board the state will have reaped its share of the profits, which will 
form the basis of a fund for the education of the young people of Wyoming in the 
vears to come. 





In the constitution of tlie State of \\"yoming there is the following: 


"Sec. 1 8. Such charitable, reformatory and penal institutions, as the claims 
of humanity and the public good may require, shall be established and supported 
by the state in such manner as the Legislature may prescribe. They shall be under 
the general supervision of a State Board of Charities and Reform, whose duties 
and powers shall be prescribed by law. 

"Sec. 19. The property of all charitable and penal institutions belonging 
to the Territory of Wyoming shall, upon the adoption of this Constitution, become 
the property of the State of Wyoming, and such of said institutions as are then in 
actual operation shall thereafter have the supervision of the Board of Charities 
and Reform as provided in the last preceding section of this article, under pro- 
visiojis of the Legislature.'' 

The First State Legislature of Wyoming therefore created the State Board 
of Charities and Reform by an act approved January 8, 1891. By this act it 
was decreed that "the State Treasurer, State Auditor and State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction shall constitute and shall hereafter be known as the State Board 
of Charities and Reform," with "general supervision and control of all «uch 
charitable, reformatory and penal institutions as may be established and sup- 
ported by the State." 

The establishment of this board brought order out of chaos in many ways. The 
first board, which was composed of Otto Gramm, state treasurer: Charles W. 
Burdick, state auditor: and S. T. Farwell, state' superintendent of public in- 
struction, immediately assumed jurisdiction over the state insane asylum at 
Evanston, the state penitentiary at Laramie, prisoners in other penitentiaries, 
juvenile delinquents in schools outside of the state and the deaf and blind who 
were also cared for outside the state boundaries. 


In 1896 the board was increased from three to five members. The board 
members in 1915-6 were: John B. Kendrick, governor; Edith K. O. Clark, super- 
intendent of public instruction; Frank L. Houx, secretary of state; Herman B. 
Gates, state treasurer; and Robert B. Forsyth, and jurisdiction was assumed over 
the state hospital for the insane at Evanston, the Wyoming state penitentiary at 
Rawlins, the Wyoming Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Buffalo, the Big Horn 
Hot Springs Reserve, the Wyoming General Hospital at Rock Springs, the 
Casper and Sheridan branches of the general hospital, the Wyoming School for 
Defectives at Lander and the Wyoming Industrial Institute at Worland. 

In the following paragraphs something of the growth and development of the 
state institutions under the management of the State Board of Charities and 
Reform is given. 


In the year 1887 the insane asylum was located at the Town of Evanston and 
completed during the same year. The control was vested in a board of commis- 
sioners, which board first consisted of A. C. Beckwith, C. D. Clark and William 

It was in the previous year that the asylum was ordered built. The act for this 
purpose was approved March 9, 1886, and ordered the institution to be constructed 
at Evanston, at a cost not exceeding $30,000. Bonds to that amount, "or so much 
thereof as may be necessary," were ordered, with the provision that none of the 
bonds should be sold for less than their par value. 

The Legislature of 1888 passed the noted act in regard to public buildings 
over the veto of Governor Moonlight. This act provided for the "erection, 
completion, maintenance and care of certain public buildings and provided for 
the support and maintenance of certain public institutions." The capitol building, 
the penitentiary building, the insane asylum and the poor farm buildings were af- 
fected by this act. There were delays since the original bill of 1886 and the 
legislators in framing the act of 1888 were desirous of hastening the completion 
of the buildings in question. Governor Moonlight took the view that the territory 
could not afford the heavy tax which such a course would create and by many 
authorities he was upheld. However, despite his official veto, the bill was passed 
the second time and became a law. 

The first report of the State Board of Charities and Reform gave the number 
of patients at the institution as twenty-three — fourteen men and nine women. 
Facilities for the treatment of inmates were none too many and the system of 
financing the care of the patients was yet in unsatisfactory state. The various 
counties which had residents at the asylum bore the expense and the board of 
control experienced difficulty freciuently in obtaining the money due. However, 
the first report of the State Board of Charities and Reform mentions the fact that 
after December 31, 1891, the insane patients became a state charge and that the 
funds realized from the state tax would be available for the expense of the in- 
stitution for the year 1892, "but all expense previous to the year 1892 is a charge 
against the counties as provided in section 4, chapter 93, Laws of 1890-91." On 
the first day of August, 1891, per appointment of the board. Dr. C. H. Solier 
assumed charge of the asylum. 


Under the new management, the insane asyknn began a noticeable improvement. 
Quarters were improved gradually, new methods of treatment were inaugurated 
and the number of patients increased with the growing population of the state. 
By an act of the fourth Legislature, which met on January 12, 1897, the name of 
the State Insane Asylum was changed to The Wyoming State Hospital for the 

In 1907 the sum of $50,000 was appropriated for the erection of a woman's 
building, the number of patients justifying such an improvement. \\'ork upon 
this building was begun during the summer of igo8 and was completed in 1910. 
The women were transferred to their new quarters, known as "Brook's Cottage,'' 
on January 27, 1910. 

The report of Doctor .Solier for the biennial period ending September 30. 1916, 
places the number of patients treated during that period as 325. New buildings 
are either under construction or contemplated in order to accommodate the rapidly 
growing number of patients. The institution is conducted in the manner of similar 
institutions in the United States. 


Governor Campbell, in his message of October 13, 1869, stated: 
"By an act of Congress, approved January 22, 1867, the proceeds of the internal 
revenue in certain territories of the United States, to the amount of $40,000 in 
each, were set aside for the purpose of erecting penitentiaries at such places in the 
several territories as might be selected by their respective Legislatures. Under an 
arrangement I have entered into with the superintendent of the House of Cor- 
rection, at Detroit, Mich., for the confinement and subsistence of prisoners 
convicted in our territorial courts, the details of which will be submitted to you 
for your approval or disapproval, all criminals must be transported to Detroit 
at considerable expense or with great liability of their escaping. From motives of 
economy and prudence, we should have a penitentiary at some accessible point 
in our territory and it would be well for you to select a site for a penitentiary at 
your present session, in order that should Congress pass a law authorizing the 
retaining of any sum from the internal revenue collected in the territory for the 
purpose of building the penitentiary the work may be proceeded with without de- 
lay. The Territory of Dakota has thus far reaped the benefit of the revenue col- 
lected in what now forms the Territory of Wyoming." On December 8, 1869, Gov- 
ernor Campbell approved a memorial asking Congress to appropriate "a sum not 
less than $60,000" for the erection of a penitentiary at Laramie City. 

In the very early days jails were erected at various places in the territory and 
the sheriffs were held personally responsible for the prisoners in their keeping. The 
territorial penitentiary, when located by the Legislature at Laramie City, brought 
some relief to this situation. Congress was memoriahzed that the territory had 
been neglected, had been deprived of the internal revenue income for a large 
portion of 1867, all of 1868 and the greater part of 1869, during which time the 
internal revenue of Wyoming had gone to Dakota, and for which loss the Legis- 
lature asked reimbursement. A second memorial declared that in and about 
Sweetwater mining region and on the border of the Shoshone reservation, set 
apart by Gen. W. T. Sherman and his commissioners in 1868, were congregated 


many of the criminal class, who carried on a continual campaign of robbery and 
depredation. Some assistance had been given the authorities by the military posts 
at Fort Bridger and the camp on the Popo Agie, but these had now refused to 
take care of any more criminals in the guard houses. 

The penitentiary at Laramie City was completed in the year 1872, but un- 
fortunately was destroyed by fire within less than a year's time. It was only 
partially rebuilt and soon after an act of Congress approved January 24, 1873, 
provided "that the custody and control of certain territorial penitentiaries exercised 
by the United States marshals of the territories be transferred to the respective 
territories to be managed and directed by them, etc.'" 

These provisions extended to Wyoming, but no provisions were made by the 
laws of the territory for control until December 13, 1873, when Governor Campbell 
approved an act "That in the event of the closing up or abandonment of the 
penitentiary of this territory, located at or near Laramie City, in the County of 
Albany, by the authorities of the United States, the sheriflf of Albany County 
take charge of all prisoners therein." On December 11, 1875, a commission was 
appointed, consisting of Herman Haas, James France and W. H. Holliday, to in- 
vestigate the cost of keeping prisoners at Laramie City and at other prisons. The 
result of their investigations was that the Legislature of 1879 named the Nebraska 
penitentiary to be the territorial penitentiary of Wyoming. 

On December 15, 1877, the governor appointed Luke Murrin of Laramie 
County, Simon Durlacher of Albany and Thomas Lanktree of Uinta as a com- 
mission to take charge and control of all prisoners and the penitentiary at Laramie. 
As late as 1884 a penitentiary commission existed in the Territory of Wyoming. 

On December 13, i88g, another act was approved, creating a board of three 
citizens of the territory, to select a penitentiary or prison for Wyoming convicts, 
but without authority to contract for the keeping of prisoners at Laramie at 
greater cost to the territory than could be made outside of the territory. This 
act also provided for the erection, completion, maintenance and care of certain 
public buildings and institutions, including the capitol, penitentiary, university, 
insane asylum and poor farm. Section 19 of the bill provided that "a penitentiary 
building for the use of the territory shall be erected in or near the city of Rawlins 
at a cost not exceeding $100,000.'' The sum of $30,000 was set aside out of this 
amount for the purchase of the site and the commissioners were authorized to 
build all of the penitentiary at once or part. 

The penitentiary building at Laramie City, which had never been fully rebuilt 
since the fire, had become a burden upon the people and was far from popular. 
Convicts were sent outside of the territory, the Laramie building being considered 
inadecjuate. However, it became necessary that a certain number of prisoners 
be received at Laramie, pending the construction of the building at Rawlins and in 
November, i8gi, there are officially recorded thirty prisoners therein. 

By the year 1893 the sum of $31,844.41 had been expended upon the Rawlins 
penitentiary. A tax levy was authorized in this year for the erection of a portion 
of the building and George East was awarded the contract for $44,740. The 
third State Legislature, of 1895, authorized a special tax for 1895-96 for the 
completion of the building. After the State Board of Charities and Refomi had 
advertised for bids the contract was let September 14, 1895, to Robert W. Bradley 
of Cheyenne, h's figure being $26,801.90. Again the building was not fully com- 

Herhert Coffwn (.'nllectiun 



i ft i nil; 

- ai 



pleted and in June, 1898, the board gave a third contract to the firm of Black & 
Clark of Cheyenne, for $4,064, for the absolute completion of the Rawlins Peni- 
tentiary. Under this arrangement the building was finished. 

The old penitentiary building at Laramie was transferred to the University of 
Wyoming for the use of its agricultural college by legislative act approved Febru- 
ary 9, 1907. The building is used by the school as an experiment station. 

The penitentiary at Rawlins has been improved at various times since the 
completion of the building and is operated in modern and efficient manner by the 
State Board of Charities and Reform. A broom factory building was con- 
structed by convict labor in 1913. New dining rooms, kitchen, bakery, chapel 
and hospital have also been constructed recently by the prisoners, for which 
improvements the Legislature of 191 5 made appropriations. Convict labor has 
also been used extensively in building and improving roads throughout the state. 
The prison population averages over 250 now, where thirty years ago twenty-five 
prisoners was considered a large number. 


In company with most of the other states of the Union, Wyoming has provided 
a comfortable home for those of her soldiers and sailors unable to support them- 
selves. The movement toward the establishment of such a home began in the year 
1895, when Governor Richards recommended a place of abode for the state's veter- 
ans, wherein they might spend the last days of their lives in comfort at the expense 
of the state. In the same message he suggested the use of the building erected 
for the deaf, dumb and blind at Cheyenne. This building had not been used for the 
latter purpose, as the limited number of deaf and blind in the state had been 
educated in Colorado institutions. 

The third Legislature, 1895, recognized the value of such a home and ap- 
propriated $7,500 for establishing and maintaining the same for the years 1895 
and 1896, at the same time donating 30,000 acres of land as a permanent endow- 
ment. The building selected was enlarged and made to accommodate thirty-five 
or forty inmates. By December 7, 1896, twenty-seven veterans had been admitted 
to the home. 

Pursuant to an act of the Legislature of 1903, approved February 20th, the 
home was moved from Cheyenne to the Fort McKinney Reservation. The 
soldiers were transferred to their new quarters in July of that year. L^pon the 
extensive acres of this new home many farming activities are carried on, also 
stock raising to some extent. 

The value of the products of this farm almost pay the entire expenses of the 
institution, thus lessening the burden upon the taxpayers. At this writing there 
are thirty members of the soldiers' and sailors' home. 


The first Legislature of the State of Wyoming, which convened November 12, 
1890, and continued sixty days, provided that there should be established a hos- 
pital for disabled miners and enacted that the location for this institution should 
be determined by popular vote at the November election of 1892. Rock Springs 


in Sweetwater County, was selected by the people for the site of the new hospital. 
The second Legislature authorized special tax levies for the years 1893 and 
1894, the proceeds of the former to be used for the erection of the hospital and 
of the latter to be used for the maintenance of the same. 

The building was erected according to plans, and the third Legislature author- 
ized a special tax of one-eighth mill on all taxable property in the state for the 
year 1895 and each year thereafter. The name, as officially adopted, was the 
"Wyoming General Hospital." Something of the popularity of this institution 
and the need for such is well illustrated by the fact that during the first year over 
3,000 patients were treated. 

On the morning of January 4. 181)7. ^^"^ broke out in the hospital and before 
sufficient assistance could be secured in fighting the flames the entire building 
was burned. The patients, however, were removed to safety and the furniture 
was all saved. The mayor and city council of Rock Springs graciously tendered 
the use of the second story of the city hall for the patients and this offer was 
gladly accepted by the hospital force. Fortunately, insurance amounting to 
$75,000 was available and with a like amount appropriated by the fourth Legis- 
lature, of 1897, made a sufficient sum for the rebuilding of the hospital. The board 
of charities and reform accepted the plans drawn by J. S. Matthews, architect, 
and on August 30, 1897, gave the contract to James R. Grimes of Cheyenne. The 
new building was erected and first occupied May 15, 1898. 

The Legislature of 1901 enacted a law authorizing the board of charities and 
reform to build and equip a nurses' dormitory, for which a special tax was 
levied in 1901 and 1902. This was built and in 1914 was enlarged. .A two-story 
wing, which included a new kitchen, was added to the hospital building in 1908. 

The Wyoming General Hospital now has an average of o\er twenty-five 
patients each day. 


The branch of the \\'yoming General Hospital located at Sheridan was pro- 
vided for by the Legislature of 1903. The board of charities and reform secured 
a tract of ground, 300 by 400 feet, which was block 5 in Westview Addition to 
Sheridan, by donation, and then gave the contract for the erection of the hospital 
to E. C. Williams of Sheridan, whose bid was $19,300. The hospital was con- 
structed to accommodate thirty patients. The institution was opened for the 
reception of patients July 7, 1905, and during the period until September 30, 
1905, there were fifty-eight people brought here for treatment. There is an 
average daily attendance of patients now of about twenty. At first, a nearby 
home was leased for the nurses at a rental of $375 per year. This home was 
purchased in 1908 for $5,000, also a wing was added to the hospital building. 
The twelfth Legislature authorized the expenditure of $12,000 for a new nurses' 
home and this was constructed in the same year. 

The tenth Legislature, 1909, passed a bill known as Chapter 20, Session Laws, 
1909, providing for the construction of a branch of the Wyoming General Hos- 
pital at Casper. An appropriation of $22,500 was made for this purpose. The 
Town of Casper agreed to donate the site for the hospital. Some difficulty was 
experienced in securing satisfactory bids for the construction of this hospital, but 


finally, after all bids had been repeatedly rejected, one of $22,204 was accepted 
and the work proceeded. The average daily attendance at Casper is six, with a 
total of about two hundred and fifty treated during the year. 


Something of the earlier history of the Big Horn hot springs is given in con- 
nection with the history of Hot Springs County in another chapter. This health 
resort has, in recent years, grown with great speed and is becoming the mecca for 
health-seekers from the entire Middle West. Governor Richards, in his message 
to the Legislature in 1895, stated : 

"Upon the east bank of the Big Horn River, in the northeast corner of the 
Shoshone Indian Reservation, are situated the Big Horn Hot Springs, which have 
medicinal qualities second to no other springs in the United States. Ten years 
ago these springs were known only to the range rider and hunter as natural 
curiosities. Some health-seeking invalid tested their medicinal virtues and was 
healed. Since that day the fame of these springs has increased. * * * With 
proper accommodations for visitors and a small outlay for improvements, these 
springs would soon attain a world-wide reputation, and prove of great benefit to 
the state, in addition to being a boon to sufifering humanity. * * * i recom- 
mend that the Legislature, by a memorial or otherwise, invite the attention of 
Congress, and especially our own members thereof, to the advisability of having 
the Indian title extinguished to the small portion of the reservation containing 
these springs, and that such legislation be enacted as will secure them to the people 
forever, with as few restrictions and as little expense as possible." 

In accordance with the above recommendation. Congress donated these springs 
to the State of Wyoming, giving the state exclusive control over them for all time. 
The Session Laws of Wyoming for 1899 state: 

"The lands granted by the act of Congress, approved on the 7th day of 
June, A. D. 1807. ceding to the State of Wyoming certain lands in the northeastern 
portion of the Shoshone Indian Reservation, upon which are located the Big 
Horn Hot Springs, are hereby placed upon the control of the State Board of Char- 
ities and Reform and are forever set aside for the treatment and care of diseases 
and for sanitary and charitable purposes." 

Early in 1902 bids were received for the construction of a free bath house. 
However, owing to many difficulties, not until October 7th was the contract let 
to Jerry Ryan, of Thermopolis, for a building to cost $2,525. This bath house 
was designed for the use of a portion of the waters of the main spring. Since 
the opening of the springs many improvements have been made each year. 
Hotels and bath houses, attractive landscapes, trees, flowers, walks, fences and 
cottages have been added. The resort is becoming the "Baden-Baden of the 
West," and with the improvements which are to come in the next few years, will 
undoubtedly become one of the most popular stopping-places of the Rocky 
Mountain region. On the east side of the river is the Maret House and the free 
bath house, located at the' Big Spring, while on the west side are the Pleasant 
View Hotel and bath house and the new Hopewell Hospital. The state has leased 
sites for twelve more large buildings, the cheapest of which will cost $25,000. 
The state has also constructed a hot and cold water system of waterworks. 



The ninth Legislature, 1907. passed a bill known as Chapter 104, House Hill 
No. 70, being an act to establish a home and training school for the feeble-minded 
and epileptic, and assigning the lands and property of the state poor farm for 
that purpose, also making an appropriation aggregating $15,000. The property 
considered, which was located near the Town of Lander, was turned over to the 
Board of Charities and Reform, with instructions that it be used for the purpose 
indicated by the bill. 

However, the old poor farm property was located fully four miles from 
town and presented hygienic difficulties which made it highly desirable that it 
be sold and a tract of ground nearer Lander acquired. This question was dis- 
cussed by the authorities, with the result that the tenth Legislature autliorized the 
board to sell the old property and obtain new ground. The state poor farm site 
was finally sold for $6,000. The board then purchased ninety-four acres of land 
one-half mile northeast of Lander for $6,000 and let the contract for the con- 
struction of the building for $43,197. 

Before the establishment of the School for Defectives, such patients were 
cared for outside of the state. The number within the boundaries of Wyoming 
hardly justified the erection of a local home until 1907. The last report of the 
superintendent gave the number of inmates as 116, mostly young boys and girls. 


Prior to the year 1911 all the juvenile delinquents of ^^'yoming were sent to 
Colorado schools, the males to the State Industrial School at Golden and the 
females to the Good Shepherd Industrial School at Denver. Occasionally delin- 
quent youths were sent to the Washington School for Defective Youth at Van- 

The Legislature of 191 1 passed an "Act providing for the establishment of a 
reform institution within the state to be known as 'The Wyoming Industrial 
Institute' and making an appropriation therefor, and providing the means of its 
location." This bill authorized a special tax levy, which amounted to $140,617.99, 
and gave the people the right to decide the location of the school at the Xovember, 
1912, general election. At this election the majoritv of votes were polled for 
Worland. in Washakie County, and this town was therefore chosen as the site for 
the new industrial school. The twelfth Legislature, 1913, passed another bill 
providing for the purchase of land and made a further appropriation of $40,000. 

The board of charities and reform finally purchased 960 acres of land, located 
three miles south of Worland, for $53,200, at an average price of $55 per acre. 
Upon the land the state convicts were put to work, clearing the ground, building 
roads, erecting shelters and beginning the production of crops. In 1913 the board 
secured plans for a large main building, power house and barn. The contract 
for the main building and power house was let for $116,353. 

All of the boys from the Golden school have been transfeVred to the new 
Worland Institute, hut the girls are yet maintained at the Good Shepherd School 
in Denver. 



At the present time the State of Wyoming has no state school for the deaf, 
dumb and bhnd. 

By an act of the Legislature, approved March ii, 1886, there was created an 
institute to be located at Cheyenne for the deaf, dumb and blind, but it was 
"provided that no institute shall be opened until there are twelve pupils ready 
and that will enter said school, and when the number of pupils shall fall below 
the number of eight, then said institution shall close." Three trustees were ap- 
pointed by the governor. A building was constructed, but was never used for 
the education of deaf, dumb and blind pupils. The number in the territory and 
state never justified such a course. All such cases were cared for in schools 
outside of Wyoming. 

Finally, by an act approved February 9, 1907, "the buildings and premises 
of the state deaf, dumb and blind asylum at Cheyenne" were temporarily set 
aside for use as military headquarters of the state, office of the adjutant-general, 
and for storage and care of military supplies. The building is now used in 
this way. 

Deaf, dumb and blind pupils of Wyoming are now educated at Colorado 
Springs, Colorado ; Ogden. Utah ; Boulder, ^Montana ; Omaha, Nebraska ; and 
Nebraska City, Nebraska. The last report of the Board of Charities and Reform 
gives a total of twenty-four pupils in these various locations. 


On March 4, 1886, Governor Warren approved an act providing that "a 
capitol building, for the use of the territor}'. shall be erected in the City of 
Cheyenne, the capital of the territory, at a cost not exceeding the sum of $150,000.'' 
By the provisions of this act the governor was authorized to appoint a building 
commission of five members, which should acquire a site by donation or other- 
wise, approve plans and award the contract for the construction of the building. 
Six per cent bonds to the amount of $150,000 were authorized also, not more 
than $25,000 of which should be issued at any one time, payable twenty-five years 
after date of issue, although the territory was given the option of redeeming 
one-tenth of the bonds at the end of fifteen years and one-tenth annually until all 
were paid. 

Governor Warren appointed a capitol commission consisting of Erasmus 
Nagle, Charles N. Potter, Nathaniel R. Davis, Morton E. Post and Nicholas J. 
O'Brien. This commission erected the central portion of the capitol according 
to plans supplied by D. W. Gibbs & Company, A. Feick & Company being awarded 
the contract. 

Then came the additional appropriation for the capitol, amounting to $125,000, 
which was a part of the bill which the Legislature passed over Governor Moon- 
light's veto. The governor claimed that the additions contemplated would cost 
more than the af)propriation and that the building as it stood was sufficient for 
territorial needs until the people could bear the cost of construction without 
assuming undue burdens of taxation. The bill was passed over the governor's 
objections, however, and Mr. Moonlight appointed as capitol commissioners 


Lawrence J. Bresnahan, George W. Baxter, John C. Baird, Arthur Poole and 
Andrew Gilchrist. The Council refused for a time to confirm the appointment 
of Mr. Bresnahan and rejected Mr. Baxter outright. The governor then named 
Thomas A. Kent to take the place of Baxter. Mr. Bresnahan was elected chair- 
man o-f the commission and Mr. Baird was chosen secretary. D. W. Gibbs & 
Company were again employed as architects and the contract was awarded to 
Moses P. Keefe. The additions were completed in 1890. 

On February 19, 191 5, Governor John B. Kendrick approved the act authoriz- 
ing the construction of additional wings at the east and west ends of the capitol 
building. The act provided for the levying of a tax of "three-eighths of a mill 
on each and every dollar of the assessed valuation * * * (-q constitute a 
fund in the state treasury to be used under the authority and direction of the 
state capitol commission in the erection and completion of suitable additions 
to the state capitol building." 

The state capitol commission was then composed of Robert B. Forsyth, 
Herman B. Gates and James B. True. They employed William R. Dubois as 
architect, and the contract for the erection of the wings was awarded to John 
W. Howard. The additions were completed late in the year 1917. The total 
ccst of the capitol building has been $413,779.13 to May 15, 1918, though these 
figures do not include the improvement of the grounds. 

The architectural style of the Wyoming capitol is classic, the general outline 
resembling the national capitol at Washington, D. C. The building occupies a 
commanding site, bounded by Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth streets, Carey 
and Central avenues, the main entrance facing Capitol Avenue, the most beautiful 
street in the city, extending southward from the capitol to the Union Pacific Rail- 
road station. 








Wyoming was settled and organized at a date too late to participate in any of 
the nation's early wars, but the state has nevertheless been the scene of military 
expeditions, conflicts with the Indians, etc., and the site of military posts of 
more or less historic importance. The first United States soldiers in what is 
now Wyoming were those forming the little detachment of twenty men who 
accompanied Fremont on his first exploring expedition in 1842. A few years 
later came the tide of emigration from the older states to the Pacific Coast, and 
with it came a demand for military protection along the line of the Oregon Trail. 
After a long and tiresome discussion. Congress passed an act providing for 
certain military stations along the route. This act, which was approved by 
President Polk on May ig, 1846, appropriated $5,000 for each post established— 
$2,000 to pay for the ground purchased of the Indians and $3,000 for the erection 
of buildings. The line of posts began at the Missouri River and were garrisoned 
by the "Oregon Battalion" of five companies. The battalion was raised in Missouri 
and was commanded by Col. Stephen W. Kearney. Posts were established in 
Nebraska in 1847 and 1848. The next year Lieut. Daniel P. Woodbury, of the 
engineer corps, was authorized to purchase Fort Laramie of the American Fur 
Company and the post was bought for $4,000. This was the first military station 
established in Wyoming by the L'^nited States authorities. 


During the two years following the purchase of Fort Laramie the Indians 
gave very little trouble, and in 1852 the garrison there was reduced to twenty- 
five men, under Lieutenant Fleming. That summer an Indian fired upon the 
sergeant in charge of the ferry over the Laramie River. Lieutenant Fleming took 
twenty-three men (leaving only the ferry sergeant and two others at the fort) 
and went to the Indian village to arrest the offender, who had been recognized. 
The chief happened to be absent and the young braves declared in favor of war 
when Fleming made known through an interpreter the object of his visit. The 


lieutenant advanced with five of his men, shots were exchanged, four Indians 
were killed and two captured without loss on the part of the whites. Later the 
chief surrendered the man who had fired upon the sergeant and the captive 
Indians were released. The incident had the effect, however, of a slight addition 
being made to the garrison. 

The following year a Alormon emigrant reported to Fleming that a Sioux 
Indian, one of Chief Bear's band and a man noted for his evil disposition, had 
killed one of his cattle. Fleming sent Lieutenant Grattan, with twenty-eight men 
and two howitzers, to bring in the Indian. Grattan was just from West Point 
and knew very little of the Indian character and tactics on such occasions. His 
selection to lead the party was a mistake, as Fleming afterward learned to his 
sorrow. Upon arriving at the Sioux camp, Grattan allowed himself to be drawn 
into a parley, which was prolonged until he discovered that his party was about 
to be surrounded by the savages. He ordered a volley to be fired. Chief Bear 
fell mortally wounded and one Indian was killed. The Indians returned the fire 
and the howitzers were then brought into play, but were aimed so high that no 
damage was done by their discharge. The Indians then rushed upon the little 
detachment from all sides, and though the troops fought valiantly, only one man 
escaped to carry the news to the fort. The Indians, incensed by the loss of their 
chief, and realizing that the annihilation of Grattan's company had so weakened 
the garrison at the fort as to render it practically useless, turned their attention 
to the trading posts, several of which were attacked and robbed, after which 
they moved off toward the Black Hills. Three companies of infantry were then 
sent to Fort Laramie, under Maj. William Hoffman, and the garrison was further 
strengthened in 1855. 

Gen. William S. Harney, with 1,500 men, marched against the Sioux Indians 
in the summer of 1855. On the 3d of September he attacked the camp of Little 
Thunder at Ash Hollow, about one hundred miles southeast of Fort Laramie, 
and killed quite a number of women and children and a few warriors. He then 
moved northward to Dakota and in the spring of 1856 held a "peace council'' 
at Fort Pierre, but the Sioux apparently soon forgot the conditions of the agree- 
ment and continued their depredations. General Harney also established Fort 
Randall, in what is now South Dakota, while on this expedition. 

In 1857 an expedition against the Cheyenne Indians was organized at Fort 
Laramie and Port Leavenworth. It was commanded by Col. E. V. Sumner, of 
the First United States Dragoons, and operated chiefly in Kansas and Colorado, 
but it wielded an influence upon the tribes farther north and for the next two 
or three years emigrant trains were permitted to pass through Wyoming without 


During the winter of 1862-63 the tribes inhabiting Wyoming, relying upon 
the fact that the Government was engaged in prosecuting the Civil war, and 
encouraged by the Sioux outbreak in Minnesota the preceding summer, renewed 
their hostile activities along the Overland Route. Several miners were killed 
and emigrant trains were attacked. These demonstrations were made by the 
Bannock and Shoshone Indians under Chief Bear Hunter and some minor chiefs. 


Col. P. E. Connor was ordered to protect the Overland from Fort Kearney, 
Nebraska, to Salt Lake, and early in the year 1863 came into Wyoming. Soon 
after his arrival he began to make inquiries and learned that some of the Indians 
associated with Bear Hunter belonged to Washakie's band, who were supposed 
to be on friendly terms with the whites. The chief explained that he had remon- 
strated with his young men, who argued that the emigrants would be robbed any- 
how, and that they might as well have a share of the plunder. Between Connor 
and the chief, most of these young warriors were induced to abandon Bear 
Hunter's standard, leaving him only about three hundred men with which to 
continue his depredations. Connor also learned that certain Mormons were in 
league with Bear Hunter and furnished him with information concerning every 
movement of the troops, whereupon the new commander hit upon a plan to 
break up Bear Hunter's band before his Mormon friends could learn what was 
going on. 

He knew that Bear Hunter was encamped on the Bear River, near the western 
border of Wyoming. On January 22, 1863, he ordered Captain Hoyt to take 
Company K, Third California Infantry, twelve men of the Second California 
Cavalry, two howitzers under command of Lieutenant Honeyman, and fifteen 
wagons loaded with supplies and reconnoiter the Indian camp. Encumbered 
with a train of fifteen wagons. Captain Hoyt's progress was necessarily slow 
enough to permit the Mormons to get word to the Indians that a comparatively 
small detachment of troops was on the way to the camp. This was precisely 
what Colonel Connor intended. Late on the evening of the 24th he left camp 
with four companies of the Second California Cavalry, and by daylight he 
was nearly seventy miles away. The next day he overtook Captain Hoyt and at 
daybreak on the 29th the entire command was close to the Indian camp. Connor 
sent Major McGarry, with part of the cavalry, to get in the rear of the Indians 
to prevent their escape, but the ground was such that the camp could not be 
surrounded and his movement was discovered. The Indians, thinking this was 
the small force mentioned by the Mormons, rushed upon McGarry, who dis- 
mounted his men and poured a withering fire into the ranks of the approaching 
redskins. Hearing the firing, Connor brought up the main body of the cavalry 
and the howitzers also began their deadly work. The Indians retreated into a 
ravine, but Major McGarry succeeded in turning their flank and driving them 
out. As they emerged from the ravine they were ruthlessly shot down by the 
cavalrymen. The fight lasted about four hours, the Indians suffering a loss of 
224 killed, and the guards stationed along the river before the engagement com- 
menced reported that twenty-five others were killed while trying to cross the 
stream. Connor's loss was fourteen killed and fifty-three wounded. Upon Gen- 
eral Halleck's recommendation. Colonel Connor was promoted to brigadier-general, 
his commission dating from March 29, 1863. Bear Hunter's band was com- 
pletely broken up. 

About the first of April, 1863, a band of Ute Indians, that had been annoying 
the stage line beyond Salt Lake, came into Wyoming. On the 3d the station at 
Sweetwater, guarded by twenty-six men of the Sixth Ohio Cavalry, was attacked, 
but the Indians were driven off. One trooper was slightly wounded. Ten days 
after this attack General Connor sent the following telegram to General Hal- 
leck : "Unless immediately reinforced with cavalry, the Indians, urged on by 


the Mormons, will break up the Overland Mail and make the emigrant road 

Halleck referred the matter to General Schofield, commanding the Depart- 
ment of the Missouri, who ordered Maj. E. W. Wyncoop to reinforce Connor 
with four companies of the First Colorado Cavalry. Two troops under Major 
Wyncoop's command were neither mounted nor equipped and this caused a delay 
in carrying out the order. General Connor grew somewhat impatient and on the 
28th wrote to the commander of the Department of the Pacific that the Indians 
were congregating in the vicinity of the Mormon settlement south of Fort 
Laramie, that they were encouraged by Brigham Young, who was supplying 
them with arms and ammunition, and that there was no doubt that Young's object 
was to force the Overland into a contract with him to protect the line for a certain 
sum, etc. He asked for reinforcements, and closed his letter by saying: "Send 
me the men ; I will do the rest." 

Reinforcements were sent and Fort Halleck, a short distance west of the 
Medicine Bow Mountains, was established. Early in June Connor made a peace 
agreement with one of the leading Shoshone bands, and it was not long until 
other bands begged for peace. Late in July the Ute disturbers also sued for peace 
and for the time the Overland was safe. Connor had fulfilled his promise. 


Just at daylight on the morning of November 29, 1864, Col. John M. Chiving- 
ton, commanding the District of Colorado, made an attack upon a Cheyenne vil- 
lage of 130 lodges and about one thousand warriors on Sand Creek, Colorado. 
Chiefs Black Kettle, Little Robe and White Antelope and about four hundred 
and fifty warriors were killed, and over four hundred mules and ponies were 

Fugitives from Sand Creek reached the Cheyenne camp near the head of the 
Smoky Hill River, where a council was held and it was decided to "send a pipe" 
to the Northern Arapaho and Sioux and invite them to join the Cheyenne in a 
war upon the whites. The chiefs of the Arapaho and Sioux "smoked the pipe," 
which was equivalent to accepting the invitation. This was early in December, 
1864. The chiefs waited until all the small war parties came into the camp on 
Cherry Creek, where a force of about one thousand warriors were gathered, and 
it was then determined to begin the war by an attack on Julesburg, where the 
Overland stages formerly forded the South Platte. Julesburg at that time con- 
sisted of the station building, of cedar logs, the stables, corrals, store and a large 
warehouse filled with the stage company's supplies, an express and telegraph 
office, and a few dwellings. 

A short distance west of Julesburg, at the mouth of Lodge Pole Creek, was 
Fort Sedgwick, which had been established in August, 1864, and was garrisoned 
by a part of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, under the command of Capt. N. J. O'Brien. 
Captain O'Brien was afterward chief of artillery with General Connor's Powder 
River expedition. He established Camp Connor (later Fort Reno) and was one 
of the first city officials of Julesburg. Subsequently he removed to Cheyenne, 
where he served in the city council, was sherifl^ of Laramie County, a member 
of the Legislature and United States marshal. The Indians knew his reputation 


as a fighter and adopted the plan, so often worked successfully, of drawing the 
troops at the fort into an ambush before the attack was made on Julesburg. 

Accordingly, about daylight on January 7, 1865, Big Crow, the Cheyenne chief, 
selected seven of his fleetest footed warriors to show themselves in front of the 
fort, with the hope that the soldiers would pursue them into the sand hills, where 
the main body of the Indians was secreted. At first the plan promised success. 
When the seven Indians appeared a small detachment of troops sallied out and 
began the pursuit, but some of the younger warriors, in their enthusiasm, acted 
too quickly, the soldiers saw the situation and returned to the fort. 

A few hours later a large body of Indians appeared at Julesburg. The few 
white men there fled to the fort, leaving the savages to plunder the warehouse. 
They also drove oft" a herd of cattle on the opposite side of the river from the 
town. During the remainder of the month they wrecked about seventy-five miles 
of the road, burning stations, cutting the telegraph wires, etc. On February 
2, 1865, some of the Indians started for the North Platte, Julesburg was again 
plundered and this time the stage company's buildings were burned. During 
the day about fifty miles of telegraph line were destroyed and that night the 
party encamped on the ridge between Lodge Pole Creek and the South Platte, 
where they celebrated their victory by feasting and dancing until a late hour. 

On the morning of the 4th an attack was made on the Mud Springs Ranch, 
where the Town of Simla, Nebraska, is now located, and ran off a large herd 
of cattle. Mud Springs Ranch was at that time the only station or settlement of 
consequence between the North and South Platte. The telegraph operator at 
the station called Camp Mitchell and Fort Laramie and advised the military 
authorities of w-hat was taking place at the ranch. Lieutenant Ellsworth, with 
thirty-six men of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, and Lieutenant-Colonel Collins, 
with twenty-five picked men, made a forced march from Fort Laramie and 
arrived at the station late on the 5th. That night 100 more men joined Lieutenant- 
Colonel Collins' command and the Indians moved off to the northward. On the 
7th a severe fight occurred at the mouth of Brown's Creek. The result was a 
drawn battle, but the Indians evidently did not care for any more just then, as 
they retreated to the Powder River, where they joined the Ogallala Sioux and 
Northern Arapaho. 

Collins, with his little force of 140 men, followed the Indians for some dis- 
tance, and on the night of the 12th encamped near the mouth of Rush Creek, 
about eighty-five miles north of Julesburg. Here he was attacked by about 
twenty-five hundred Indians on the morning of the 13th, but with the aid of 
a brass twenty-four pounder he held them at bay for twenty-four hours, with a 
loss of three men killed and eight wounded. Just before daylight on the 14th 
the Indians withdrew. In April another attack was made on Collins, who was 
then at Mud Springs with 125 men. The Indian force on this occasion was esti- 
mated at fifteen hundred. Again Collins held the Indians in check for a whole 
day, when reinforcements arrived with artillery and they were completely routed. 
The loss of the whites in this action was two killed and eleven wounded. 


Minor raids upon the Overland stations along the Platte continued until 


ng. which led Cen. Grenville M. Dodge, commanding the Department of Mis- 


souri, to plan two expeditions into the Indian country. One of these expeditions, 
under Gen. Alfred Sully, was to ascend the Missouri and approach the Black 
Hills from the east. The other, commanded by Gen. P. E. Connor, was to attack 
the Indians on Powder River. Sully failed to carry out his part of the arrange- 
ment, but about the middle of May Connor marched from Julesburg and soon 
reached Fort Laramie. There he found a number of volunteer soldiers who were 
very much dissatisfied. They claimed that the three years for which they had 
enlisted were expired, that the war with the South was over, and that they were 
entitled to their discharge. When Connor's order for them to join the expedition 
was read they refused to join the expedition. Connor ordered a battery of artil- 
lery to be trained upon the mutineers, which caused them to reconsider their 
refusal, and on July 5, 1865, they left Fort Laramie, under command of Colonel 
Walker of the Sixteenth Kansas Cavalry. About the same time Colonel Cole 
marched from Columbus, Nebraska, under orders to effect a junction with 
Colonel Walker. 

General Connor left Fort Laramie on the 2d of August with the greater part 
of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, the Second California Cavalry, ninety-five Pawnee 
scouts, commanded by Maj. Frank North, and about the same number of Omaha 
and Winnebago scouts — about seven hundred men in all. Crossing the Platte 
River near the La Bonte crossing, Connor moved up the river to a point near 
where Fort Fetterman was afterward built. There he turned toward the north- 
west and struck Powder River about half way between the mouth of Nine Mile 
Creek and the mouth of Crazy Woman Fork, where Camp Connor (afterward 
Fort Reno) was established. A few days later some of the Pawnee scouts found 
an Indian trail and followed it until the next morning, when they came upon a 
party of Cheyennes just in the act of breaking camp. The scouts attacked the 
camp, recovered a lot of plunder that had been taken from the Overland stations 
earlier in the year, captured twenty-nine horses and reported to Connor that all 
the Cheyennes were killed. Four of the captured horses bore the Government 
brand and one bore the brand of the Overland Stage Company. Not one of the 
scouts was killed or wounded, but they lost four horses. 

Early in September Connor moved over to the Tongue River. On the 8th, 
having heard nothing from Cole and Walker, he sent Major North, with twenty 
of his scouts, back to Powder River to look for their trail. On the nth North 
rejoined the command and reported that he had found over five hundred dead 
cavalry horses and in the ashes of fires the remains of saddles, from which it 
was supposed that Cole's command had been annihilated by the Indians. North 
was instructed to make a further search, and on the 19th found the men in a 
starving condition, with only about six hundred horses, and those unfit for service. 
Cole reported that while passing through the bad lands they were afraid to allow 
the horses to graze, for fear they would stray away or be captured by the 
Indians, and that the horses actually died of starvation. He was then forced 
to burn his saddles and wagons to prevent their falling into the hands of the enemy. 

Cole and Walker formed a junction north of the Black Hills and east of the 
Little Missouri River. The two commanders quarreled regarding the course to 
be pursued. On September 8, 1865, near the mouth of the Little Powder River, 
they were attacked by about three thousand Sioux. Cole had managed to retain 
his artillery, which was the only thing that held the Indians in check. They 
reached Camp Connor, guided by Major North, on the 24th. 


About the time Connor left the Powder River, the Pawnee scouts came upon 
a plain trail and followed it for twenty miles, when they discovered a strong 
village of nearly three hundred lodges. A messenger was sent back to Connor, 
who hurried forward with some four hundred men and two pieces of artillery. 
The village proved -to be Black Bear's band of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. 
Fire was opened with the artillery and a large number of Indians were killed, 
the rest seeking safety in flight. Some women and children and nearly seven 
hundred horses were captured. 

When General Dodge received the first news of Cole and Walker's move- 
ments, he believed their march into the Indian country' was a victorious advance, 
but when General Connor sent in his report relating to that part of the expedi- 
tion, it showed a humiliating retreat. It was impossible for Connor to foresee 
the disagreement between Cole and Walker, which resulted in the failure of their 
part of the campaign. Nevertheless, he was criticized for his general conduct of 
the expedition and was withdrawn from Wyoming, much to his personal regret 
and the regret of many of the officers and men who served under him. 


After the Southern Cheyenne came north in the spring of 1865 to raid the 
Overland stage stations, they encamped on Powder River, near the Northern 
Cheyenne, and for some time the two bands joined in daily feasts. Then they 
moved over to the Little Powder River to hunt bufifalo, and in the latter part of 
May passed over to the Tongue River, which they ascended to the Big Horn 
Mountains. There the chiefs held a war council, at which it was decided to 
continue the raids upon the emigrant roads along the Platte. On May 20, 1865, 
a party of Northern Cheyenne raided the Deer Creek station, which had been 
abandoned by the stage company and was then occupied by a small detachment 
of the Eleventh Kansas Cavalry. In the fight which ensued one soldier was 
killed and the Indians succeeded in running ofT about twenty horses. 

At Platte Bridge, where the City of Casper now stands, was a small military 
post called "Camp Dodge," which was garrisoned by two companies of the Eleventh 
Kansas Cavalry. This post seemed to be the one most hated by the Indians. 
About the middle of July a large party of Sioux and Cheyenne, under the leader- 
ship of Young-Man-Afraid-of-His-Horse, struck the river some thirty miles 
below the post and moved up the stream, finally going into camp on a small 
creek behind the hills, where they could not be seen from the fort. No hostile 
demonstrations were made until July 25th, when the Indians undertook to stam- 
pede some horses that were grazing below the bridge. A detail of troops went 
out and succeeded in driving the horses w-ithin the stockade. The Indians started 
to follow, when the chief High Backed Wolf was sent to bring them back. Instead 
of obeying orders, he joined with the others, crossed the river and led the attack 
against the post. The howitzer was brought into action and a number of the 
savages were killed, among them High Racked Wolf. After his death the Indians 
withdrew and the fighting was over for the time. 

Before daylight the next morning one-half of the Indians concealed them- 
selves below the bridge and the other half above. They then tried the old trick 
of sending out a small party as a decoy, hoping the soldiers would pursue and 


be caught in the ambush. It so happened that Sergt. Amos J. Custard was con- 
ducting a wagon train from Sweetwater to Camp Dodge. This train came in 
sight early on the morning of the 26th, on the hills some two miles west of the 
fort, and the howitzer was fired to warn the escort that Indians were in the 
neighborhood. Custard ordered a corporal to take five men and go forward to 
see what the firing meant. These six men were soon cut oil, though two of 
them hid in the bushes along the river and managed to reach the fort that after- 
noon. The nineteen men of the train escort were surrounded, but fought vali- 
antly until 3 o'clock in the aftenoon before they were all killed. 

It was not quite 7 o'clock when the train was first seen coming over the 
hills, and Major Howard, commandant at Camp Dodge, ordered Sergeant Hank- 
hammer to take twenty-five men and go to its relief. Lieut. Caspar W. Collins 
of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, who had just arrived at the post the day before, 
begged permission to command the relief party, although some of his friends 
tried to persuade him to remain in the fort. Major Howard granted his request, 
however, and at the head of his little troop he rode out of the fort, crossed the 
bridge and moved up the road to meet the train. The Indians knew nothing of 
the train up to this time, and supposed that Collins and his little squad of cavalry 
were following the decoy that had been sent forward for the purpose of leading 
the troops into an ambush. When about half a mile from the bridge, Collins 
found himself surrounded by five hundred or more yelling Indians, and upon 
looking toward the hills saw seven or eight hundred more coming down from 
the bluffs. Major Howard at the fort also saw the perilous situation of the 
relief party and ordered Captain Greer, Company I, Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, 
to take his company and try to open a retreat for Collins. Captain Greer charged 
across the bridge and poured a deadly fire into the Indians, which caused them to 
fall back, and Collins gave the order to make for the bridge. The one howitzer 
at the fort also opened fire upon the Indians, but it was too late. Of the twenty- 
five men who went out with Collins, eight were killed and seven wounded, Collins 
himself being among the fomier. 

There are two stories as to the manner in which Lieutenant Collins met his 
death. One is that he stopped to aid a wounded trooper, who begged his com- 
rades not to leave him behind, and the other is that his horse became unmanage- 
able and carried him into the ranks of the enemy. There is probably some truth 
in both of these accounts. He may have halted to assist a wounded comrade, 
but it is quite certain that his horse ran away. His body was found on the 29th, 
about a mile and a half from the fort, on the bank of the creek which still bears 
his name. On November 21, 1865, Maj.-Gen. John Pope issued the following 

"The military post situated at Platte Bridge, between Deer and Rock creeks, 
on the Platte River, will hereafter be known as Fort Casper, in honor of Lieut. 
Casper Collins, Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, who lost his life while gallantly attack- 
ing a superior force of Indians at that place." 


In the spring of 1863, John M. Bozeman. a citizen of Montana, assisted by 
J. M. Jacobs, selected a route for a wagon road from the Red Buttes on the 


Platte River to the three forks of the Missouri River in Western Montana. This 
road ran through the countrj- of the Crow and Sioux Indians and was the 
shortest route from Fort Laramie to the Montana mines. It was not originally 
intended for a mihtary road, and, in fact, was opened without the sanction of 
the Government. The Indians objected to emigrants passing through their terri- 
tory, but the road soon became a thoroughfare almost as well known as the cele- 
brated Oregon Trail and the United States authorities were forced to recognize 
it. Late in the year 1865 the Government tried to induce the Indians to consent 
to a right of way through their country to Montana. Several of the Sioux 
bands gave their consent, but the Cheyenne and Ogallala Sioux refused to sign 
the agreement. On June i, 1865, Col. H. E. Maynadier, commandant at Fort 
Laramie, E. B. Taylor, superintendent of Indian affairs, Thomas W'istar of 
Philadelphia, and R. N. [McLaren of Minnesota, acting as commissioners for the 
United States, met the principal chiefs at Fort Laramie and concluded a treaty 
of peace. The immigration to the ^lontana mines was then at its height and one 
thing demanded by the commissioners was a right of way for the Bozeman Road 
from the Platte River to Bozeman, Mont. To this all the tribes agreed except the 
Ogallala Sioux. Red Cloud, the head chief of the Ogallala, made a speech, in which 
he accused the commissioners of acting in bad faith in asking the Indians to give 
their consent, when the white men had already taken what they wanted, after 
which he withdrew from the council. 

In one sense of the word Red Cloud was right, for on March 10, 1866, nearly 
three months before the council was held at Fort Laramie, General Pope organized 
the Mountain District and ordered the establishment of two military posts for the 
protection of the Bozeman Road. This order was addressed to Col. H. B. Car- 
rington of the Eighteenth United States Infantry, then stationed at Fort Kearney, 
Xebra.ska. Colonel Carrington left Fort Kearney on May 19, 1866, and arrived 
at Fort Laramie before the conclusion of. the council above mentioned. While 
there he received instructions from General Pope to name the two new posts Fort 
Philip Kearny and Fort C. F. Smith. Early in July, with 700 men, Carrington 
left Fort Laramie. Red Cloud warned him not to enter the Indian country for the 
purpose of establishing new forts, and with some three hundred warriors hung on 
the heels of the expedition. Several slight skirmishes occurred, and as Carrington 
was hampered with over two hundred mule teams transporting supplies for the 
new posts it required all his skill to protect the teams and wagons. 

Upon reaching Camp Connor (Fort Reno) part of the force was left to garri- 
son that post and the remainder moved on up to the Bozeman Road to Big Piney 
Creek, near the northern boundary of the present Johnson County, where on July 
15, 1866, Fort Philip Kearny was staked off. Early in August Fort C. F. Smith 
was located on the Big Horn River, about ninety miles northwest of Fort Philip 
Kearny, and the remainder of Carrington's force was used to garrison the two 
new posts. Thus his force of 700 men was divided into three parts and Carring- 
ton established his headquarters at Fort Philip Kearny, which was completed on 
the 2 1 St of October. While it was under construction the trains sent out to 
bring timber to the fort were constantly annoyed by Indians and pickets were 
maintained on the Sullivant Hills to watch their movements. Scarcely was the 
fort finished when some of Red Cloud's band attempted to stampede the horses 
grazing near. A party sent out to recover the horses was attacked and several 


troopers were killed or wounded. During the two weeks following the com- 
pletion of the fort, eight attacks were made on emigrant and supply trains between 
Fort Reno and Fort Philip Kearny. 


Never was the old adage, "Eternal vigilance is the price of Liberty," better 
verified than in the early days of Fort Philip Kearny. Almost daily attacks were 
made upon the trains bringing wood to the post, and the pickets stationed upon 
the Sullivant Hills were never relaxed when any of the garrison was outside the 
stockade. Early in December Capt. W. J. Fetterman was sent out with forty 
men to protect the wood train and followed the attacking party of Indians into a 
place where he was almost surrounded. Prompt action on the part of Colonel 
Carrington, in coming to the rescue was all that saved the detachment from utter 
annihilation. As it was only one man was killed and two were wounded. 

On December 21, 1866, the pickets on Sullivant Hills signaled the fort that 
the wood train was again attacked. Carrington selected forty-nine men from 
his own regiment (the Eighteenth Infantry) and twenty-seven men from the 
Ninth Cavalry to go to the relief of the train. He first gave the command to 
Capt. James Powell, with Lieutenant Grummond to command the cavalry, but 
Captain Fetterman, who was probably anxious to redeem himself from his mis- 
take of a few weeks before, begged to be given the command, and claimed the 
right on account of seniority. Carrington granted his request, but warned him 
not to follow the Indians beyond Lodge Trail Ridge, an elevation a short' dis- 
taiice southwest of the fort. Just why this warning was ignored will never be 
known, but Fetterman moved back of the Sullivant Hills, probably with the in- 
tention of cutting off the attacking party from the main body of the Indians. 
In a short time firing was heard on the other side of Lodge Trail Ridge and 
Carrington ordered Captain Ten Eyck to reinforce Fetterman. Says Grinnell: 
"When the relief party looked down from the top of Lodge Trail Ridge no 
soldiers were to be seen, but all over the valley, and abo\e all along the ridge 
running down to Clear Creek, were Indians riding about and shouting their 
war cries, evidently celebrating a triumph." 

Captain Ten Eyck sent a messenger to report to Carrington and then descended 
to the scene of the slaughter. That evening wagons brought in the bodies of 
forty-nine of the victims of the massacre and the others were recovered the next 
day. Not a man of Fetterman's command lived to tell the tale, but from the 
Indians it was learned that a small party mounted on fast horses was used as 
a decoy to draw the soldiers into an ambush — an old trick, and one that it might 
be supposed the soldiers would learn in time, but it seldom failed to work. 

Through the efforts of Hon. Frank Mondell, member of Congress from 
Wyoming, the site of Fetterman's defeat is marked by a monument erected by 
the Government on "Massacre Hill," about five miles from the site of Fort 
Philip Kearny. The monument, built of bowlders, was dedicated on July 4, 
1908. Among those present were General Carrington and a few of the survivors 
of his command in 1866. Fastened to the monument is a bronze shield, which 
bears the following inscription: "On this field on the 21st day of December, 
1866, three commissioned officers and seventy-six privates of the Eighteenth 


United States Infantry and the Ninth United States Cavalry, and four civilians, 
under the command of Captain and Brevet Lieut.-Col. William J. Fetterman, 
were killed by an overwhelming force of Sioux under command of Red Cloud. 
There were no survivors." 

RED cloud's DEFE.^T 

In the spring of 1867 reinforcements were sent into Wyoming for the pur- 
pose of organizing an expedition against Red Cloud. For some reason the 
original design was not carried into effect, the troops remaining quartered at the 
military posts and in summer camps along the Platte River. Red Cloud lingered 
in the vicinity of Fort Philip Kearny, against which post he seemed to hold a 
vindictive hatred. By the middle of July he had collected a force of about three 
thousand warriors, intending to take the fort by assault. On the last day of 
July, Capt. James Powell, of the Eighteenth Infantry, with fifty-one men, went 
to the timber along Piney Creek, about five miles from the fort, as an escort 
and guard to the workmen employed by the contractor, J. R. Porter. Indian 
spies were watching every movement made by the garrison, and Red Cloud 
determined to cut off the escort, which would lessen the resistance of the garri- 
son when he attacked the fort. The attempt was not made, however, until the 
i2d of August. On that day another small party was sent out to guard the live 
stock while grazing. Some of Powell's men had returned to the fort, but thirty- 
two still remained on guard at the wood-cutters' camp. This gave Red Cloud 
an opportunity, as he thought, to cut off two parties at the same time. 

Some two hundred Indians were sent to attack the herders and a force of 
about five hundred was thrown against the wood camp. Most of the former 
managed to reach the fort in safety, and Captain Powell received warning of 
the approach of the Indians in time to prepare for defense. The wagon beds 
used by the contractor were made of iron, or were wooden boxes shod with iron 
of sufficient thickness to resist an ordinary bullet. (This has been denied by 
some of the soldiers who took part in the affair, but Captain Powell's official 
report is responsible for the statement.) These wagon beds were hurriedly 
arranged in a circle, inside of which the thirty-two men took their stand. They 
were armed with the new breech-loading rifles, and Captain Powell, aware of 
the fact that their only hope was "a cool head and a steady aim," ordered that 
the poor marksmen should keep the rifles loaded for those more expert. They 
had not long to wait until the yelling hordes appeared, evidently expecting an 
easy victory. On they came until near enough to make the aim of the little band 
behind the wagon beds certain, when the breech-loading rifles began their deadly 
work. Not a bullet went wild and the savages recoiled before that withering fire. 

When Red Cloud saw the wholesale slaughter of his best warriors he decided 
to change his tactics. Dismounting his men, they crawled forward through the 
grass and shrubbery, hoping to get near enough to rush upon the defenders and 
carry their position by storm. But the attempt was a failure. Every time an 
Indian exposed himself his earthly career was cut short by a bullet "from a 
rifle that was never empty," while the balls fired by the assailants flattened them- 
selves against the iron wagon bodies and were thus rendered harmless. More 
Indians were brought up. but Red Cloud's entire force proved unable to conquer 


Site of the Fettermau massacre, 1866. 


the thirty-two brave men, who remembered the fate of Fetterman's men and 
fought with the fury of desperation. After more than three hours, during which 
repeated attacks were made, the Indians withdrew, leaving hundreds of their 
number dead upon the field. Powell's loss was insignificant. His brave stand, 
with its unexpected results, had a crushing effect upon Red Cloud, and Fort 
Philip Kearny was allowed to remain unmolested until it was abandoned about 
a year later. 

Among Powell's men was on old frontiersman, who was an expert marksman 
and was one of those selected to do the shooting. Some time later he met General 
Dodge, who asked him how many Indians were in the attacking party. To this 
the old trapper replied : 
' "Wall, General, I reckon there was about three thousand.'' 

"And how many were killed ?" asked Dodge. 

"I can't say for sartin, but I've heard about a thousand." 

"How many did you kill?" 

"I don't know. General, but I kept eight guns pretty well het up for more'n 
three hours." 


In the meantime, when the news of the Fetterman Massacre reached the East, 
it caused much excitement. Colonel Carrington was severely criticized, and he 
in turn complained that Gen. P. St. George Cooke, the department commander, 
had refused reinforcements and that 700 men were not sufficient to garrison 
three posts in the heart of the hostile Indian country. President Johnson ordered 
an investigation, the result of which was the withdrawal of the troops from the 
Powder River country, in accordance with the treaties then in existence. Forts 
Reno, Philip Kearny and C. F. Smith were therefore abandoned in August. 
1868. The buildings at Fort Philip Kearny were afterward burned by Little 


The territorial government of Wyoming was organized in the spring of i86g. 
In his message to the first Legislature the following October. Govenior Camp- 
bell mentioned the Sioux raid in the Wind River valley, about the time he came 
into office, when four white men were killed and a number of horses and mules 
were stolen by the Indians. The raid was reported to the governor by the com- 
missioners of Carter County. Governor Campbell asked the commander of the 
military department for troops for the protection of the settlers in that section. 
Two companies — one of infantry and one of cavalry — were ordered to the valley, 
and one still remained on duty there at the time of the meeting of the Legislature. 

On July 3, 1869, another raid was made by the Sioux and again four white 
men were killed, but the Indians were driven off by the two companies above 
mentioned before they could do any further mischief. On the 28th of the same 
month a raid was made upon the mining settlements and three men engaged in 
mining near Atlantic City were killed. At the request of Governor Campbell, 
the department commander sent a supply of arms and ammunition to the com- 


missioners of Carter County to be distributed among the citizens. When the 
Sioux discovered that the people were being armed they withdrew and no further 
hostile demonstrations were made, though the settlers remained watchful until 
the Sioux were quartered on their reservations. 


For several years after the organization of the Territory of Wyoming the 
Indians continued to commit depredations upon the frontier settlements. During 
the years 1874 and 1875 General Crook, whose headquarters were at Omaha, 
made some incursions into the Indian country, but no permanent benefit was 
derived from such movements. At that time the hostile Indians about the Black 
Hills and the region of the Powder River numbered several thousands and the 
outlook for the settlers was anything but encouraging. President Grant, Generals 
Sherman, Sheridan, and other military commanders held a consultation and 
decided to send a force of troops large enough to bring the Indians to terms. 

Early in 1876 General Crook started against the Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, 
Arapaho and other tribes in the vicinity of the Black Hills. Near the head of 
the Rosebud Creek the Indians met with such a positive check at the hands of 
Crook that it amounted almost to a defeat. Crook then took up a strong position 
and waited for reinforcements, which he knew were on the way. On May 29th 
Gen. A. H. Terry reached the Little Missouri River and opened communication 
with Crook. General Gibbon pame up from the west, and on June 8th joined 
Terry near the mouth of the Powder River. It was known that the main body 
of the Indians were then near the mouth of the Little Big Horn. With Terry was 
Gen. George A. Custer, one of the most dashing cavalry commanders in the United 
States army. The plan proposed by Terry, and adopted, was for Custer to take 
a position on the east, to cut off escape in that direction, after which Gibbon was 
to close in on the Indian village and drive the Indians either upon Custer or 
upon Crook, whose position was farther to the south. 

The story of "Custer's Last Fight,'' when he and his command were all 
killed on June 25, 1876, on the Little Big Horn, has been written so many times 
that it is deemed unnecessary to repeat the story in all its details here. It has 
been charged that Custer acted without orders and attacked the camp, instead 
of 'waiting to cut off the escape of the Indians after Gibbon opened the engage- 
ment. This charge is sustained in a letter written by General Gibbon to Terry 
under date of November 6, 1876, in which the writer says : 

"So great was my fear that Custer's zeal would carry him forward too rapidly, 
that the last thing I said to him when bidding him good-by, after his regiment 
had filed past you when starting on his march, was, 'Now, Custer, don't be greedy, 
but wait for us.' He replied gaily, as with a wave of his hand he dashed off to 
follow his regiment, 'No, I will not.' * * * Except so far as to draw profit 
from past experience, it is perhaps useless to speculate as to what would have 
been the result had your plan, as originally agreed upon, been carried out. But 
I cannot help reflecting that in case my column, supposing the Indian camp to 
have remained where it was when Custer struck it, would have been the first to 
reach it; that with our infantry and Catling guns we should have been able 
to take care of ourselves, even though numbering about two-thirds of Custer's 


force, and that with six hundred cavalry in the neighborhood, led as only Custer 
could lead it, the result to the Indians would have been very different from what 
it was.'' 

After the defeat of Custer the Indians broke up into small bands and occupied 
different camps, which changed the whole plan of the campaign. Several small 
fights occurred during the months of August and September, but none was of 
sufficient importance to render the Indians tractable. General Crook then decided 
upon a winter campaign. He collected a force of i,6oo soldiers and about four 
hundred Indians (mostly Pawnee), and after the capture of Red Cloud's and 
Swift Bear's camps organized his Big Horn expedition at Fort Fettennan. Leav- 
ing there on November 14, 1876, he moved northward into the Indian country. 
On the 20th some of his scouts brought in a young Cheyenne, who said Crazy 
Horse was located on the Rosebud and that there was a small Indian village on 
the upper Powder River. Two days later, while camped on the Crazy Woman 
Fork of the Powder, scouts brought the information that a large village, under 
Dull Knife and Wild Hog, was located farther up the Crazy Woman Fork in the 
Big Horn Mountains. 

Gen. R. S. Mackenzie, with 1,100 troops and 300 Indians, was despatched to 
capture the village. On the 25th some Arapaho scouts definitely located the vil- 
lage and by making a night march it was surrounded without arousing the inmates. 
At dawn on the 26th the order was given to charge. Mackenzie's men advanced 
from all sides and the Indians were thrown into a panic. A few gained the moun- 
tains west of the village and attempted to put up a defense, but the village was 
completely destroyed. Dull Knife and Wild Hog both managed to escape, and 
spent the winter with Crazy Horse (Sioux) on the lower Powder River. In 
the spring of 1877 they surrendered and joined in the agreements made the 
preceding year, by which all the country between the Platte and Powder rivers 
had been ceded to the white men. From this time on the settlers of Wyoming 
enjoyed greater security. 



Spain's oppression of cuba — the ten years' war — REvoLrxiox of 1895 — 


TEERS — Wyoming's response — the infantry battalion — roster of each of 



For four centuries after the discovery of America, the Island of Cuba was 
one of the colonial possessions of Spain. While Spain was losing her other 
American provinces, one by one, the inhabitants of Cuba remained steadfast in their 
allegiance to the mother country. In 1808, when Xapoleon overthrew the Spanish 
dynasty, the Cubans declared war against "the man of destiny." Their loyalty 
during all these years received a poor recompense, however, for in 1825 King 
Ferdinand issued a decree placing the lives and fortunes of the Cubans at the 
absolute disposal of the captains-general, or governors of the island. The "con- 
quistadores'' were slow in coming, but they had at last arrived. 

With the decree of 1825, Spain's policy of inhumanity to her colonial subjects 
commenced. Some excuse for this policy may be found in the unsettled condition 
of the Spanish Government and the internal dissensions which rendered the 
authorities powerless as against the will of certain classes of citizens. With the 
death of Ferdinand in 1833, his daughter, Isabella, was proclaimed Queen. Don 
■ Carlos, Ferdinand's brother, claimed that this was a violation of the Salic law, 
which forbids the succession of women, and insisted that he should have ascended 
to the throne. He was not without followers in this claim, and for many years the 
"Carlist Party" was a menace to the Spanish Government. 

As early as 1829 a conspiracy was formed in Cuba for the purpose of throw- 
ing off the Spanish yoke, but it was discovered and crushed by the Spanish 
Government before the revolutionists were prepared to begin active operations. In 
1844 came the uprising of the blacks, which, like the former conspiracy, was 
suppressed with great cruelty on the part of the Spaniards. Some five years later 
(1849-50) Narciso Lopez, a former resident of Cuba, fatted out an expedition 
at New Orleans for the overthrow of Spanish power upon the island. Lopez 
was too quixotic for a military leader. His expedition ended in failure and 
some of his men perished in Spanish dungeons. 

In 1868 the "Ten Years' War" broke out, the revolutionists taking advantage 
of dissensions in the mother country and hoping to establish the independence of 


Cuba. After the war had been going on for about two years, Amadeus, second 
son of \'ictor Emanuel of Italy, was called to the throne of Spain as "constitutional 
king." He resigned in 1873, when the provisional government under Castilla 
came into power. Castilla threatened to make a desert island of Cuba. He sent 
257,000 soldiers to the island and so great was the sacrifice of human life that 
fewer than fifty thousand of them returned to Spain. Three hundred million 
dollars' worth of property was destroyed during the war and a heavy debt was 
contracted, which was settled upon the Cubans as a penalty for their revolt. 

Not only was the debt laid upon the inhabitants, but the captains-general also 
became more tyrannical in their administration of affairs. The heavy burden 
of ta.xation and the unreasonable demands of the governors had the effect of 
strengthening the determination of the Cubans to achieve their independence. It 
was not long, therefore, until they began planning another insurrection. Ex- 
perience had taught them the necessity of caution, and for more than fifteen years 
they carried on their preparations with the utmost secrecy. In 1895 the revolution 
was inaugurated at several places simultaneously. The revolutionists were led 
by Maceo and Gomez. Captain-General Campos, then governor of the island, 
conducted his military movements along the lines of warfare recognized by 
civilized nations. This pohcy did not meet the approval of the Spanish authorities 
at Madrid. Campos was therefore removed and General Weyler was placed in his 
stead. Instantly a change could be seen. Weyler issued his "T order and com- 
mand" proclamation ordering the inhabitants of the rural districts to "concentrate 
themselves in the towns occupied by the troops.' Any persons who failed to obey 
the order within eight days were to be considered rebels and were to be treated 
as such. The order also prohibited the transportation of provisions from one town 
to another without permission of the military authority. The supply of food in 
the cities and towns was inadequate to the demands of the "reconcentrados," as the 
people thus confined in them were called, and many actually star\-ed to death. 
Wevler was no respecter of persons and women and children were the greatest 

The inhumanity of such a course aroused the indignation of the civilized 
world. European nations sent protests to Madrid, but they met with no response, 
so far as mitigating the conditions in Cuba were concerned. The people of 
the United States raised funds and sent relief to the starving reconcentrados, but 
in nearly all cases the contributions were diverted into the hands of the Spanish. 

Political conventions, commercial organizations and several of the State 
Legislatures adopted ringing resolutions calling on the Government of the United 
States to intervene in behalf of the oppressed Cubans. The platform upon which 
William McKinley was elected President in 1896 insisted that some action must 
be taken in the interests of humanity. \\'hen this became known in Havana, riots 
resulted, friends of Weyler telling the people that intervention of any kind by 
the United States meant the ultimate annexation of Cuba to that country. 

Nothing was done during the year 1897, but about the beginning of 1898 the 
Atlantic Squadron of the United States Navy was ordered to the Drj' Tortugas, 
within six hours' sail of Havana. On January 25, 1898. the Battleship Maine 
dropped anchor in the Harbor of Havana, the authorities having been notified the 
previous evening by the United States consul-general of the Maine's intended ar- 
rival. Prior to this, the Spanish Government had protested against this nation's 


sending cruisers bearing supplies to the reconcentrados. The presence of the 
Maine in Havana Harbor, while the United States and Spain were supposed to be 
at peace, was not pleasing to the Spanish officials, who, as a measure of retaliation, 
ordered the Cruiser Vizcaya to New York. Thus matters stood until February 9, 
1898, when the Spanish minister to the United States resigned his position and 
asked for his passports. About twenty minutes before 10 o'clock, on the evening 
of February 15, 1898, the Maine was blown up, with a total loss of the vessel and 
266 of her officers and men were either killed by the explosion or drowned. A 
court of inquiry afterward reported that "there were two explosions of a dis- 
tinctly different character, with a short, but distinct interval between them, and 
the forward part of the ship was lifted to a marked degree by the first explosion. 
* * * In the opinion of the court the Maine was destroyed by the explosion 
of a submarine mine, which caused the partial explosion of two or more of her 
forward magazines." 

The destruction of the Maine, with its consequent loss of life, increased the 
excitement in the United States and the demands for intervention grew more 
insistent. Still the administration declined to intervene, chiefly for the reason that 
General Weyler had been superseded by General Blanco, who issued a proclamation 
declaring a cessation of hostilities, and announced that the reconcentrados would 
be permitted to return to their homes. On March 8, 1898, Congress appropriated 
$50,000,000 for the national defense, but nothing further was done for some time, 
or until it was definitely learned that Blanco's promise to release the reconcentrados 
had been, and was being, systematically ignored. Another reason for delay 
was that President McKinley was awaiting the decision of the court of inquiry 
that was investigating the Maine disaster. On March 28, 1898, he sent a message 
to Congress, submitting the report of the court and "invoking the deliberate con- 
sideration" of Congress. 

The day following the receipt of this message bills relating to Cuban affairs 
were introduced in both houses of Congress, and on April ist a naval appropriation 
bill was passed. On the nth of the same month the President sent to Congress 
another message, in which he said: "In the name of humanity, in the name of 
civilization, in behalf of endangered American interests, which give us the right 
and duty to speak and to act, the war in Cuba must stop. In view of these facts 
and these considerations, I ask Congress to authorize and empower the President 
to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the 
Government of Spain and the people of Cuba," etc. 

Congress was prompt with its response. On the 13th the House of Represen- 
tatives passed a resolution directing the President to intervene in Cuban affairs 
at once. The resolution was amended by the Senate, stronger language being 
used, and on the i8th the House concurred. The resolutions adopted on that 
date were as follows : 

"i. That the people of the Island of Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free 
and independent. 

"2. That it is the duty of the United States to demand, and the Government 
of the United States does demand, that the Government of Spain at once re- 
linquish its authority and government in the Island of Cuba, and withdraw its 
land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters. 

"3. That the President of the United States be. and he hereby is, directed and 


empowered to use the entire land and naval forces of the United States, and to 
call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several states 
to such an extent as may be necessary to carry these resolutions into effect. 

"4. That the United States hereby disclaims any disposition or intention to 
exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over said island, except for the 
pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when that is accomplished to 
leave the government and control of the island to its people." 

Two days after the adoption of these resolutions, the United States Government 
presented its ultimatum to Spain, to relinquish its authority before noon on April 
23, 1898, and to withdraw its land and naval forces, in accordance with the second 
resolution. Spain refused compliance and Rear Admiral Sampson was ordered to 
blockade the Cuban ports. On the 23d President McKinley issued his proclama- 
tion calling for 123.OCO volunteers, "the same to be apportioned, as far as practic- 
able, among the several states and territories and the District of Columbia, 
according to population, and to serve for two years unless sooner discharged.'' 

This proclamation was issued before a formal declaration of war had been made 
by Congress, but on April 25th it was enacted. "That war be, and the same is 
hereby declared to exist, and that war has existed since the 21st day of April. 
1898. including said day. between the United States of America and the Kingdom 
of Spain." 

Wyoming's response 

On April 25, 1898, Governor William A. Richards received notice from the sec- 
retary of war that Wyoming's allotment of troops was one battalion of four com- 
panies of infantry. The secretary's communication also stated that it was the 
President's wish that the National Guard should be used, as far as their numbers 
would permit, for the reason that the men were already armed, equipped and drilled. 
At that time the Wyoming National Guard consisted of one infantry regiment of 
seven companies, commanded by Col. Frank 'SI. Foote, and a batterv^ of light 
artillery, commanded by Capt. Granville R. Palmer. Immediately upon receipt of 
the call from Washington. Governor Richards called upon the several company 
commanders to report the number of men in their command who were willing 
to enlist for two years. When their replies were received at the executive office the 
work of selecting the four strongest companies devolved upon the governor and 
Colonel Foote. The companies chosen for the battalion were : C of Buffalo. 
G of Sheridan, F of Douglas, and H of Evanston. Later a portion of Company 
A of Laramie was accepted and united with Company F. 

On May 2, 1898, these companies left their home stations and the next day 
they were all at the rendezvous at Cheyenne, which was named "Camp Richards' 
in honor of the governor. Here a week passed in recruiting each of the companies 
to eighty-one men and three commissioned officers and in the medical examina- 
tions. As soon as each company was ready it was mustered into the United States 
service, and on the morning of May 10, 1898, the governor telegraphed the 
secretary of war that the battalion was organized and awaiting orders. In his 
message to the Legislature which assembled on January 10, 1899. Governor 
Richards said : 

"I am relialily informed that no other state had filled its quota at that time, so 


that to Wyoming must be accorded the honor of being the first to respond to the 
call for volunteers with a full quota. Our apportionment was 231 men. but 338 
were mustered in with the battalion. The rather difficult task of taking four 
companies, where three times the number were anxious to go, and of selecting 
officers for them, when there were so many to choose from, was successfully 
accomplished, and, so far as I am informed, there was no dissatisfaction with 
the organization of the battalion among either the officers or enlisted men. Colonel 
Foote was commissioned major and gixen command."' 


The field and staff officers of the battalion were as follows: Frank M. Foote 
major commanding: Hard D. Coburn, who was mustered in as first lieutenant of 
Company F, adjutant ; Johnson W. Morgareidge, second lieutenant of Company G, 
quartermaster; John S. Morrison, first lieutenant and assistant surgeon, in charge 
of the battalion hospital department. In the company rosters following are in- 
cluded the names of all who enlisted and were mustered into the United States 
service. Some of the men were discharged before the battalion was mustered out, 
and some were transferred to other commands. 


^lost of the members of this company came from JoluL^on County, the head- 
quarters of the company as a National Guard organization haxini,^ lieen located at 
Buffalo. Thomas Millar, was captain; James D. Gallup ami Charles Finney, 
first lieutenants: Loren Cheever and Henry A. Smith, second lieutenants: Charles 
H. Burritt and Christian J. Hepp. first sergeants; Frank Shortill. quartermaster 
sergeant : John D. Kilpatrick, William H. Fisher, John A. McConnell, William 
R. C. Xewell, Henry Sneddon and George Rogers, sergeants ; Frank Ellis. William 
A. Miller, Park Bateman. Thomas H. Flamilton. Adam Freel, Flarry E. Smith, 
William Shortill and William FI. Baker, corporals; William A. Miller, Joseph A. 
Owenhouse and Arthur W. Warner, musicians : G. L. Kimball and Alexander A. 
Herron, artificers ; J. L. Campbell and Robert A. Robinson, wagoners. 

Privates — Peter Bertelson, George Binnall, Charles A. Birmingham. Robert A. 
Brennan, Thomas Brown, Robert Carlon, Jerry Cashman, Fred Chapman, Harry 
H. Chatterson. Nels Christensen. Harry Clay. Ephraim Cliburn. Lowell Coates, 
Sylvester B. Coates, George Denton, James S. Eddy, Homer Evans, John Evans, 
Ralph L. Ewing, Philip Gatch, William E. (iossett. Arthur Harrington, John 
Herron, Jr., Sidney Jacobs. Warren D. Jenkins, luncsl IxnociUcr, \\'illiam J. 
Langiewicz, Frederick Lehman, Sterling S. Lewis. William McKay. Thomas R. 
^iIcMaster, Charles Martin. Bruno ^^lediate. James S. Miller. Leroy S. Minnich, 
Ferdinand Peer. Charles A. Pettit. John T. Picard, Fred W. Raymond, Gustav 
Rossknacht, Andrew Rusnock, Henry Sell, Charles N. Smith, Joseph M. Spaeth, 
George B. Taylor, Basil E. Thomas. John T. Wallace, Ira H. Ward. Issac C. 
Ward, George White, James M. ^^■hite. Ray F. Wiedmer. James T. Wright. John 
L. Zook. 



This company was recruited at Douglas and Laramie and was mustered in with 
the following officers and enlisted men; John D. O'Brien, captain; Harol D. 
Coburn. first lieutenant; Willard H. Rouse, second lieutenant; William E. Yelton, 
first sergeant; Waldo E. Sherwin, quartermaster sergeant; Samuel L. Harris, 
William J. Mast. James L. Scanlon, Wallace F. Pease and Charles B. Negus, 
sergeants ; Nathan E. Burns, Walter S. Briggs, Thomas Olson, John G. Pouting, 
Edward Rose, George E. Triggs and Frederick Frick, corporals ; Walter Bartlett, 
cook; Edgar R. Rouse and John Frick, Jr., musicians : Jed A. Smith and Carl W. 
Fisher, artificers ; Richard Eberhart, wagoner. 

Privates — Ernest Adams, Charles H. Barton, Thomas B. Barton, Ernest R. 
Bowker, Charles W. Brandis, Joseph .\. Brown, Arthur W. Brownlee, James 
Burton, Stephen A. D. Byerly, W^ells Byers, Ralph C. Caylor, Charles A. Cole, 
Harry R. Crumrine, Benjamin F. Cunningham, Ernest A. Cunningham, Bert E. 
Dennis, Alexander Dobby, William T. Donahoo, Eric Ericson, William J. Evans, 
Joseph Frick, Jonathan E. Frisby, Edward M. Garfield, Arthur W. Gray, William 

D. Hudson, William A. Kellogg, Charles M. Knadler, John Knox, Jr., George 
R. Laird, Carl H. Lange, Charles J. Larson, John J. Lohlein, Orange S. Lucas, 
Wesley Lytle, James E. McCumber, George Marsh. John J. Marsh, Carl F. Miller, 
Fred A. Miller, George R. Moyer, Edward Niedheimer, Emile Olday, Reuben J. 
Reals, Albert Richards, Henry N. Roach, Howard Robb, Charles E. Robinson, 
Edwin O. Ruhl, Henry Ruhsert, Frank K. Schmidt, Mark A. Skinner, William 
F. Smith, George W. Snow, William B. Stockton, Joseph S. Trosper, James A. 
\Tdal. William R. Watt, Harry G. Waechter, Ernest Wesche, Arthur White, 
Robert J. White, Henry J. Wiese, John F. Wyatt. 


Company G was composed chiefly of men from Sheridan and Cheyenne. It 
was mustered in with Daniel C. Wrighter as captain; Hezekiah P. Howe, first 
lieutenant; Johnson W. Morgareidge, second lieutenant. The non-commissioned 
officers during the term of service were : Chester Z. Zander, Charles Fuer and 
Maynard J. Herron, quartermaster sergeants; John O. McClure, first sergeant; 
Frank Geere. John A. Brown, Edmund G. Guyer, Oscar E. Hoback, Alva T. 
Morgareidge and William D. June, sergeants ; Henry T. Rule, Aimer D. Zander, 
Charles H. Cahill, Alfred A. Florida and James E. Morrison, corporals ; Paul 
Spehr, cook ; George E. Small, Joseph A. Owenhouse, Harry H. Clubb and Robert 
B. Robinson, musicians; Herbert E. Zullig, artificer; David Lewis, wagoner. 

Privates — George N. Akin, Carl M. Anderson, Peter W. Anderson, Charles 
A. Ballard, Edwin Blackmer, George Briggs, Leslie S. Brookhart, Frank M. 
Bruner, Arlester L. Burnell, Wells Byers (transferred to Company F), Frank A. 
Cahill, Carter E. Calder, Charles C. Caldwell, George J. Clause, John E. Coleman, 
Niles R. Coleman, Martin L. Davidson, Cory W. Dudley, George H. Evans, 
William H. Ferris, Jeremiah J. Galvin, Herman J. Gaulke, Henry George, Emil 
R. Grable, William B. Grigg, Seeley S. Hawes, Thomas J. Henry, Charles 
Hohrman, Bert Humphrey, Max Idleman, Jr., Charles E. Jones, Maximilian P. 

E. Jordan. Robert C. Koontz, Andrew Lindberg. Richard B. Lloyd, Charles M. 


McClure, Vincent L. McGuire, Thomas McVeigh, John A. Monical, John C. 
Oder, Arthur W. Parker, James X. Petersen, Peter W. Petersen, Henry H. 
Preston, Charles N. Reece, Henry A. Richardson, Wilbur A. Richardson, Thomas 
Ryder, Lewis R. Schmidt, Charles J. Schubert, William D. Skinner, Eugene 
H. Stevens, Madison U. Stoneman, Olaf E. Strom, Daniel Sullivan, Everett W. 
Taylor. Sylvester B. Trowbridge, Oliver M. Walsh, Charles H. Wells. Tim 
Williams. Charles Wilseck. 

Company H came from the southwestern part of the state, the Xational Guard 
company from which it was formed having its headquarters at Evanston. After 
reporting at Camp Richards a number of recruits were added from Rock Springs 
and Cheyenne. The organization of the company during its term of service was 
as follows : Edward P. Holtenhouse, captain ; Henry Ohlenkamp. first lieutenant ; 
George F. Fast and Thomas A. Williams, second lieutenants ; Benjamin Moore, 
battalion sergeant-major; William C. De Loney, first sergeant; William O. Taylor 
and Charles W. Fox, quartermaster sergeants ; James A. Morganson, Frank A. 
Crase. James H. Winslow and John L. Townson, sergeants ; Thomas Holden. 
William H. Houston, John J. Code, Rea Bender, Jacob Sherman, Peter F. Pat- 
terson and James E. Raferty. corporals : Harry Miller and Fred L. Siegel, 
musicians; John W. Thatcher, cook; Harry Jones, artificer; Joseph Shaw, Jr., 

Privates — Ferdinand Abel. Lloyd W. Allen, Andrew Anderson, Anton Ander- 
son, Albert E. Arthurs, Frank Bowen, Harry Brown, Louis Burmeister, William 
C. Burns, William T. Byrnes, William F. Caldwell, Albert M. Calkins. Calvin 
Carpenter, Oscar O. Carson, Peter Christensen, William J. Clark, Robert Crosbie, 
Charles Ericksen, Reinhart Fermazin. William Freerks, Harry E. Hall, John 
Hangartner, John B. Hanson, Morley L. Hassard, Joseph Hemmelwright, James 
A. Howard. Philip S. Jackson. Ira Johns, Emil Johnson, Francis M. Jones, 
Lawrence A. Jones, Thomas O. M. Jones, John E. Karlburg, Christian Kaus, 
William Kelley, Edward La Comb, Joseph D. Leyshon, Edward Lyst, Alfred C. 
McDowell. Thomas Meguire. James Miles, William Nichols. Dennis Perry. John 
Raferty, Peter Roberts, Samuel C. Joslyn, Michael J. Rowland. Philip Schopp, 
Jr., Martin Sedlack, Edward L. Sellon, George W. Sessions. Peter E. Sperling, 
Hans Tuesen, Orie A. Vanblaricon. Paul Wilkinson, Robert Wilkinson, William 
A. Woolani. Dana N. Woods. Herbert S. Wright. Alfred Zemp. 


On May i8. 1898. the battalion entrained at the Cnion Pacific Railroad station 
in Cheyenne for San Francisco, where it arrived on the morning of the 21st 
and went into camp at Camp Merritt, where the boys remained, drilling and 
doing camp duty until June 27, 1898. On that date the battalion embarked upon 
the steamer Ohio, which arrived at the mouth of Manila Bay on the last day of 
July. The troops remained on board until the 6th of August, when they were 
disembarked and went into camp at Paranaque. After a week's experience in the 
trenches came the Battle of Manila on August 13. 1898. 

The battalion was assigned to the reserve of the First Brigade. First Division, 


on the extreme left of the Hue. This position caused some complaints among the 
men, who wanted to be "where there was something doing." Before noon Fort 
Malate was in the hands of the American troops and the reserves were ordered 
forward. Then the Wyoming boys made up for lost time and at 4:45 P. M. their 
battalion flag— the first United States flag raised in Manila — was seen floating 
over the captured city. General Anderson, commanding the First Division, as a 
mark of appreciation of the fact that the battalion was the first organization 
to reach the city, designated the Wyoming troops as his body guard. 

After the Battle of Manila the battalion remained in the vicinity of the city 
until February 4, 1899, when it was attached to the Second Brigade, First Division. 
Early the next morning Major Foote received orders to join the movement toward 
San Pedro Macati. Some fierce fighting occurred along the Pasig River as the 
troops advanced toward Paco Church, but the California and Wyoming troops 
drove the insurgents steadily before them until the enemy made a stand in the 
churchyard of San Pedro Macati, from which position they opened a deadly fire 
upon the advancing line. Here Sergt. George Rogers and Private Ray F. 
Wiedmer of Company C were mortally wounded, and Harry Crumrine, a private 
in Company F, was slightly wounded as the battalion was taking a position behind 
some levees in a rice field. Once this position was gained the insurgents were 
driven from the churchyard and the Wyoming men occupied the firing line all 
the way into San Pedro Macati, which place was captured before 11 o'clock. 

Upon being driven from the village, the insurgents retreated to Guadalupe 
Church. That afternoon a small party of the enemy were seen maneuvering on 
a hill south of the church and Companies F and G, under command of Captain 
O'Brien, were sent to drive them out. The movement was successfully executed 
without casualties, the two companies returning in about two hours, .\bout 9 
o'clock that evening Captain O'Brien was ordered to surround the church and hold 
his position until morning. He found the church deserted, broke in the door and 
found a small brass cannon and a number of rifles that had been left by the in- 
surgents in their hasty departure. 

On February 22, 1899, the battalion was engaged in the operations about 
Guadalupe Church, but no casualties resulted. Several days of comparative quiet 
followed, but on March 2d Company G was moved half a mile up the Pasig River, 
where trenches were constructed. Early on the morning of the "tli the Battle 
of San Juan del Monte was commenced by the Wyoming sharpshooters. A little 
later the line of Wyoming and Nebraska troops advanced and occupied a ridge 
about four hundred yards from the enemy's breastworks. The insurgents showed 
no signs of weakening until Companies C, F and H were ordered to charge. In 
this charge Private Joseph M. Spaeth of Company C fell mortally wounded near 
the enemy's works, Sergt. John A. McConnell of Company C, Capt. John D. 
O'Brien of Company F, and Oscar O. Carson of Company H were slightly 
wounded, but the insurgents fled precipitately before the impetuous charge. George 
E. Small of Company G was wounded near the Pasig River. 

During the next three months several slight skirmishes with the insurgents 
occurred. In one of these on March 27, 1899, Private James M. White of Com- 
pany C was slightly wounded, and on May 15th Private Alexander Dobby of 
Company F was wounded. Early in June the battalion took part in the ]\Iorong 
expedition and on July 6, 1899, orders were received to return to the United 


States. The troops embarked on the steamer Grant, which sailed out of Manihi 
Bay on the last dav of July and arrived at San Francisco on the 29th of August. 

On May 25, i8g8. President AlcKinley issued a proclamation calling for 
75,000 more volunteers. I'nder lliis call the Alger Light Artillery of Cheyenne 
was accepted, on the condition that it should number 125 men. The work of 
recruiting commenced on June 11, i8y8, and four days later the organization was 
mustered into the United States service as "Battery A. \\'yoming Light Artillery," 
with 127 names on the roll, to wit: 

Granville R. Palmer, captain: Harry A. Clarke.* first lieutenant; James ^L 
Gilmore,* second lieutenant; Elton E. Fay,* first sergeant; Edwin O. Glenn, 
quartermaster sergeant ; James L. Madden, veterinary sergeant ; Charles A. Bris- 
tol,* Granville M. King.* Robert N. La Fontaine,* John E. McCabe, William M. 
Daily and John F. Rigdon, sergeants; Edward W. Hirst, Rufus W. Shrader, 
William C. Mills,- Joseph T. Dyer, William C. Wolcott, Robert B. Graham, 
Albert G. Cayler and Charles W. Mahan,* corporals ; Thomas A. Sladden and 
Robert McFadden, farriers ; Edwin C. Mentz and James Sullivan, artificers ; John 
Olson, saddler: William Dillman * and Isaac W. Dreifuss, trumpeters; John F. 
Farrell,* wagoner. 

Privates— Glenn \\'. Abbott,* Emil G. Abry,* John Anderson. Peter Anderson, 
Alonzo A. Bailey,* David Barnett,* George Barth,* Frank Bradley, George Bris- 
tol, Herman A. Brookhart,* Cliiiford H. Buck,* Charles Bushman,* John Cafl'rey,* 
James H. Connors,* Ernest R. B. Croston,* Henry L. Dale, John Darling,* George 
k. Davis,* John L. DeCory,* William DeHaas,* Charles S. Elkins. Daniel R. 
Ellis,* William M. Enslow.* Gus Fardy, Edward B. Fear, Fay Fifield,* ^lalcolni 
L. Freed. George B. Gale. Ira L. Garner,* William Gauflf, William Gideon.* 
Martin E. Goden, Sidney D. Gonser,* Joseph P. Green, Edward Guinan, August 
Gustafson, William Haner.* Albert Hefele, Andrew Hofifman, Arthur C. Holway, 
Herbert Hollyman.* John G. Honnold, James Humphrey. George A. Jackson, 
James S. Jackson,* Howard H. Jordan, Martin Joyce.* August Keilquist. John 
Kroeger, John T. Lane.* \'ictor Lardi,* Lauritz A. P. Lasson, Peter Lawless,* 
Abe Levett, Alsinon C. Lish. \\'iliiam J. McCall.* Marion IMcCullum.* Robert 
S. McDole. Edward L. McKiernan. Charles J. Marble, John Martin, Edward 
Meredith,* George Monroe,* John Mulligan, Flerbert A. Murphy, John Oliver, 
Otto Pearson, John Peterson. Peter Peterson,* John Pointinen,* Charles Porter- 
field.* John J. Quinn, Andreas Rasmussen, John Rawson,* John P. Reedy,* 
Frank Robidon,* James F. Roberts,* Lee B. Sackett, Emil A. Sandberg,* W. A. 
Schilling.* \Mlliam Sehestedt. Don L. Shirley. Frank J. Sinex, James T. Slane, 
George H. Smith.* Leslie E. Snow,* Martin Stamm.* Henry Steinhofl:', William 
A. Stone, Oliver E. Swartz,* Edwin P. Taylor. Joseph Templin, William L. 
Tighe, Frank J. Timmins,* Bryant Turner,* Wilh'am \'an Noy, Herbert E. Wale. 
Charles Willard, ^^■illiam ^^■eir.* 

NoTK — I.ipiit. Harry A. Clarke was promoted to the captaincj' on November 12. 1898, 
upon the death of Captain Palmer. Not all the men named on the above muster roll accom- 
panied the battery to the Philippines, and several were discharged before the battery returned 
home. Those who were mustered out with the battery on September 23, 1899, are marked 
with a *. 


On June 24, 1898, the battery started for San Francisco, where it remained 
in different camps and under different commanders until November 8, 1898, when 
it embarked on the transport Newport, with Brig.-Gen. M. P. Miller's command, 
and arrived at Manila on the 7th of December. It served under various com- 
manders in the Military District of Cavite until July 8, 1899, when the guns were 
turned over to the Sixth United States Artillery and the men returned home 
with the Wyoming battalion on the steamer Grant, arriving at San Francisco or. 
Augtist 29, 1899. 

In his message to the Legislature on January 9, 1901, Governor De Forest 
Richards said : "When the news reached Wyoming that our state troops, after their 
arduous campaign in the Philippines, were about to be returned to their homes, it 
was the general sentiment of our people that Wyoming should follow the example 
of other states and provide transportation for our soldiers from San Francisco to 
their homes. The intention in doing this was to arrange it so that our brave soldiers, 
many of whom were weak and debilitated from a long service in a foreign clime, 
might save the travel pay allowed them by the General Government and not reach 
their homes utterly destitute. 

"The people of the state demanded that this be done, and as there were no 
funds available, several hundred public spirited gentlemen from all over the state, 
signed two notes, one to the Stockgrowers National Bank and one to the First 
National Bank of Cheyenne, dated August 24, 1899, for $4,442.10 bearing 6 per 
cent interest per annum, and with these funds our volunteers were transported 
to their various homes without cost to themselves, thus being shown in the most 
satisfactory manner the appreciation in which their services were held by the 

Upon the recommendation of the governor, the Legislature made an appro- 
priation sufficient to pay the notes, and also made an appropriation of $750 for 
the purpose of securing medals for the members of the battalion and battery, 
each medal being inscribed with the name of the recipient, etc. 


In addition to the troops already mentioned, Wyoming furnished seven troops 
to the Second United States A'olunteer Cavalry, more commonly known as "Tor- 
rey's Rough Riders." The regiment was raised by Col. Jay L. Torrey, a Wyoming 
man, who commanded it during its entire term of service. Troops A and B came 
from Colorado; C, E, F, G, H, K and L, from Wyoming; D, from Idaho; I, from 
LTtah : and M, from Nevada. Of the field and staff officers, Wyoming furnished 
Col. Jay L. Torrey; Maj. James G. Marbord ; Lieut. Herbert V. Lacey. adjutant; 
Lieut. Fred Rapp, quartermaster; Capt. Henry G. Golden, chaplain; Alaj. Morti- 
mer Jesurum, chief surgeon. 

Troop C was recruited in the vicinity of Laramie and was mustered in at Fort 
D. A. Russell on May 23, 1898, with the following officers and enlisted men: 
George R. Shanton, captain; Morgan F. Knadler, first lieutenant; William J. 
Abrams, second lieutenant; Charles W. Gilmore, first sergeant; Otto Zoller, 
quartermaster sergeant ; George S. Kline, Brutus H. Clay, Joseph T. Orr, Charles 
K. Harrington and Chris J. Silberg, sergeants ; William A. Grosvenor, William 
J. Sine, Herman C. Peterson, Winter P. Hepburn, Thomas C. Hunt, Albert R. 


King, Mortimer McKnight and Fred C. Hecht, corporals ; Herbert Wallis and 
Hiram F. Davis, trumpeters; Charles M. Johnson and Jonas H. Farr, farriers; 
Charles Trew, saddler ; Willis D. Jacus, wagoner. 

Troopers — Joseph Aaron, Kirt Acor, Daniel L. Aldridge, James Barber, George 
W. Barker, Alfred A. Benjamin, Patrick Boyle, Henry A. Brown, Harvey B. 
Burk, George H. Burke, Arthur W. Chesebro, DeWitt Clary, Samuel Coen, Wil- 
liam Craver, Tony Cuerden, Frank Curren, Alfred Daykin, Charles S. Dunlap, 
Sidney H. Dyer, Jack Fee, Jr., Hugh A. Ferguson, Paul Flackstein, Frank 
Flaherty, George R. Gardner, Harry Griffin, Rasmus Hansen, Hans T. Hansen, 
Tim Hamlin, Frederick C. Jenkins, Samuel Johnson, William E. Johnston, 
Meredith Jones, Fred Kassahn, William E. King, Hans T. Kulewatz, Cornelius 
Lenihan, Frank A. May, Charles W. Mans, Henry S. Mapes, John C. Matheson, 
Christian W. Miller, Hugh M. McPhee, Andrew C. Neilsen, James U. Nisbet, 
Adolph A. Olsen, Perry Parish, Albert F. Price, Frank P. Price, Charles B. 
Peirce, John J. Schenck. Lewis Sherwood, George Schaefer, Henry Steltz, William 
C. Tipler, Hugh Vass, William B. Wallace. James E. Walsh, Harry H. Whitman, 
William C. Whittenberg. 

Troop E was recruited in the counties of Sheridan, Crook and Weston and 
was mustered into the United States service at Fort D. A. Russell on May 23, 1898, 
with the following officers and men: Henry H. Austin, captain; Norvel H. 
Baker, first lieutenant ; Lewis S. Magruder, second lieutenant ; T. J. Gatchell, 
first sergeant ; Daniel L. Van Meter, quartermaster sergeant ; George L. Wade, 
Harve Springer, Patrick J. Conway, Philo Carmon, George Skinner and Robert 
Long, sergeants ; Arthur C. Schneider, Guy Campbell, Charles S. Brown, Ellioft 
W. Brown, Joseph Sellers, Edward Anderson, William Hymer and Bird Moore, 
corporals : Truman L. Fox and Anton Jenson, trumpeters, Herman Gerdel and 
William McWilliams, farriers; Milo Hamilton, saddler; Frank Valentine, 

Troopers — Richard Alleyne. Guy R. Barton, Ross Bennett, Charles C. Blake, 
William E. Bollen, Joseph L. Bomar, Marnus J. Cannon, Peter Cannon, Edward 
Clark, John Cole, Russell Conger, Harry L. Cooper, Harry CosgrifT, Albert M. 
Crafts, James W. Croghan, John Davey, William Davis, John Davaney, Frank 
Dooley, Benjamin F. Draper, Arthur Evans, Benjamin Freeman, Carl Gleason, 
John Gurney, Clarence E. Hefiner, William J. House, Charles Hulett, Charles 
Kolberg, Arthur Krusee, Harry M. Krusee, Wesley Leaming, John Loafman, 
Finley Lowry, Roland J. Lytle, Eugene McCarthy, Henry McConaghy, James H. 
Magoon, William Moncriefife, Samuel B. Pohlman, Chris Rasmussen, Burl 
Robinett, Alonzo Robinett, Walter Robinson, James F. Rose, Charles Ross, 
Luther M. Roush, Warren Sawyer, Nelson Simpson, Edward J. Smith, Guy L. 
Smith, Archie Sollars, David Spitz, Jacob E. StaufTer, Daniel Sweeney, Robert 
C. Wilkerson, Paul Willitts, Charles F. Wilson, Frank E. Wood. 

Troop F came from Rock Springs, Green River and Cheyenne. It was 
mustered in at Fort Russell on May 27, 1898, with Willis F. Hoadley as captain; 
Leonard L. Deitrick, first lieutenant; Thomas J. King, second lieutenant; Frank 
Kidd, first sergeant ; Daniel B. Shields, quartermaster sergeant ; John A. Jackson, 
George E. Artist, George Landenberger, George D. Solomon, William A. Craw- 
ford and Jeremiah Maly, sergeants ; John W. Peters, Bert McClure, Angus J. 
Matheson, Jacob L. Parrott, Frank C. Wells, Melville W. James, Josiah H. 


Eardley and John E. O'Riley, corporals; Frank J. Gunther and Edward F. Ely, 
trumpeters; Lucius A. Place, saddler: James Paulson, wagoner. 

Troopers — Benjamin Benz, Joseph Bird, Henry C. Bloom, John N. Bodendick, 
John E. Brooks, Samuel K. Brown, Morrison Chester, Charles W. Cole, Bert 
Collins, Thomas Craig, Allison Davis, Walter Durbin, Albert B. Ekdall, Max 
Fairbanks, William Farley, Rufus E. Garner, Frederick Hagen, Patrick W. 
Haley, Frank O. Johnson, Leo Leffler, Milton ^L Lewis, George H. McBride, 
James AA'. McGuire, Robert McKlem. Arthur ]\Iaher. Robert Manassa, Philip 
Michaels, William D. r^Ioffatt, John Muir, Robert ^Nlyers, Charles O'Brien, Wil- 
liam O'Brien, James H. Patterson, Harry X. Pauley, \\'alter J. Peckham, Emile 
Peterson, Edward Petteys, Charles A. Pierson, Ellsworth Porter, Lawrence 
Riordan, George G. Robinson, George W. Sadlier, Adolph C. Saunders, Edward 
G. Schoel, Benjamin Smith, Edgar M. Smith, Eugen Tiberghein, Frederick O. 

Troop G was raised in and around Sheridan, Charles Lenwood being especially 
active in recruiting. Owing to a defect in his sight, Mr. Lenwood was rejected by 
the board of medical examiners. Had it not been for this he would undoubtedly 
have been captain of the troop. It has been said of Troop G that it had "on its 
roster more representatives of the genus frontiersman than any other troop in 
the regiment. To the manner born, these men were most at home on the arid 
plain? of the west. Sitting their horses like centaurs, they handle their 'shooting 
irons' with that perfection of ease and deadly aim which springs only from long 

The personnel of the troop at the time it was mustered in was as follows: 
John B. Mahardi, captain; John H. Ivey, first lieutenant; Ralph B. Cooper, second 
lieutenant ; John Timothy, first sergeant ; Joseph \'. E. ^larsh, quartermaster 
sergeant; John G. Thornton, Robert Holland, \\'allace B. Hodge. Homer R. 
Peret. Samuel L. Brown and Adelbert Flores, sergeants ; Thomas L. Coble, 
Charles W. Fischer, Peter H. Jones, Clarence Milner, Oscar Palmer. Thomas 
H. MacCallum and James A. Brown, corporals; Ethan T. Chilcott. farrier; 
Thomas E. DeNike. blacksmith ; George E. Dorsey and George P. \\'ebster, 
trumpeters ; Samuel E. Bayless, saddler, Augustus C. Hitt, wagoner. 

Troopers — Edward F. Beam, Frank Bodle, Albert W. Bristol, Bert R. Bross. 
Elijah L. Brown, Frederick G. Burto, William Callahan, Alden Carpenter, George 
A\'. Curtis, John S. Dugan. John W. Embree, John G. Fletcher. \\'illiam J. Fox. 
Thomas Gallagher, George R. Goulding. August Gronen. Alexander Hagan. Lester 
B. Haley, Hans P. Hansen, William C. Hopkins. Marion V. Inskeep. John F. 
Karling, George L. LaDomas, Charles C. Langley, John H. Latta, John C. Lee. 
Thorwald Leesborg, Ira Loud, John D. L6wry, William McAdam, George W. 
McDonald. Rudolph R. Mayer, Walter Meldrum. James Menecle, Leonard Metz, 
Elias O. Moore, Merion M. Moore. Joseph M. Morrow, Charles A. Peavey, John 
:\I. Pelfrey, William I. Powell, Richard H. Redmond, Arthur Reece, A. S. Rey- 
nolds, Charles W. Reynolds, Archie A. Sackett, Thomas Saven,', Ara Sawyer, \Vi\- 
liam B. Schrantz. William Schurr, William Shoemaker, James H. Skillen. William 
H. Smith, Emerie Swick, Charles R. Thompson. William A. Waldo, Jeffrey E. 
Walker, Ford L. Wanamaker, Roy Withington. 

Troop H was raised in Carbon County by Louis G. Davis, who resigned the 
office of sheriff' for the purpose, and who was elected captain of the troop. The 


other officers were : Charles B. Osborne, first lieutenant : John H. Albro, second 
lieutenant; John J. Fagan, first sergeant; h'rank J. Do}-le, quartermaster sergeant; 
George \\'. Sisson, Frank Wyman, Richard Higbee, Xorris P. Ballou, Herman 
C. Franke and James Blackball, sergeants ; Daniel J. Callahan, William M. Collins, 
Xelson A. Ekdahl, Edgar \\\ Hewitt, Clarke E. McGregor, Hartly B. Keeler, 
F"red M. Wolfe and William E. Lamb, corporals; Louis Stellenberger, trumpeter; 
George \\'. McDonald, farrier ; Alfred Gasswint, saddler ; John W. Hollandsworth, 

Troopers — George W. Adams, Joseph il. Adams, Herman F. J. Anderson. 
Stuart M. Anderson, Edgar F. Bailey, Ernest Brink, John R. Brown. William 
W. Brown, James Buckley, Albert Cariboni, Duncan Carr, William H. Childers, 
Richard Clark, Charles H. Cook, Luke Corrigan, John Cripe, Frederick J. Davis, 
John H. Davis, James Demaree, John Doner, George E. Franklin. Jesse D. 
Fonts. John H. Glazier, Ambrose Hemingway, John M. Mott, Robert J. Houston, 
Oliver E. Hunter, Thomas M. Hutchinson, Chauncy Hurlburt, Evan Jones, 
William .S. Kinnaman. \\'illiam Kruger. Ralph W. Leach, John J. Madden. Edward 
J. Marsh, Joseph Matthews, Charles A. Meeker, Elkana B. Miller. Richard Moran, 
Lawrence T. MuKaney. Martin O'Brien, George E. Parker, George E. Priest, 
Perry M. Richardson. Conrad Rowland, Henry W. Sacknus, James Sherwood, 
John Siltomaki. William H. Slee. Charles J. Talbott. Hugh Thompson. ]\Iatthew 
\\'alsh, Robert L. Wheeler, Julius U'olff. " 

Troop K was made up of men from Rawlins. Casper and Douglas, and was 
composed of expert riders and marksmen. It was mustered in at Fort D. A. 
Russell in the latter part of May, 1898, with the following officers and enlisted 
men : Morgan H. Maghee, captain ; Hugh L. Patton. first lieutenant ; Alva C. 
Rice, second lieutenant ; Edward S. White, first sergeant ; Edward D. Johnson, 
quartermaster sergeant; William A. Duncan. Robert i\IcAdams. Robert W. 
Wallace. Louis \\'. Launiere. Don A. Williams and George C. Thompson, ser- 
geants : Albert J. Cook, Charles C. Carnham, Robert J. Allen, George W. Dufl:'y, 
David A. Williams. Sheridan H. Reilly. George W. Timmons and Charles E. 
Nichols, corporals ; Gustave Hakola and Albert W. Reed, farriers ; Charles H. 
Lilly and William J. Faulkner, trumpeters ; Hugi A. Beck, cook ; Frank Fay. 
saddler; Melvin P. Wain, wagoner. 

Troopers — John W. Arden, ]Mathew Barber, Otto C. Bartz, Frank F. Berry, 
Frank H. Betz, Fred G. Boiler, Lyman Brown, William O. Comstock, Thomas 
G. Cook. John B. Dawson, Jesse L Dement, Jacob N. Doersam. Oscar Donoho, 
Richard C. Doyle, Elmer C. Edgerly, Albert L. Evans, Horace Evans. James 
H. Finley, Frank E. Fletcher, Raymond N. Gourley, Randall Hayes, Gilman 
A Hackett, Frank M. Heuet. Charles Holland, Fred R. Ingalls, John F. Janecek, 
Samuel P. Kennison. Charles H. Laughrey. George Lobmeir. Maurice Locknane, 
James McGinners. Colin J. Mackenzie. Anton Maybaum. Walter Merrill. Charles 
H. Aloore. Jonathan Morris. Roy W. Morse, August F. Neeseman, Eugene H. 
O'Brien. Charles T. Paden. Frank J. Payne, Fred^ Roediger, Erastus W. Ruhl. 
Albert N. Sandberg, Frank L. Schott, Lewis D. Scott, Booker L. Smith. Bryden 
F. Spencer. Percy E. Springford. William E. \'an Curen, James H. Webber, 
Elmer E. Wheeler. George E. \\'hite. Grant E. \\'illiams. Thomas H. Williams. 

Troop L was composed of men from around Evanston and Kemmerer and was 
mustered into the L^nited States service on May 18, 1898, being one of the first 


to complete its organization. Robert A. Hocker was commissioned captain; 
Edgar D. Shurtliff, first lieutenant; Thomas W. Davies, second lieutenant. The 
non-commissioned officers were: Charles E. Davis, first sergeant; George Ellis, 
quartermaster sergeant ; Frederick Richardson, Charles Dempsey, A. C. B. Lauder, 
Lewii C. Marx, Martin J. Cleary and Harry Shepherd, sergeants; Henry B. 
Dexter, William H. Evans, Henry X. Laskey. Sylvester Whalen, Curtis Durnford, 
Thomas Fife. Charles F. Coggle and James Walton, corporals ; William Morrow, 
trumpeter ; William T. Lane and William R. Welch, farriers ; John L. Lee, sad- 
dler; Edward C. Sims, wagoner. 

Troopers — Harold R. Aniens, Cas.e Bennett, Charles S. Beveridge, John B. 
Dowdige, \Mlliam J. L. Carpenter, John C. Christensen, Thomas Cook, William 
Cook, Ralph Crumbaugh. \\"illiam P. Darby, Byron C. DeLano, Norman E. 
Dempsey, George De\'ore, Samuel J. Dickey, James Eardley. Dell GeHove, 
Clarence E. Gimmer, Arthur Goodman, Frank Hall, William P. Hartzell. Clarence 
Johnson, Joseph Johnson, Peter J. Johnson, Walter M. Johnston. Jonathan Jones, 
Jr., Frank Kennedy, Henry Lanstring, ClilTord W. Long, Hiram Loveday, Garrett 
Lowham, Joseph Lowham, William R. Lush, Lewis W. McCarl, Orin McRea, 
James O. Mansfield, Orson Mathews, William T. Moore, Olaf Naster, Andrew 
Niemela, Harry Nye, E. Perkins, Glen J. Purdy, Orin Oueal, Arthur L. Quinn, 
Tohn Reed, Reuben A. Robinson, Henry Scharff', John Simpson, Charles H. 
Smith, Samuel Stover, Calvin E. Sturm, Jesse M. Taylor, James R. Tennant, 
Ernest Weeks, Joseph Wilkinson. 


The regiment left Cheyenne on June 22, 1898, for Camp Cuba Libre, Jack- 
sonville, Fla. At Tupelo, Miss., on the 26th, the second section of the troop train 
ran into the first section, which resulted in the immediate death of three troopers, 
three others died later, and eleven others were more or less injured. The killed 
were Samuel Johnson, Cornelius Lenihan and William B. Wallace, all of Troop 
C. Those who died later were Henry S. Mapes and Henry Stehz of Troop C, 
and Clarence E. Gimmer, of Troop L. The injured who recovered were Col. 
Jay L. Torrey, Joseph Aaron, Hiran F. Davis, Jonas H. Farr, George R. Gardner, 
William A. Grosvenor and John J. Schenck of Troop C, Arthur Evans of Troop 
E, Wallace B. Hodge of Troop G, and E. Perkins and Joseph Wilkinson of Troop 
L. Two Colorado men were also slightly injured. The regiment remained at 
Camp Cuba Libre until October, when it was mustered out. 

In the battalion, the battery and the Second United States Volunteer Cavalry, 
the State of Wyoming furnished a number of men aggregating four and a half 
times her proper quota, as apportioned by the war department — more in propor- 
tion to population than any other state in the L'uion. 

soldiers' monument 

In his message to the Legislature in January, 1899, Governor Richards said: 
"The Wyoming Volunteer Aid Association, composed of the patriotic women of 
the state, has inaugurated a movement for the erection of a monument to the 
memorv of the volunteers from this state who sacrificed their lives in maintaining 


the honor of their country. It is desired that permission be given for the erection 
of this monument within the grounds of the capitol, and that a suitable contribu- 
tion to the fund be made by the state." 

By the act of February 20, 1899, the requested permission was given and the 
sum of $1,500 was set apart as a "Heroes' Alonument Fund," to be delivered to 
the Volunteer Aid Association when so ordered by the governor. The monument 
was erected in 1900 by LaFontaine & Bradley and was at first located immediately 
east of the walk leading to the main entrance of the capitol. In 1917 it was 
removed to its present location at the southeast corner of the capitol grounds. 
The monument is of Vermont granite, surmounted by the figure of a soldier in 
the attitude of "Taking the Oath," and inscribed with the names of the organiza- 
tions it was erected to honor. The figure on the top of the monument is supposed 
to be that of Tack Owens of Kentucky, then a soldier at Fort D. A. Russell, but the 
statue can hardly be said to be a "speaking likeness." 

^ 5 








In the chapter on Fur Traders are given descriptions of many of the early 
trading posts, notably Forts Adams, Bonneville, Fraeb, Hall, Henry. John, Platte, 
William, the Portuguese Houses, as well as some of lesser note. These were 
not military posts in the true sense of the term, as they were not authorized by 
the Government, though they played a conspicuous part in the early history of 


For more than half a century Fort Laramie was the most important historical 
point in the great Northwest region between the Missouri River and the Pacific 
Coast. It was the central base of supplies and a military station on the overland 
trails across the plains and mountains to Oregon, California and Utah, over which 
the "forty-niners,'' Mormons and Oregon emigrants treked in huge trains and 
cavalcades. For many years it was the rendezvous of the most powerful Indian 
tribes of the Northwest. It was the headquarters of the most famous explorers, 
hunters, trappers, scouts, guides and fur traders known in western history, in- 
cluding such men as Kit Carson, Jim Bridger, Jim Baker, Bordeau, Chatillion. 
La Ramie, St. \'rain. etc., and later Buffalo Bill, Frank Grouard. Big l!at and 

Among the noted explorers and authors who at different times made camps or 
visits at Fort Laramie may be mentioned Captain Bonneville, Gen. John C. Fre- 
mont, Theodore Winthrop, Captain King, Francis Parkman, the historian, Henry 
M. Stanley, the African explorer, Marcus Whitman, Captain Stansbury, Eugene 
F. ^Vare and many others. Nearly all of the early United States geological sur- 
veys and reconnaissances made Fort Laramie a base of operations or supplies. 
Many important military expeditions were organized there and some of the most 
noted Indian treaties were there concluded. 


As a midway station on the old Government trail, it afforded protection and a 
resting place to thousands of emigrants crossing the plains bound westward, who 
recuperated their stock on the grasses of the valleys of the North Platte and 
Laramie rivers and here they purchased needed supplies before entering on their 
long and tedious journey through the mountains. When the Indians were on the 
war path they were here given military escort. During its early days as a mili- 
tary post many of the most famous generals of the Civil war were stationed here, 
such as Merritt, Gibbon, Crook, Dodge, Sumner and others. 


The old fort or trading post was built in 1834 by Smith, Jackson & Sublette 
and afterward sold to Robert Campbell, who named it Fort William after his part- 
ner, ^Villiam L. Sublette. Mr. Campbell soon after named it Laramie, in- honor 
of a brave French trapper who was killed on the river which also bears his name. 
The names, Adams, John and Platte have also been attributed to Fort Laramie, but 
they were simply other trading posts in that vicinity and were independent estab- 
lishments. Investigation shows that they were not located at the point where 
Fort Laramie stood and were not transferred with the old trading post when it was 
sold to the government Robert Campbell sold the trading post which he had 
named Fort Laramie, to the American Fur Company in 1836. 

To establish the separate identity of Forts Adams, John and Platte it is suffi- 
cient to say Fort Adams is described by Fremont as being two miles from Fort 
Laramie; that Fort John was built several miles away in 1839, and abandoned 
in 1846: and Fort Platte, three miles distant on the Platte, was not built till 1840. 


The fort as built by the American Fur Company is described by Fremont on 
his first expedition in May, 1842. He says: "This was a large post having 
more the air of military construction than Fort Adams, at the mouth of the river, 
being some twenty-five feet above the water, and its lofty walls whitewashed 
and picketed, with large bastions at the angles, gave it quite an imposing appear- 
ance in the uncertain light of evening. A cluster of lodges belonging to Sioux 
Indians was pitched under the walls outside and with the fine background of the 
Black Hills and the prominent peak of the Laramie Mountains, strongly drawn 
in the clear western sky, where the sun had already set, the whole formed at 
the moment a strikingly beautiful picture. 

"I walked up to visit our friends at the fort, which is a quadrangular struc- 
ture built of clay adobe, after the fashion of the Mexicans, who are generally 
employed in building them. The walls are fifteen feet high, surmounted by a 
wooden palisade and form the outside portions of the rows of houses which 
entirely surround a yard of about one hundred and thirty feet square. Every 
apartment has its door and window opening inside. There are two entrances, 
the main entrance having two gates with an arched passage intervening. A little 
square window high above the ground opened from an adjoining chamber, so 
that when the inner gate is closed and barred anyone inside may communicate 
with outside parties. This obviated the necessity of admitting suspicious persons." 


parkman's description 

Francis Parkman, the historian, visited Fort Laramie in the spring of 1846, 
with Flenry Chatilhon as a guide. He started from St. Louis, went on the south 
side of the Platte and forded the Laramie Ri\er directly at the fort. Parkman 
stayed at the fort for a while and then went out and lived among the Indians 
to study their habits and customs. The Indian \illage where he lived was at the 
point on the Laramie River now called LU'a. some twenty-five miles from the 
fort, with which he always kept in touch. When he reached Fort Laramie with 
his party, Bordeaux was in charge, Papin, the manager of the fur company's 
affairs, being absent. He welcomed Parkman's party and took them into the 
fort. Parkman's description of the fort agrees with Fremont's. He describes 
the scene as they came in as follows : "Tall Indians in their buffalo robes were 
striding across the area or reclining at full length on the low roofs of the build- 
ings. Numerous squaws gaily bedizened sat grouped about in front of the rooms 
they occupied, their mongrel offsprings, restless and vociferous, rambled in every 
direction, and the trappers, traders and employees of the establishment were busy 
in their labors or amusements." 

He says the officials of the fur company had absolute sway over the vast region 
around them, as the nearest United States troops at that time were 700 miles to 
the east, while the west was practically an unexplored wilderness. Looking from 
the walls upon the surrounding hills, he observed scaft'olds rising in the distance 
against the red western sky. They bore upon them the dead of the Dakota chiefs 
whose remains were placed in the \icinity of the fort for protection from enemy 
tribes, yet frequently the Crows ranging through had broken down the scaft'olds 
and thrown the bodies to the wolves. Around many of these scaft'olds were 
placed white buft'alo skulls arranged in a mystic circle. 

Parkman bravely took his chances in living among the Indians, but he saw 
that the country must soon be garrisoned with troops, for he observes : "A mili- 
tary force and military law are urgently ■ needed in this perilous region, and 
unless troops are speedily stationed at Fort Laramie or in the neighborhood, 
emigrants and travelers will be exposed to imminent risks." 


The first troops to reach Fort Laramie before it became a military post was 
an expedition organized under Gen. Stephen W. Kearney in 1845. Kearney, 
with several companies of dragoons, left Fort Leavenworth and marched to Fort 
Laramie. From there he sent a part of his command to the Sweetwater, while 
he remained at the fort. Then, for the first time, the Indian tribes of that vicinity 
saw white warriors and were lost in astonishment at their fine equipment and 
gay attire, and at the regular order of their marches and evolutions. 

The Arapahoes at that time having committed several murders, General Kear- 
ney had them called in, and told them he would annihilate the whole tribe if 
they killed any more white people. To add to the eft'ect of his threat, he ordered 
a howitzer fired and a rocket thrown up. This created the utmost consternation 
among them. Many threw themselves on the ground and others ran away in 
terror and amazement. It is related that on his trip across the plains Kearney 

At the age of tliiiteeii. Drummer boy and bugler at old Fort Laramie. 


had a mountain howitzer loaded on his rear wagon and concealed by the canvas 
wagon cover. On one occasion the train was attacked by a large band of Indians 
on horseback, who rode up behind and began to shoot arrows into the train. The 
howitzer was turned loose on them with great effect. Many were knocked off 
their horses and killed. It was as if a bolt of lightning had come out of a clear 
sky. They were terribly surprised. As a frontiersman would say, they "hit 
the breeze" with great suddenness and unanimity. For a long time they would 
not go near a wagon, as they had a superstition that a "white man's wagon heap 


Captain Bonneville's party encamped on the Laramie River, May 25, 1832, 
and spent six weeks between Fort Laramie and the Sweetwater examining the 
country. An account of this expedition is given in another part of this history. 

The Oregon expedition, undertaken by Nathaniel J- Wyeth in 1834, reached 
Fort Laramie on June ist of that year. On this expedition Wyeth built a fort 
near Jackson's Hole. 

The first considerable emigration across the continent by the Oregon Trail 
began in 1841. and most of it went to Oregon up to about 1847, when the Mormon 
influx began, which was followed by the California gold seekers in 1849. The 
caravans were mostly made up of ox teams which traveled slowly. All the 
trains made a stop at Fort Laramie, whether it was a trading post or a fort. 

In 1846 Congress passed an act providing for the building of forts along 
the Oregon-California Trail. The Mexican war, then in progress, stimulated 
overland travel to the Pacific coast, and the new explorations of the West and 
the increasing trade with the Indian tribes aroused the ambition and enterprise 
of Americans to plunge into the frontier. 


It was not until 1848, however, that Lieut. Daniel P. Woodbury of the L'nited 
States Engineer Corps was sent out to select sites for the new forts. He first 
recommended the site of the American Fur Company at the fork of the Laramie 
and Platte rivers as a proper and needed location for a fort, and having obtained 
an offer of the property for $4,000, he was authorized to make the purchase from 
the fur company. Soon thereafter new buildings were constructed, the first 
structure of good size being the building which afterwards was named "Old 
Bedlam," the lumber for its construction having been brought 800 miles in wagons 
from Fort Leavenworth at a cost of $60,000. This building was used for quar- 
ters and clubhouse of bachelor officers and was the scene of Captain King's story 
entitled "Laramie, or the Queen of Bedlam," and was one of the earliest of his 
popular military novels. The first United States troops garrisoned at the fort 
were Companies C and D, Third Cavalry, under Major Sanderson. A little later 
they were followed by Company G, Sixth L'nited States Infantry. The Govern- 
ment afterwards set apart a military reservation of fifty-four square miles, being 
a parallelogram nine miles north and soutli and six miles east and west. A timber 
reserve was also established near Laramie Peak, about fifty miles west of the 


fort, where the post thereafter secured its wood and lumber supplies. Other 
buildings were added from time to time, mostly built of concrete. Officers' 
quarters, cavalry and infantry barracks, large supply warehouses, stables, black- 
smith and other workshops were substantially built. Numerous small cottages 
were built for married sergeants and civil employees, together with a guard- 
house and hospital, which in early days were utilized by citizens, settlers and 
civilian employees. Many settlers located on ranches nearby, to be under the 
protection of the military forces. They engaged in raising grain, vegetables, cattle, 
horses and hay, and working teams on Government contracts. Thus Fort Laramie 
became not only a military post, but a busy emporium of trade for the whole 
surrounding region — a city in the wilderness. 


The Oregon emigration was greatest from 1841 to 1845. The Mormon immi- 
gration began in 1847, the first Mormon colony reaching the fort in the spring 
of that year. They were followed by another Mormon party, which reached Fort 
I.aramie in June, both expeditions moving on to Salt Lake after a brief stay at 
the fort. It is estimated that one hundred thousand Mormons crossed the plains 
by way of Fort Laramie in the succeeding five years. 

But the high tide of emigration was reached about 1850-51. A new era in 
the life and settlement of the mountain West began with the discovery of gold 
in California. To the dull routine of ox team travel over the Oregon Trail was 
added the zest of fortune hunting and adventure. The rush of the gold seekers 
was one of the most unique phases of American history and led to the rapid 
settlement and development of all the far western states. In the early season 
of 1850. Langworthy says 60,000 gold seekers went over the Government Trail, 
and teams had gone forward before he arrived at Fort Laramie on June 13th 
of that year. He says the excitement and hurry of the travelers were so great 
that they threw away much of the freight which impeded their progress. Thus 
the trail was marked with an\ils, crowbars, drills, axes, grindstones, trunks, cloth- 
ing, etc. Another estimate says that ninety thousand animals went over the trail 
during one season. One tra\eler, in going five miles, counted 429 wagons with 
their human freight and supplies. One might travel a hundred miles and never 
be out of sight of moving trains. Thus Fort Laramie became the center, the "Mid- 
way Plaisance," of all these trains and the immense traffic they brought. 


The various expeditions fitted out for Indian campaigns at Fort Laramie and 
the important Indian treaties made there are described in other portions of this 
history. It will be sufficient to mention them without details. Passing over the 
early expeditions of Bonneville, Marcus Whitman, Wyeth and Fremont, which 
became history before the L'nited States made Fort Laramie a military post, we 
can refer to the following: 

Captain Stansbury's expedition in 1849, to make a reconnaisance for a rail- 
road from Fort Laramie to Fort Bridger ; General Harney's expedition in 1855 
against the Siou.x ; Lieutenant Warren's expedition in 1857 from Fort Laramie 


to the Black Hills for geologic and topographic investigations ; General Sumner's 
expedition in 1857 to suppress Indian outbreaks; General Connor's expedition 
in 1865 against the tribes of Western \\'yoming and Utah ; Colonel Carrington's 
expedition in 1865 to establish Forts Phil Kearny, Reno and C. F. Smith; and 
General Crook's expeditions of 1875 and 1876 against the Crazy Horse and Sitting 
Bull bands of Indians. 

Of the treaties made at Fort Laramie, that of September, 1851, was the first. 
Col. D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, called a council at the fort 
to fix the boundaries of the different tribes. The council was in session twenty- 
three days and was attended by 10,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho and Crow 
Indians. When the provision trains arrived the Indians and whites joined in a 
grand feast. Under this treaty the Government paid the Indians $50,000 annually 
for ten years for a trail and right of way over their lands, and each tribe accepted 
certain boundaries as hunting territory. 

On June i, 1865, Col. H. F. Maynadier, commandant at Fort Laramie; E. B. 
Taylor, superintendent of Indian affairs ; Thomas Wister, of Philadelphia ; and 
R. N. McLaren, of Minnesota, as United States commissioners, met the principal 
chiefs of that section and concluded a treaty of peace and the concession of a 
right of wa^ over the Bozeman Road to Montana. Red Cloud refused to sign 
this treaty and withdrew from the council, resulting in further Indian wars. 
Another treaty was made in 1866, which was not ratified by the Government. 
The Indians began to get bad and committed many depredations. Early in 
1868 all the ranches between Fort Laramie and Fort Fetterman were destroyed 
and several settlers were killed at Horse Shoe, Twin Springs and La Bonte. 


This condition precipitated the famous treaty of 1868, when Generals Sher- 
man, Terry and Augur, representing the army, and John Sanborn, Samuel F. 
Tappan, Nathaniel G. Taylor and J. B. Henderson, civilians, were appointed a 
committee to negotiate with the Indians. Henry M. Stanley accompanied the 
commission as newspaper correspondent. They came to Fort Laramie in May 
and called the Indians together. The treaty gave the Indians the country north 
of the Platte as hunting ground. The Indians who signed the treaty were the 
Sioux chiefs. Red Cloud. Medicine Eagle, Black Tiger, Man-Afraid-of-His- 
Horse, and a number of minor chiefs. 

A treaty made by the same commission with the head men of the Crow nation 
gave that tribe a reservation in Southern Montana, and they in return ceded 
the greater part of their lands in Wyoming to the whites. Three days later the 
commission concluded a treaty with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes by which they 
relinquished all claims to lands and agreed to accept homes and Government aid 
on specified reserves. Later in 1875 the Arapahoes agreed to accept homes on 
the Wind River reserve, where they are now located. 


The romance of the love story and death of Spotted-Tail's daughter has been 
made the basis of much writing, interspersed with fact and fiction. 


For several years Ah-ho-ap-pa lived in the Indian village near the fort and 
became a constant visitor, until she was well known to the officers and soldiers. 
She especially enjoyed seeing dress parade and guard mount. 

It seems to be a well authenticated fact that she fell in love with a cavalry 
officer, Captain Rhinehart, and became deeply infatuated with him, although he 
showed her only polite attention, which was her due as daughter of a celebrated 
chief. The captain was killed in an expedition against the Sioux, and the Indian 
maid mourned him inconsolably. In the meantime Spotted-Tail took his band 
up into the Powder River country and moved backwards and forwards to Big 
Horn, Rosebud and Tongue rivers, taking his daughter with him. 

Eugene F. Ware, afterwards United States commissioner of pensions, who 
was then adjutant at Fort Laramie, wrote at that time as follows of the situation 
in .Spotted-Tail's camp: 

"Ah-ho-ap-pa was living in a chilly and lonesome tepee among the pines on 
the west bank of Powder River. She had not seen a white person since her visit 
to Laramie in August, 1864. Ah-ho-ap-pa's heart was broken. She could not 
stand up against her surroundings. In vain her father had urged her to accept 
the conditions as they were, to be happy and contented, and not worry about 
things out of her reach. She had an ambition — a vague one ; but her hopes 
were gone. 

"Shortly before her death a runner from Fort Laramie announced to the 
Indians on Powder River that commissioners would come, with the grass, who 
would bring the words of the Great Father to his Indian children. Shan-tag-alisk 
I Spotted-Tail) was urged to send runners to all the bands south and west of 
the Alissouri River and to meet at Fort Laramie as soon as their ponies could live 
on the grass. 

"Ah-ho-ap-pa heard the news, but it did not revive her. She told her father 
that she wanted to go, but she would be dead ; that it was her wish to be buried 
in the cemetery at Fort Laramie, near the grave of 'Old Smoke,' a distant relative 
and a great chief among the Sioux in former years. This her relative promised 

"When her death took place, after great lamentations among the band, the 
skin of a freshly killed deer was held over the fire and thoroughly permeated and 
creosoted with smoke. Ah-ho-ap-pa was wrapped in it and it was tightly bound 
around her with thongs so that she was temporarily embalmed." 

This was in the spring of 1868. Spotted-Tail started with the body on their 
sad journey to Fort Laramie, 200 miles distant. When the funeral party arrived 
within fifteen miles of Fort Laramie it camped and a runner was sent in to 
announce its coming to Colonel Maynadier. That officer was a prince at heart, 
as well as a good soldier. Moreover, he had been sent to Fort Laramie to smooth 
the way for the big peace commission. Spotted-Tail still stood high among his 
people. Why not take pains to impress him with the good intentions and peaceful 
views of the whites? The post commander at the time was Maj. George IM. 
O'Brien, a graduate of Dublin University, subsequently brevetted to the rank of 
general. He afterwards practiced law at Omaha and died there. He was a 
brother of Col. "Nick" O'Brien of Cheyenne, now known as the hero of Julesburg. 



The result of a consultation held by the officers was that an ambulance was 
dispatched to the Indian camp, guarded by a company of cavalry in full uniform, 
followed by two twelve-pound mountain howitzers with postilions in red chevrons. 
When the camp was reached, Ah-ho-ap-pa's body was placed in the ambulance, 
her two white ponies were tethered behind the vehicle, and the procession slowly 
moved toward the fort. Concerning what follows, Eugene F. Ware says: 

"When the cavalcade had reached the river, a couple of miles from the post, 
the garrison turned out and, with Colonel Maynadier at the head, met and escorted 
them into the post, and the party were assigned quarters. The next day a scaffold 
was erected in the military cemetery near the grave of "Old Smoke.' It was 
made of tent poles, twelve feet long, embedded in the ground and fastened with 
thongs, over which a buiifalo robe was laid and on which the coffin was to be placed. 

"To the poles of the scafifold were nailed the heads and tails of the two white 
ponies, so that Ah-ho-ap-pa could ride through the fair hunting grounds of the 
skies. A coffin was made and lavishly decorated. The body was not unbound 
from the deerskin shroud, but was wrapped in the coffin mounted on the wheels 
of an artillery caisson. After the coffin came a twelve-pound howitzer, and the 
whole was followed to the cemetery by the entire garrison in full uniform. 

"The tempestuous and chilly weather moderated somewhat. The Rev. Mr. 
Wright, who was the post chaplain, suggested an elaborate burial service. Shan- 
tag-a-lisk was consulted. He said he wanted his daughter buried Indian fashion, 
so she would go not where the white people went, but where the red people went. 
Every request of Shan-tag-a-lisk was met by Colonel Maynadier with a hearty 
and satisfactory 'Yes.' " . 

The Indian customs were adopted, according to the chief's request, but in his 
honor the military burial service was added, with the post band, flags, detach- 
ments of troops, etc. When the parade reached the burial ground each of the 
Indian women came up, one at a time, and talked to Ah-ho-ap-pa. Some of them 
whispered to her long and earnestly as if they were sending by her a hopeful 
message to a lost child. Each put some little remembrance in the coffin. One 
put in a little looking glass, another a string of colored beads, another a pine 
cone with some sort of embroidery of sinew in it. Then the lid was fastened 
on, the women took the coffin, raised it and placed it on the scaffold. The Indian 
men stood mutely and stolidly around looking on, and none of them moved a 
muscle or tendered any help. 

The sequel to this interesting story is told in the return of Spotted-Tail to 
the fort for the remains of his daughter in 1875. John S. Collins, who was post 
trader at the time, says in his book of "Frontier Experiences": 

"Spotted-Tail came to the fort in 1875 for his daughter, who had died several 
years before and had been placed in a box and set up on four posts at the 
sand bluffs. At her head w-as nailed the head of her favorite white pony and 
at her feet its tail, to travel with her to the happy hunting grounds. In the box 
were placed trinkets and ornaments she wore when alive. 

" 'Spot' said to me, "My daughter was buried here where my Indians lived 
and many of our children were born. \\'e traded here, raced our ponies here. 


and the soldiers were good to us. Now that has passed, we want our dead at 
one place. I came to take her to my agency at Beaver Creek.' " 

Thus the story of .\h-ho-ap-pa ends. Her father, Spotted-Tail, was greatest 
among the chiefs of his day. He was a born orator and a natural diplomat and 

Up to August, 1865, Fort Laramie was headquarters of the military division 
called the "District of the Plains." The district was abolished by General Pope 
and the District of Nebraska was formed to include Montana, Nebraska and 
Wyoming, with Major General Wheaton in command. 

The fort was abandoned by the Government in the spring of 1890, and the 
reserve opened to homestead settlers. The last troops left the fort April 20, 1890. 
The Government sold the military supplies by an auction sale in March and the 
buildings were sold at another sale in April, that year. Following this, homestead 
filings were made on the best lands of the reserve, John Hunton, the last post 
trader at the fort, locating the most central and valuable quarter section, contain- 
ing a number of fort buildings, some of which he built at his own expense for 
carrying on his trade at the post. Joe Wilde, another old-timer, got by purchase 
and entry other valuable lands and buildings. Together they projected a fine 
irrigation system, and constructed a large canal from a point on the Laramie 
River several miles southwest, and thus the new Fort Laramie was made "to 
blossom as the rose." 

The writer visited the fort in May, 1918, as the guest of Mr. Hunton and 
his estimable wife, and while the vestiges of the old fort are still standing, some 
of the buildings in ruins and others rehabilitated, the scene was indeed an attrac- 
tive one. The glistening waters of the Laramie winding in and out through 
grassy meadows and cottonwood groves, the fields of alfalfa, beautifully green, 
from which the meadow larks were rising and singing, the surrounding hills in 
-the distance cut through into deep gorges by the big Government Platte River 
project, and showing piles of sand resembling the great pyramids, made a new 
and impressive picture of nature in its quiet and serene moods, in which the 
Indian, the trapper, the soldier and the mule skinner faded from view and the 
memories of those old, stirring, heroic times became but a fleeting vision of "a 
tale that is told.'' 


For the protection of the men engaged in the construction of the Union Pacific 
Railroad, military camps were established along the line in advance of the 
working forces. A year before the road was completed to the present site 
of Cheyenne, Gen. Grenville M. Dodge with his corps of engineers and a com- 
pany of soldiers, encamped on Crow Creek where Fort Russell is now located. 
They lived in tents but soon began to erect log cabins. Early in 1867, the 
Government decided to make Fort Russell a permanent post and erect sub- 
stantial buildings. The first trip made by John Hunton into Wyoming was 
when he took a freight train with finishing lumber from Julesburg to be used 
in the construction of the fort. This was in the spring of 1867. before Cheyenne 
was on the map. Therefore the origin of Fort Russell antedates Cheyenne. 

Fort Russell thus established over fifty years ago, has been from time to 


time enlarged and improved until it has become one of the most important, per- 
manent military establishments of this country. Including its new, modern 
construction, military reserves and water supply system, it has cost the Govern- 
ment about $7,000,000. 

It is centrally located at the base of the Rocky Mountains on two great 
continental railway systems, the Union Pacific and Burlington, running north, 
south, east and west, thus giving direct connection with every section of the 
country. Its elevation is 6,000 feet above sea level with climatic conditions un- 
surpassed for healthfulness, being cool in summer and moderate in winter. Its 
pure air and bright sunshine are a perpetual tonic and the surrounding region 
is admirably adapted to the rough and hardy physical exercises and open air 
life pertaining to the school of the soldier. 

The reserve proper on which the post is located consists of 5.560 acres or 
nine and one-seventh square miles, giving ample room for any enlargement 
in the future. Crow Creek, a fine mountain stream flows centrally through 
the reserve. The buildings are nearly all new, substantial, brick structures 
expressly built for and adapted to, the various branches of military service, 
including infantry, cavalry, artillery, signal service, pack trains, hospital service, 
target practice, etc., together with all the necessary auxiliary equipment of stables, 
warehouses^ workshops, gymnasium, guard houses, club houses, riding school 
building, etc. It has a fine hospital training school building for the education 
of nurses and medical assistants. Its main hospital building is the largest 
structure at the fort and is probably the largest military hospital in the country. 

Auxiliary to Fort Russell the Government has established the largest military 
maneuver reserve in this country covering an area of nearly one hundred 
square miles. This reserv^e is ideal in topography and situation for handling 
large bodies of troops in brigades and divisions, for militar\- exercises, mimic 
battles and marches, being remote from settlements and comprising hills, valleys, 
ravines, open and rolling ground, mountain streams and timbered areas. 

Two secretaries of war ( Stimson and Garrison), have personally visited this 
reserve and have expressed their admiration not only of its scenic beauty but of 
its rare, practical adaptability for military maneuvers on an extended scale, 
and as a beautiful summer and winter camp for large bodies of troops. These 
maneuver grounds are situated about twenty-five miles west of Fort Russell. 


Fort Russell has the largest, finest and most complete water system of any 
army post in this country. It has an unlimited supply of pure mountain water 
piped some twenty-five miles from reservoirs filled from running streams. 
This is brought to the fort through a new sand filter and purifying plant built 
by the city of Cheyenne at a cost of $80,000. The entire water system cost about 
$2,000,000 of which the United States Government paid $400,000 and thus 
became a partner and co-owner with the city of Cheyenne under a contract 
which assures to the fort a perpetual supply of pure water for all purposes for 
domestic, irrigation and garrison uses. 

The total supply of \vater from the mountain streams of the water shed is 
estimated by the engineers at 20.000,000 gallons daily. In ordinary seasons with 


a garrison of 5,000 men the city and fort together use about 5,000,000 gallons 
daily, leaving 15,000,000 gallons daily surplus unused. The reservoirs of the 
system contain 4,178,093,000 gallons, enough to supply the city and fort for 
•nearly three years without any rain or inflow at all. An army of 50,000 can 
be assembled here and be amply supplied with water for all purposes. The 
City of Cheyenne pays the entire expense of the upkeep of the system for 
itself and the garrison at the fort. The Government contract with the city reads 
as follows: 

"It is understood that the City of Cheyenne grants a perpetual water 
right in the system to the extent required for the use of the military post and 
its appurtenant reservation, and it hereby agrees to furnish to the United States 
perpetually a sufficient sujij^ly of potable, wholesome water for the uses of said 
militarv post and reservation through its connecting mains and service pipes." 

In addition to this the fort has five artesian wells, one being connected with 
a pumping plant with facilities for supplying water at any time. This well 
alone flows sufficient water to supply the entire domestic wants of the fort 
at any time should an emergency arise when it would be needed. 

This fort being practically in the center of the continent remote from any 
probable war zone and exempt from foreign invasion by armies advancing 
from either the Atlantic or Pacific coasts, is the most admirably situated of 
any army post in this country for the mobilization and assemblage of troops and 
supplies and with its great reserve camp for drill and practice in the school 
of the soldier where long marches and maneuvers of large army divisions are 
required. Its other important advantages have already been cited. 


Shortly after the establishment of Fort Russell and the completion of 
the railroad across the continent, supplies that were formerly transported by 
wagon were shipped by rail and it became necessary to establish distributing 
points for handling army freight. Accordingly a quartermaster's depot was 
located at Cheyenne, or more properly, on the Fort Russell reserve about half 
way between the city and the fort. When first located it was given the name 
of Camp Carlin, but when enlarged and completed it obtained the official name 
of "Cheyenne Depot." 

The central situation of Cheyenne between Omaha and Salt Lake City and 
its military trails going into the mountains and connecting with ten dift'erent 
army posts made it an especially advantageous location for an army depot, and 
in a short time it became the second in size of the military depots of this 
country, having sixteen large warehouses and many workshops for wheelwrights, 
blacksmiths, carpenters, saddle and harness makers, painters, etc. Two lines of 
railway side track ran through the depot connecting with the platforms of the 
warehouse for shipping or receiving freight. From three hundred to five hun- 
dred civilian laborers and teamsters were employed. 

But its principal feature was the handling of wagon transportation to ten 
or twelve military posts, some of them four hundred miles away. Over one 
thousand mules were kept in the corrals of the depot and five trains of twenty, 
six-mule wagons and from three to five pack trains were a part of the regular 


equipment of the camp. The workshops were kept busy shoeing mules and 
horses, repairing wagons, making saddles and harness and outfitting expedi- 
tions into the Indian country. 

Millions of dollars worth of supplies were assembled and sent out from 
this depot, including quartermaster stores, commissary stores, and ordnance and 
wagon equipment. Various Indian expeditions were outfitted at Camp Carlin, 
the last being the Milk River expedition, which under General Crook went 
to the relief of Thornburg forces in 1879. With the peaceful settlement of the 
Northwest and the subsidence of Indian outbreaks many forts were abandoned 
and the necessity for a supply depot disappeared, and Camp Carlin was aban- 
doned by the Government in the spring of 1882. 


Some time in the year 1842 James Bridger and Benito Vasquez established 
a trading post on Black's Fork of the Green River, about thirty miles east of 
the present city of Evanston and gave it the name of Fort Bridger. Here was 
made the second permanent settlement in Wyoming. The post was several times 
attacked by Indians, one of the most disastrous occurring in August, 1843. The 
fort was surrounded by a number of Shoshone Indian lodges, that tribe being 
on friendly terms with the old trader and his partner. While the men were 
absent on an antelope hunt a large party of Cheyenne and Arapaho made a 
descent upon the place, killed several squaws and ran off a herd of ponies. 
They were pursued by the Shoshone warriors, the horses were recovered and 
several Arapaho Indians were killed in the encounter. Lieut. John C. Fremont, 
then on his Rocky Mountain expedition, encountered the same war party shortly 
after the fight and reported that a number of wounded men "were trailing 
along in the rear." These savages made a hostile demonstration against Fre- 
mont, but a shot from the howitzer put them to flight. 

Joel Palmer, who led a company of Oregon emigrants westward in the sum- 
mer of 1845, made this entry in his journal for July 25th: "This day we trav- 
eled about sixteen miles, crossed the creek several times, and encamped near Fort 
Bridger. This is a trading post owned by Bridger and Bascus (Vasquez). It 
is built of poles and daubed with mud ; it is a shabby concern. The fort is sur- 
rounded by about twenty-five lodges of Indians, or white trappers who have 
married Indian wives." 

In 1854 Bridger sold his fort and a Mexican grant of thirty square miles 
of land to a Mormon named Lewis Robinson, for $8,000. The next year the 
Mormons built a bowlder wall fourteen feet high enclosing a space 100 feet 
square and a large corral for live stock. They changed the name of the post 
to "Fort Supply," the new post being intended as a supply point for westbound 
emigrant trains. When Col. Albert Sidney Johnston's expedition reached this 
place in the fall of 1857, the Mormons evacuated the fort and returned to Salt 
Lake. Part of Johnston's men wintered there during the winter of 1857-58, and 
when Colonel Johnston moved on toward Salt Lake City, Lieut.-Col. William 
Hofifman was left with a detachment of troops at Fort Bridger. 

During the summer of 1858 Lieutenant-Colonel Hoffman erected a number of 
log buildings, cleaned up the place and the Government then established there 


a military post and reservation bearing the old name of Fort Bridger. A gar- 
rison was maintained there for about thirty years, during which time numerous 
changes were made in the fort and the adjacent country. In May, 1861, soon 
after the beginning of the Civil war. Colonel Cook sold the Government supplies 
at Fort Bridger to the Mormons and left the post in charge of an orderly sergeant. 
About a year later the Indians began to assume a threatening attitude toward 
emigrants, and a detachment of the Third United States Cavalry was ordered 
to Fort Bridger. During the next three years these soldiers were kept busy in 
guarding the mails, escorting trains and holding in check the hostile Indians in 
the vicinity. 

In the fall of 1867 five companies were stationed at Fort Bridger to protect 
the surveyors and construction camps of the Union Pacific Railroad. The fol- 
lowing summer Gen. W. T. Sherman, Gen. A. H. Terry, Gen. C. C. Augur and 
Gen. W. S. Harney all visited the fort and there concluded a treaty with the 
chiefs of the Shoshone and Bannock tribes on July 3, 1868, by which those 
Indians relinquished all their lands in Wyoming except the reservation in the 
Wind River \'alley. A full account of the negotiation of this treaty is given in 
another chapter of this work. 

After the treaty a portion of the garrison was removed to other posts and 
for a number of years only a small detachment was kept at Fort Bridger. In 
1881 Post Trader Carter constructed a road from the fort to Fort Thornburg, 
which was located at the junction of the Du Chesne and Green rivers in Utah. 
Two years later new barracks and quarters were erected and in 1884 the garrison 
was increased. Fort Bridger was finally abandoned about 1890. 


Under an order dated September 20, 1858, Fort Walbach was established on 
Lodge Pole Creek, near Cheyenne Pass, eighty-five miles southwest of Fort 
Laramie. It was named in honor of Brig.-Gen. John DeB. Walbach, a dis- 
tinguished soldier of the War of 181 2. As the post was not intended as a perma- 
nent institution, only buildings of a temporary nature were constructed. The 
fort was abandoned on April 19, 1859. The site of this old fort was marked 
by the Wyoming Daughters of the American Revolution in 1914. 


Fort Halleck, named in honor of Gen. Henry W. Halleck, one of the noted 
Union .generals in the Civil war, was established on July 20, 1862. It was located 
near the foot of the Medicine Bow Mountains and was for a time the most 
important military post in the Rocky Mountain region, being the center of the 
Indian warfare of that period. In the spring of 1863, when Capt. J. L. Humfre- 
ville of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry was in command of the post, the troops worked 
both east and west from the fort, guarding mail coaches and emigrant trains, 
and saw hard service. Early in 1865, when the Indians began their raids on the 
Overland stations, the garrison at Fort Halleck was increased. A year later the 
seat of Indian warfare had shifted to the valleys of the Big Horn and Powder 
rivers, and on July 4, 1866, Fort Halleck was abandoned. 



Early in the year 1865 a military camp was established near the present City 
of Casper and was known as "Platte Bridge." Upon the recommendation of 
Lieut.-Col. W. O. Collins of the Eleventh Ohio Cavarly, it was changed from a 
small and occasional troop station to a permanent post. In his official communi- 
cation, Lieutenant-Colonel Collins said: "The permanent cure for the hostilities 
of the northern Indians is to go into the heart of their buffalo country and build 
and hold forts until the trouble is over." 

On March 28, 1865, the District of the Plains was established by order of 
Gen. Granville M. Dodge, with Gen. P. E. Connor in command of the new dis- 
trict. Platte Bridge was then made one of the most important posts of the 
district. Being located as it was, on the North Platte River, 120 miles west of 
Fort Laramie, it was in the center of the Indian hostilities. Lieut. Caspar Collins, 
a son of Lieut.-Col. W. O. Collins, had come west with his father in 1862, and 
when the latter returned east, remained with his company on the plains. An 
account of his death at Platte Bridge, in the engagement with the Indians on 
July 26, 1865, is given in the chapter on Early Military History, and on November 
21, 1865, Maj.-Gen. John Pope issued the order changing the name of the post to 
Fort Casper, in his honor. The fort was finally abandoned in 1867. 


On August II, 1865, when Gen. P. E. Connor reached the Powder River. 
23I4 miles above the mouth of Crazy Woman Fork, he established there a small 
post which was named Camp Connor. In the latter part of June, 1866, Col. H. B. 
Carrington repaired and garrisoned the fort and the name was changed to Fort 
Reno, in honor of Gen. Isaac Reno, a hero of the Civil war. It was abandoned 
under an order issued by General Grant on March 2, 1868. 


By orders from the war department, Fort Sanders was established on July 
10, 1866, three miles south of Laramie City, and was at first known as "Fort John 
Buford." On September 5. 1866, the name was changed to Fort Sanders, in 
honor of W. P. Sanders, captain in the Second United States Cavalry and later 
a brigadier-general of volunteers. It was established as a protection for the 
Denver & Salt Lake stage line and the emigrant trains passing over the Oregon 
Trail. The Union Pacific Railroad was completed to this point late in the spring 
of 1868, and on June 28th of that year the reservation was enlarged to embrace 
a tract of land nine miles square. At that time the buildings consisted of log 
structures with cjuarters for six companies, officers' quarters, a guardhouse, post 
store and stables. The fort was abandoned in May, 1882, and in 1889 part of 
the reservation was granted to the State of Wyoming for a fish hatchery. 

On the highway from Laramie to Denver, where the old fort formerly stood, 
there is now a monument bearing the following inscription: "This monument 
marks the site of Fort Sanders, established September 5. 1866. abandoned May 
18. 1882. Named in honor of Brig.-Gen. William P. Sanders. Erected by the 


State of Wyoming and Jacques Laramie Chapter, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, June, 1914. From July 10 to September 5, 1866, known as Fort 
John Buford." 


This is one of two forts established by order of Maj.-Gen. John Pope on the 
Bozeman Road in 1866. Col. H. B. Carrington was commissioned to select the 
sites and build Forts Phil Kearny and C. F. Smith. The former was staked 
off on July 15, 1866, and the latter, ninety miles northwest, in Montana, early in 
August. Fort Phil Kearny was completed on the 21st of October and for several 
months the posts and the country immediately surrounding it were the scene 
of several conflicts with the hostile Indians. An account of the massacre of 
Capt. W. J. Fetterman and his command on December 21, 1866, is given in the 
chapter on Early Military History. 

On March 2, 1868, Gen. U. S. Grant issued an order for the abandonment 
of all the forts on the Bozeman Road and the withdrawal of all troops from 
the Indian country in Northern Wyoming. Fort Phil Kearny was abandoned 
under this order in August, 1868, and the buildings were afterward burned by 
the chief Little Wolf. A monument commemorating the Fetterman Massacre 
was unveiled on the site of the fight on July 4, 1908. The massacre occurred 
seven miles from the fort, which was located on Piney Creek, four miles from 
the Big Horn Mountains and about fifteen miles northwest of the present City 
of Bufl:'alo. After the fort was abandoned, George Geier purchased that part 
of the reservation where the buildings formerly stood and established thereon 
a ranch. 


On July 19, 1867, Fort Fetterman was established at the mouth of the La 
Prele Creek and was named in honor of brevet Lieut.-Col. W. J. Fetterman, 
captain in the Twenty-fourth Regular Infantry, who was killed near Fort Phil 
Kearny on December 21, 1866. By 1872 it had been enlarged to a post of four 
companies and was one of the best equipped military establishments in the state. 
At that time the nearest Indians were the Ogallala Sioux, 385 lodges ; the Chey- 
enne, 300 lodges; the Arapaho, 150 lodges; and a few straggling bands of other 
tribes. A small garrison was maintained here until 1878, when the necessity for 
a military post in the locality no longer existed and the fort was abandoned by 
order of the secretary of war, nearly all of the reservation of sixty square miles 
being then transferred to the interior department. 


This fort was located at the point where the L'nion Pacific Railroad crosses 

the North Platte River, in Carbon County, and was established by Col. Richard 

I. Dodge on June 30, 1868. as a protection to the builders of the railroad. It 

was named in honor of Maj.-Gen. Frederick Steele of Civil war fame. Within 

Vol. 1—21 


forty-eight hours after the completion of the fort, camp followers to the number 
of five hundred or more had established the town of "Brownsville" near by. 
Five days later the population of the town was estimated at fifteen hundred. 

On June 28, 1869, the Government established the reservation of thirty-six 
square miles. The frame buildings of the post provided quarters for four com- 
panies and a garrison was maintained here for more than ten years. On January 
24, 1878, Gen. George Crook, in his annual report, stated: "While no military 
necessity now exists for troops at Fort Fred Steele or Fort Sanders * * * 
yet they are cheap places for the stationing of troops." The fort was finally 
abandoned in 188 i. 


The Shoshone or \\'ind River Reservation was estaljl'shed by the treaty con- 
cluded at Fort Bridger on July 3, 1868, and on June 28, 1869, an order was issued 
for the establishment of a garrison at some point upon the reservation. A site 
was selected near the junction of Trout Creek and the Little Wind River and 
a post was established under the name of Camp Augur, in honor of Gen. C. C. 
Augur, one of the officers who had negotiated the treaty the year before. On 
March 28, 1870, the name was changed to Camp Brown and on December 30, 
1878, it was changed to Fort Washakie, in honor of Chief Washakie of the 
Shoshone tribe. As early as 1872 the post consisted of log buildings with accom- 
modations for a garrison of 115 men. A few additional buildings were erected 
during the next twenty years, and in 1893 Congress made a considerable appro- 
priation for permanent improvements at the fort. Troops were stationed at 
Fort Washakie until 1909. 


Soon after the disco\'ery of gold in the South Pass region in 1867, a request 
was made for troops to protect the miners from Indian depredations. The 
request was ignored for a time, but in June, 1870, a small military station was 
established in Smith's Gulch, near .Atlantic City, and given the name of Camp 
Stambaugh. Two years later it was garrisoned by two companies, which were 
quartered in four large log buildings. The presence of these troops kept the 
Shoshone and Bannock Indians from a possible outbreak. On January 27, 1878, 
Gen. Philip H, Sheridan recommended the removal of the garrison, and on 
August 17, 1878, the official order for the abandonment of the post was issued l)y 
the war department. 


On October 12, 1876, Fort McKinney was established on the northwest bank 
of Powder River, three miles above and south of the site of old Fort Reno. It 
was at first called "Cantonment Reno.'' On July 18, 1877, the location was changed 
to the north bank of Clear Creek, a short distance west of the present Citv of 
Buffalo and about two miles above the crossing of the old Bozeman Road. The 


old site was then used as a depot. The name of Fort McKinney was given to the 
post on August 30, 1S77, after the removal. The first substantial buildings were 
erected in the fall of that year. 

Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, in a report dated March 9, 1882, stated that the fort 
was still incomplete and recommended that it be improved, as it would be a 
"necessity in Indian warfare for many years to come." Upon this showing Con- 
gress appropriated $40,000 for the improvement of the fort. In 1892 three cav- 
alry barracks were destroyed by fire and the following session of Congress made 
an appropriation to rebuild them. 

Even then it was apparent to military experts that no further necessity for 
the maintenance of the post existed. As early as 1889 a small portion of the 
reservation had been annexed to the City of Buffalo. In 1895 ^11 °^ the fort 
buildings and two sections of land were donated to the State of Wyoming and 
the remainder of the land was transferred to the department of the interior. 


On January 13, 1899, I-'rancis E. Warren, United States Senator from ^^'yo- 
ming, introduced a bill for the erection of a Government military post near the 
City of Sheridan. The necessity for such a post had been brought to the atten- 
tion of President ^IcKinley the year before and an executive order had been 
issued for the establishment of temporary barracks, under the supervision of 
Gen. E. \'. Sumner. In the debate on the Warren Bill the fact was brought out 
that there were over twenty-three thousand Indians upon the various reservations 
tributary to the proposed fort. These included the Fort Benton, Standing Rock, 
Cheyenne River, Lower Brule, Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations in the 
Dakotas; the Blackfoot, Flathead, Northern Cheyenne, Crow, Fort Belknap and 
Fort Peck Indians in Alontana ; the Fort Hall Indians in Idaho; and the Uintah 
and Uncompahgre Utes in Utah. 

In 1905 the fort had become a well equipped military establishment. In 
February of that year the State of Wyoming granted to the post a large tract 
of land for the enlargement of the reservation, taking in exchange other Gov- 
ernment lands. The same year the post hospital was built and since then other 
buildings have been erected. A system of waterworks was constructed for the 
post at a considerable cost, and Fort Mackenzie became the second post of 
the state in importance, being exceeded only by Fort D. A. Russell at Cheyenne. 

In the spring of 1918 the garrison consisted of Lieut. Herman Hurring and 
six men belonging to the quartermaster's department, and a movement for the 
abandonment of the post was inaugurated. In an article contributed to the 
Cheyenne Leader, the writer says : "Fort Mackenzie, with its 5.000 acres of land, 
would make an ideal location for a military school. Its buildings are of pressed 
brick and substantially constructed, and with little expense could be made to 
serve admirably the purpose of an academy. * * * If proper repre- 
sentations were made by those in authority, it is very probable that the fort could 
be secured upon most favorable conditions. Naturally, nothing can be done until 
formal orders come abandoning the fort as a military post, but in my judgment 
this order may be expected at no distant day." 



In the states adjoining Wyoming were a number of forts that played a part 
in the miHtary history of the state. Among these may be named Fort Hall, Idaho ; 
Uinta and Thornburg, Utah; Sedgwick (first known as Fort Rankin), Colorado; 
C. F. Smith and Custer, Montana ; and Robinson and Sidney in Nebraska. 







The first white men in Wyoming — the trappers and the fur traders — traveled 
on foot or on horseback, following the banks of the, streams or the old Indian 
trails through the forests and mountain passes. In 1832 Capt. Benjamin Bonne- 
ville took the first wagons through the South Pass. It is a far cry from the 
heavy, lumbering Conestoga wagon or "prairie schooner" of Captain Booneville to 
the sumptuous passenger coaches of the year 1918, yet such has been Wyoming's 
progress within the comparatively short space of four score and six years. 


In the early part of the Nineteenth Century, before the people of the United 
States had even dreamed of a trans-continental railway, the pioneers of western 
civilization sought out lines of travel, which have been developed into the great 
avenues of commerce between the East and the West. Without a practical 
knowledge of engineering, actuated in a majority of cases by the hope of personal 
gain, perhaps with no thought of the effect of his labors upon future generations, 
the old trail-maker "followed the line of least resistance," dodging marshes, 
circling the hills, seeking the open places through the forests, hut always keeping 
in view suitable camping grounds and watering places. 

One of the oldest of the great trails to the west, and one of the most noted, 
with the Santa Fe Trail, which was declared a Government highway in 1824, 
through the efforts of Thomas H. Benton, then United States Senator from 
Missouri. The line of this trail is now marked by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe Railroad, which follows it closely from Kansas City, Mo., to Santa Fe. From 
1825 to the beginning of the Civil war, the trade that passed over the Santa Fe 
Trail amounted to several millions of dollars. This trail did not touch Wyoming, 
but its starting point was also the starting point of Wyoming's historic route 
of early days to the Pacific Coast, viz. : 




This noted trail, over which thousands of emigrants and gold seekers passed 
on their way to Oregon and California, had its eastern terminus at Independence, 
Mo., about ten miles east of Kansas City. Independence was the last white settle- 
ment of consequence west of St. Louis as late as 1832, when Fort Leavenworth, 
St. Joseph and Council Bluffs came into prominence as outfitting points for emi- 
grant parties bound for the "Far West." From Independence the Oregon and 
Santa Fe trails were one up the valley of the Kansas River to about where the 
present City of Lawrence (Kan.) is now located. There the Santa Fe Trail turned 
more to the southwest, while the Oregon Trail kept on up the Kansas River to the 
site of the present City of Topeka (at first called Papan's Ferry). There it left 
the river and pursued a course toward the northwest, through what are now 
Pottawatamie, Marshall and Washington counties in Kansas, crossing the northern 
boundary of that state near the northeast corner of the last named county. 

After Fort Leavenworth and St. Joseph became active competitors of Inde- 
pendence in the outfitting business, a trail from those places intersected the main 
road not far from the present Town of Blue Rapids, Kans. From the Kansas line 
the trail continued in a northwesterly direction until it struck the Platte River 
where Grand Island, Neb., now stands. A short distance above Grand Island the 
trail crossed the river and followed the north bank to Fort Laramie. 

Another trail left the Santa Fe, not far from the present City of Great Bend, 
Kans., and followed up the Arkansas River to Bent's Fort where it turned north- 
ward and descended the South Fork of the Platte River for some distance, when it 
crossed over to the North Fork, striking that stream a little below Scott's Bluff, 
Neb. It then ascended the North Platte to Fort Laramie, where it joined the main 
trail. From Fort Laramie the trail followed the river for about fifty miles, when 
it left the Platte to strike it again near the present City of Casper. At this point 
the road crossed to the north side of the river and proceeded via Willow 
Springs and Independence Rock up the Sweetwater River to the South Pass. At 
Pacific Springs, a few miles west of the South Pass, the trail divided, one 
branch crossing the Green River not far from the mouth of La Barge Creek, in 
what is now Lincoln County, and the other running southwest to old Fort Bridger 
and thence to the upper waters of the Bear River. Near the western boundary 
of Wyoming the two were united for a short distance, only again to be divided 
into two separate trails. The northern branch ran by way of Fort Hall and Boise 
to Oregon, and the southern by way of Great Salt Lake to the Sacramento \'alley 
in California. The latter was known as the "California Trail," though the Mor- 
mon emigrants called it the "Mormon Trail" or the "Salt Lake Trail." The 
distance from Independence to the mouth of the Columbia River over this historic 
trail was 2,124 miles. 

Some writers give to Wilson P. Hunt and his expedition of 181 1 the distinc- 
tion of being the first explorers over the Oregon Trail, but this is incorrect. Hunt 
ascended the Missouri River and came into what is now the State of Wyoming 
from the north. That part of the trail between Independence and Grand Island 
was in use at a very early day. perhaps before the beginning of the Nineteenth 
Century, but no record of when or by whom it was first used can be found. That 
portion between the upper waters of the Green River and Grand Island was no 


Unv&iling the monument marking the old Oregon Trail at 



doubt first traversed by the six Astorians who left the Walla Walla Valley in 
June, 1812, to return to St. Louis. Gen. William H. Ashley discovered the route 
through the South Pass in 1824, and the first written account of the trail was 
that of John B. Wyeth, published in 1833. 


Thwaites' "Early Western Travels" (Vol. XXX) gives a list of the principal 
camping places along the Oregon Trail, with the number of miles from each 
camp to the next. On the trail south of the Platte River, the first camping place 
in Wyoming was at Horse Creek, which was twelve miles from Scott's Blufif. 
On the trail north of the river the first camp was near the present Town of 
Torrington. From the camp on Horse Creek to Fort Laramie the distance is 
given as twenty-four miles. From Fort Laramie to the South Pass the best 
known camping grounds, with the numbei of miles between, are shown in the 
following table: 

Big Springs 12 

Bitter Cottonwood 10 

Willow Branch " 

To Where Road Leaves the River 23 

Big Timber Creek 16 

Marble Creek 5 

Mike's Head Creek 12 

Deer Creek 16 

Crossing of the North Platte 25 

Mineral Springs 8 

Willow Springs 5 

Independence Rock 22 

Devil's Gate 5 

From Devil's Gate to the South Pass was 104 miles, with several good camping 
places along the route. Over the dividing ridge to Pacific Springs, the first 
camping place west of the South Pass, was five miles. From there to old Fort 
Bridger was 109 miles. The best camps on this part of the trail were at Little 
Sandy. Big Sandy, Green River and on Black's Fork. During the Oregon emigra- 
tion and the rush to the California gold fields, thousands of wagons passed over this 
old trail and scarcely a night passed that the blaze of camp fires could not be seen 
at the various camping places along the road. Ox teams, mule teams and horses 
were used and weeks were required to make the long, tedious journey across the 
plains and over the mountains — a journey that is now made by rail in less than 
three days. 


Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming have all made appropriations to defray the 
expenses of placing monuments or markers along the Oregon Trail. By an act 
of the Wyoming Legislature, approved on February 20, 19 13. the sum of $2,500 
was appropriated for the purpose of purchasing and placing suitable markers 
"under the supervision of a commission of three members, the same to serve 


without compensation, to be appointed by the governor." The act also provided 
that: "Any person who shall destroy, remove or injure any monument or marker 
erected as herein provided for, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon con- 
viction thereof shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, 
or by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not less that thirty days nor 
more than ninety days : or both by such tine and imprisonment at the discretion 
of the court." 

Governor Carey appointed as the members of the commission A. J. Parshall, 
state engineer; H. G. Xickerson, of Lander: and Mrs. Emily A. Patten, of 
Cheyenne. Subsequently Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, of the State University, 
succeeded Mrs. Patten and Mrs. J. T. 3now, of Torrington, succeeded Mr. 
Parshall. Under the auspices of these commissioners markers have been placed 
at the most noted stopping places along the trail in Wyoming, the most eastern 
monument being located at Torrington, the county seat of Goshen County. 


Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, there was a rush of 
emigrants from the older states and it was not long until Congress and private 
firms and corporations began to realize the needs of improved methods of com- 
munication with the West. The great freighting and stage line firm of Russell, 
Majors & Waddell sprang into existence in the early '50s and until after the be- 
ginning of the Civil war practically controlled the freight and passenger tratific 
across the plains. As early as 1855 William Gwin, the United States Senator 
from California, introduced a bill providing for a weekly mail or letter express 
between St. Louis and San Francisco, to operate on a ten-day schedule, the cost 
of each round trip not to exceed five hundred dollars. The bill was referred to 
the committee on military afl:'airs, which never reported it back to the Senate. 

The census of i860 showed nearly half a million inhabitants west of the 
Rocky Mountains, and the Government saw that better service was necessary, 
especially as war was imminent. There were then three recognized lines of mail 
transit between the East and West. First, the Panama line, which was most 
patronized, but which would be greatly endangered if the Southern States withdrew 
from the Union, on account of its location: second, the "Butterfield Route." 
which started from St. Louis and ran far to the southward, entering California 
at the southeast corner of the state: third, the "Central Route," which followed 
the Platte River into Wyoming and reached the State of California via Salt Lake 
City.. The Gwin bill of 1855 recommended this route, and in i860 it was regarded 
as the most practicable, as it could be controlled by the North in the event of war. 

In the winter of 1859-60. William Russell, senior member of the firm of 
Russell, Majors & Waddell. was in Washington in connection with some freight 
contracts with the Government. An overland mail route was discussed by him and 
Senator Gwin and he saw an opportunity to secure a profitable contract with 
the Government for carrying the mail, if he could manage to keep the route open 
during the winter seasons and equal or lower the time schedule of the Panama 
line. He even went so far as to commit his firm to the undertaking without first 
consulting his partners. L'pon his return to Leavenworth, he found Majors and 
Waddell rather unfavorable to his scheme, but as he had agreed to make the 


trial they joined him in the incorporation of the "Central Overland California & 
Pike's Peak Express Company." which was granted a charter by the Territory 
of Kansas, and which was empowered to operate a passenger and freighting 
business in addition to the "Pony Express." 

The first Pony Express rider left St. Joseph, ]\Io., on the afternoon of April 3, 
i860, and at the same hour the east bound mail left San Francisco on a fast steamer 
and sent up the Sacramento River to Sacramento, where it was transferred to the 
Pony Express. Johnny Frey took the first mail out of St. Joseph, and Harry 
Roflf was the first rider out of Sacramento. At the stations along the route relay 
riders and steeds were stationed and when the two mails met the riders set out 
upon the return trip. Each rider received a salary of from $125 to $150 per 
month, and was required to take an oath to abstain from intoxicating liquors 
and profane language while in the employ of Russell, Majors and W'addell as a 
mail carrier. 

The route followed in general the Oregon Trail, except where some distance 
could be saved by a short cut across the prairies. From Fort Kearney, Neb., it 
followed the south bank of the Platte for about two hundred miles. At Cotton- 
wood Springs (the junction of the North and South forks of the Platte) the 
rider took a course almost directly westward, past O'Fallon's Bluflfs, Beauvais 
Ranch, Alkali and Diamond Springs to Julesburg. There he forded the South 
Fork of the Platte and then followed the course of Lodge Pole Creek to Thirty 
Mile Ridge. From that point to Scott's Bluffs he pursued nearly a direct line ; then 
via Fort Laramie, Platte Bridge and South Pass to Fort Bridger; thence to Salt 
Lake City ; then crossing the Humboldt River into Nevada he passed by Carson 
City to Placerville, Cal., and from there by the shortest route to Sacramento. 
A large part of this route traversed the wildest regions of the I'nited States, 
and there were but four military posts along the line. 

The saddle-bag used for carrying the mail was called the "mochila." It con- 
tained four pockets — two in front and two behind the rider's legs. Letters were 
wrapped in oiled silk to protect them from moisture. The postal charges were 
at first $5 for each half-ounce letter, but this rate was afterward reduced to $1. 
Eighty riders were employed and they were always on the go, except for the few 
hours' rest between the change from east to west, one-half riding in one direction 
and the other half in the opposite direction. They were men who could be relied 
on to retain their presence of mind in an emergency, were strangers to fear 
and expert horsemen. Stories of the thrilling experiences of the Pony Express 
riders discount fiction. Among the most noted of these riders may be mentioned 
"Jim" Moore. Johnny Frey, Harry Rof¥, William F. Cody (better known as 
Buffalo Bill), Robert Haslam (commonly called "Pony Bob"), J. G. Kelley, 
George Gardner. Dan ^^'estcott, "Boston," Sam Hamilton and the one known 
as "Irish Tom," 

Cody's "run" was from Red Buttes to the Three Crossings on the Sweetwater 
River, so called because the trail crossed the stream three times within a quarter 
of a mile, a place always difficult to negotiate and in times of high water actually 
dangerous. Yet he rode this "run" back and forth as long as the Pony Express 
was in existence. The distance was seventy-six miles. On one occasion, when 
he reached the Three Crossings, Cody found that the man who was to take 
the mail on west had been killed the night before. He therefore continued his 

Herbert Colteen CoIlecUuu 

Pony express rider. 

U. 1'. HA.WA 

The scout. 


ride to Rock Ridge, eighty-five miles, and then returned to Red Buttes, making 
a total of 322 miles without delay or rest, the' longest run on record in the history 
of the Pony Express. Another time, when he carried a package containing a 
considerable sum of currency, fearing he would be held up by road agents, he 
provided himself with a dummy mochila and concealed the real mail bag under 
his saddle blanket. Sure enough, at a lonely spot on the route he was met by 
two highwaymen who commanded him to "throw up his hands." Confronted 
by two rifles leveled at him, he obeyed, remonstrating with the robbers, who 
commanded him to throw them the mail pouch and not try to reach for his gun, 
threatening to fill him full of holes if he did not obey orders. He loosed the 
dummy mail bag and, watching his opportunity, hurled it at the head of the 
robber nearest him, who dodged, and, while thus taken off their guard momen- 
tarily, Cody quickly drew his revolver and by an accurate shot disabled the other 
man. Then, putting the spurs to his horse, he rode over the one who had stooped 
to pick up the mail bag. Before the bandit could recover his equilibrium and 
take aim, horse and rider were out of range and the mail was saved. 

When Edward Creighton completed the Pacific Telegraph in October, 1861, 
the Pony Express went out of business. It had been a losing venture financially. 
The purchase of some four hundred good horses, the establishment of stations 
every ten or twelve miles along the route, the wages of the riders and station 
keepers, the transportation of supplies, etc., absorbed the receipts and left a 
deficit. But while the Pony Express was in existence it added romance and 
adventure to the Great West about which volumes have been written. During 
the sixteen months from April, i860, to October, 1861, the Pony Express riders 
traveled over six hundred and fifty thousand miles in the aggregate. All had 
adventures with hostile Indians, blizzards and road agents, and some of them 
lost their lives while in the discharge of their duty, but the history of the West 
shows no more courageous, faithful and persistent men than the Pony Express 


One of the earliest stage coach lines in the West was that of John ^l. Hocka- 
day and William Liggett, which was established in 185 1 to carry mail, express 
matter and passengers between St. Joseph, Mo., and Salt Lake City. The stages 
on this line at first made monthly trips, but later became semi-monthly. Hocka- 
day & Liggett sold out to Russell, Majors & Waddell in 1858. 

W. F. McGraw, of Maryland, began operating a stage line between Sacra- 
mento, Cal., and Salt Lake City in the early '50s. At Salt Lake City his stages 
connected with those of the Hockaday & Liggett line. In 1854 Congress voted 
to appropriate $80,000 annually for direct mail service from the Mississippi Valley 
to the Pacific Coast. McGraw received every year $13,500 of this appropriation, 
but even with this assistance from the Government he failed in 1856. 

On September 15, 1857, the Butterfield Overland Mail Company entered 
into a contract with the United States postoffice department to carry the mails 
between some point on the Missouri River and California for a period of six 
years, ser\ice to commence within One year from the date of contract. St. Joseph, 
Mo., was selected as the starting point and the first Overland stages started from 


St. Joseph and San Francisco on September 15. 1858. The principal promoters 
and largest stockholders of the company were John Buttertield and William G. 
Fargo. The route followed by the Butterfield Company's stages was known as 
the "Southern Route," through the Indian Territory,' New Mexico, Texas, Arizona 
and Southern California. Some of the coaches went by way of El Paso and 
others by way of Albuquerque. The time required for the trip was twenty-five 
days. The Southern Route was followed regularly until the beginning of the 
Civil war, when the Northern (or Central) Route via Forts Kearny, Laramie 
and Bridger and Salt Lake City to Placerville, Cal. The first stages over this 
route left St. Joseph and Placerville simultaneously on July i, 1861. Over the 
new route the time was shortened to seventeen days. 

In the meantime the firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell had inaugurated 
the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in the summer of 1859, and by the close 
of that year there were six different mail routes to the Pacific Coast, the aggregate 
cost of which to the Government was not far from two millions of dollars annu- 
ally. In i860 the Pony Express was started by Russell, Majors & Waddell, as 
already narrated. In the fall of 1861 Ben Holliday succeeded to the business of 
Russell, Majors & Waddell and the Butterfield Overland Company, and in a short 
time he became known as the "King of Western Transportation. ' At the height 
of the Overland's prosperity, Holliday had 500 stage coaches, 500 freight wagons, 
over five thousand horses and mules and a "host of oxen." He also owned six- 
teen steamers which plied between San Francisco, Panama, Oregon, China and 
Japan, and the (iovernment paid him about one million dollars annually on mail 


During the first twelve months after Holliday took [i()--^o-~^i(Mi, In- expended 
nearly two million dollars in improving the service ami c^iililisliiiig stations. 
Scarcely had these stations been opened when the hostile Indian.-,, as tcld in